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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 47: 120, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828420

RESUMEN

Introduction: Aedes albopictus, like Aedes aegypti, is a virulent vector of arboviruses especially the well-documented spread of yellow fever around the world. Although yellow fever is prevalent in Nigeria, there is a paucity of information in the Niger Delta region on the distribution of Aedes mosquito vectors and molecular detection of the virus in infected mosquitoes. This study sampled Aedes mosquitoes around houses associated with farms from four communities (Otolokpo, Ute-Okpu, Umunede, and Ute Alohen) in Ika North-East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: various sampling methods were used in Aedes mosquito collection to test their efficacy in the survey. Mosquitoes in holding cages were killed by freezing and morphologically identified. A pool of 15 mosquitoes per Eppendorf tube was preserved in RNAi later for yellow fever virus screening. Two samples were molecularly screened for each location. Results: seven hundred and twenty-five (725) mosquitoes were obtained from the various traps. The mean abundance of the mosquitoes was highest in m-HLC (42.9) compared to the mosquitoes sampled using other techniques (p<0.0001). The mean abundance of mosquitoes was lowest in Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps without attractant (0.29). No yellow fever virus strain was detected in all the mosquitoes sampled at the four locations. Conclusion: this study suggests that Aedes albopictus are the mosquitoes commonly biting around houses associated with farms. More so, yellow fever virus was not detected in the mosquitoes probably due to the mass vaccination exercise that was carried out the previous year in the study area. More studies are required using the m-HLC to determine the infection rate in this endemic area.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Mosquitos Vectores , Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Aedes/virología , Nigeria , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/aislamiento & purificación , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Humanos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10842, 2024 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735993

RESUMEN

Yellow fever outbreaks are prevalent, particularly in endemic regions. Given the lack of an established treatment for this disease, significant attention has been directed toward managing this arbovirus. In response, we developed a multiepitope vaccine designed to elicit an immune response, utilizing advanced immunoinformatic and molecular modeling techniques. To achieve this, we predicted B- and T-cell epitopes using the sequences from all structural (E, prM, and C) and nonstructural proteins of 196 YFV strains. Through comprehensive analysis, we identified 10 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and 5T-helper (Th) epitopes that exhibited overlap with B-lymphocyte epitopes. These epitopes were further evaluated for their affinity to a wide range of human leukocyte antigen system alleles and were rigorously tested for antigenicity, immunogenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, and conservation. These epitopes were linked to an adjuvant ( ß -defensin) and to each other using ligands, resulting in a vaccine sequence with appropriate physicochemical properties. The 3D structure of this sequence was created, improved, and quality checked; then it was anchored to the Toll-like receptor. Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations were employed to enhance the accuracy of docking calculations, with the QM portion of the simulations carried out utilizing the density functional theory formalism. Moreover, the inoculation model was able to provide an optimal codon sequence that was inserted into the pET-28a( +) vector for in silico cloning and could even stimulate highly relevant humoral and cellular immunological responses. Overall, these results suggest that the designed multi-epitope vaccine can serve as prophylaxis against the yellow fever virus.


Asunto(s)
Epítopos de Linfocito T , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Humanos , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito B/inmunología , Vacunología/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Desarrollo de Vacunas , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/inmunología
3.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 40(2): 112-116, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697617

RESUMEN

Among all living beings, mosquitoes account for the highest number of human fatalities. Our study aimed to determine mosquito egg abundance fluctuation from 2015 to 2020, in order to observe which years had the highest mosquito vector densities and whether they coincided with yellow fever virus outbreaks in both human and nonhuman primates. The study area included Atlantic Forest fragments in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Studies from the Diptera Laboratory at FIOCRUZ were selected and compared along a timeline period of the field collections. The highest peak in egg abundance from the analyzed studies was observed from 2016 to 2017 and from 2015 to 2016. The lowest egg abundance was during the collection periods from 2018 to 2019 and 2019 to 2020. The species with the highest abundance throughout all the periods of the studies analyzed was Haemagogus leucocelaenus, representing 87% of all epidemiological species identified. The species with the lowest abundance was Hg. Janthinomys, representing only 1%. Monitoring the population of mosquitoes is imperative for disease surveillance, as the rise in specimens of various vector species directly impacts the occurrence of yellow fever cases in both nonhuman primates and human populations.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae , Brotes de Enfermedades , Bosques , Mosquitos Vectores , Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Culicidae/fisiología , Humanos , Densidad de Población , Dinámica Poblacional , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791823

RESUMEN

In the Americas, wild yellow fever (WYF) is an infectious disease that is highly lethal for some non-human primate species and non-vaccinated people. Specifically, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Haemagogus janthinomys mosquitoes act as the major vectors. Despite transmission risk being related to vector densities, little is known about how landscape structure affects vector abundance and movement. To fill these gaps, we used vector abundance data and a model-selection approach to assess how landscape structure affects vector abundance, aiming to identify connecting elements for virus dispersion in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Our findings show that Hg. leucocelaenus and Hg. janthinomys abundances, in highly degraded and fragmented landscapes, are mainly affected by increases in forest cover at scales of 2.0 and 2.5 km, respectively. Fragmented landscapes provide ecological corridors for vector dispersion, which, along with high vector abundance, promotes the creation of risk areas for WYF virus spread, especially along the border with Minas Gerais state, the upper edges of the Serra do Mar, in the Serra da Cantareira, and in areas of the metropolitan regions of São Paulo and Campinas.


Asunto(s)
Mosquitos Vectores , Fiebre Amarilla , Brasil , Animales , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Ecosistema , Clima Tropical , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Densidad de Población , Culicidae/virología , Culicidae/fisiología
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 269(Pt 2): 132169, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723801

RESUMEN

In our study, we developed a point of care electrochemical biosensing platform based on the functionalized cysteine-positioned gold electrode to diagnose yellow fever disease from human plasma samples. The developed platform underwent characterization through diverse methods encompassing cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and density-functional theory. The capacitive interaction between yellow fever virus non-structural antigen and antibody gave a cathodic signal at approximately -260 mV, and increased in proportion to the amount of non-structural antibody. The created electrochemical biosensor has an ability to detect 96 ag/mL of the yellow fever non-structural antibody with an extensive analytical range varied from 0.1 fg/mL to 1 µg/mL. The interference effects of various substances that could be found in human plasma, and the performance of the method were examined from the point of recovery and relative standard deviation for human plasma samples; hereby, the results confirmed the unprecedented selectivity and accuracy of the proposed method.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales , Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Fiebre Amarilla/diagnóstico , Fiebre Amarilla/sangre , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/inmunología , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/sangre , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Teoría Funcional de la Densidad , Electrodos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Oro/química
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 54(5): e2250133, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571392

RESUMEN

Live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF17D) was developed in the 1930s as the first ever empirically derived human vaccine. Ninety years later, it is still a benchmark for vaccines made today. YF17D triggers a particularly broad and polyfunctional response engaging multiple arms of innate, humoral and cellular immunity. This unique immunogenicity translates into an extraordinary vaccine efficacy and outstanding longevity of protection, possibly by single-dose immunization. More recently, progress in molecular virology and synthetic biology allowed engineering of YF17D as a powerful vector and promising platform for the development of novel recombinant live vaccines, including two licensed vaccines against Japanese encephalitis and dengue, even in paediatric use. Likewise, numerous chimeric and transgenic preclinical candidates have been described. These include prophylactic vaccines against emerging viral infections (e.g. Lassa, Zika and SARS-CoV-2) and parasitic diseases (e.g. malaria), as well as therapeutic applications targeting persistent infections (e.g. HIV and chronic hepatitis), and cancer. Efforts to overcome historical safety concerns and manufacturing challenges are ongoing and pave the way for wider use of YF17D-based vaccines. In this review, we summarize recent insights regarding YF17D as vaccine platform, and how YF17D-based vaccines may complement as well as differentiate from other emerging modalities in response to unmet medical needs and for pandemic preparedness.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas Atenuadas , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/inmunología , Animales , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Vacunación/métodos
7.
J Virol ; 98(5): e0151623, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567951

RESUMEN

The non-human primate (NHP) model (specifically rhesus and cynomolgus macaques) has facilitated our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of yellow fever (YF) disease and allowed the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of YF-17D vaccines. However, the accuracy of this model in mimicking vaccine-induced immunity in humans remains to be fully determined. We used a systems biology approach to compare hematological, biochemical, transcriptomic, and innate and antibody-mediated immune responses in cynomolgus macaques and human participants following YF-17D vaccination. Immune response progression in cynomolgus macaques followed a similar course as in adult humans but with a slightly earlier onset. Yellow fever virus neutralizing antibody responses occurred earlier in cynomolgus macaques [by Day 7[(D7)], but titers > 10 were reached in both species by D14 post-vaccination and were not significantly different by D28 [plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT)50 titers 3.6 Log vs 3.5 Log in cynomolgus macaques and human participants, respectively; P = 0.821]. Changes in neutrophils, NK cells, monocytes, and T- and B-cell frequencies were higher in cynomolgus macaques and persisted for 4 weeks versus less than 2 weeks in humans. Low levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines (IL-1RA, IL-8, MIP-1α, IP-10, MCP-1, or VEGF) were detected in either or both species but with no or only slight changes versus baseline. Similar changes in gene expression profiles were elicited in both species. These included enriched and up-regulated type I IFN-associated viral sensing, antiviral innate response, and dendritic cell activation pathways D3-D7 post-vaccination in both species. Hematological and blood biochemical parameters remained relatively unchanged versus baseline in both species. Low-level YF-17D viremia (RNAemia) was transiently detected in some cynomolgus macaques [28% (5/18)] but generally absent in humans [except one participant (5%; 1/20)].IMPORTANCECynomolgus macaques were confirmed as a valid surrogate model for replicating YF-17D vaccine-induced responses in humans and suggest a key role for type I IFN.


Asunto(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Modelos Animales , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Biología de Sistemas/métodos , Vacunación , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología
8.
Biologicals ; 86: 101765, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593685

RESUMEN

Yellow fever (YF) is one of the most acute viral hemorrhagic diseases of the 18th and 19th centuries, which continues to cause severe morbidity and mortality in Africa. After 21 years of no reported cases of yellow fever in Nigeria, till 2017 where a case was confirmed in Kwara State, also in November 2018,WHO was informed of a cluster of suspected yellow fever cases and deaths in Edo state, Nigeria. The study was among all age group attending health centres in Benin City, Edo state. A total of 280 blood samples were collected from consented febrile patients and were screened for antibodies to Zika virus using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits. Blood samples positive to Zika virus (IgM/IgG RDT), were subjected to molecular characterization. Using the flavividae family primers, six (6) samples where confirmed positive by Hemi-nested reverse transcription PCR (hnRT-PCR) sequencing. Nucleotide sequence blast revealed the sequenceswere similar to Yellow fever virus strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the yellow fever virus sequences are closely related to the African strains. Despite the safe and effective yellow fever vaccine, yellow fever virus is seen to be in circulation, hence the need for continues mass vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Filogenia , Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Fiebre Amarilla/sangre , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Adolescente , Persona de Mediana Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Lactante , Virus Zika/genética , Virus Zika/inmunología , Virus Zika/aislamiento & purificación
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(5): e0370323, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511952

RESUMEN

Between 2016 and 2018, Brazil experienced major sylvatic yellow fever (YF) outbreaks that caused hundreds of casualties, with Minas Gerais (MG) being the most affected state. These outbreaks provided a unique opportunity to assess the immune response triggered by the wild-type (WT) yellow fever virus (YFV) in humans. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently the standard method to assess the humoral immune response to YFV by measuring neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). The present study aimed to evaluate the humoral immune response of patients from the 2017-2018 sylvatic YF outbreak in MG with different disease outcomes by using PRNTs with a WT YFV strain, isolated from the 2017-2018 outbreak, and a vaccine YFV strain. Samples from naturally infected YF patients were tested, in comparison with healthy vaccinees. Results showed that both groups presented different levels of nAb against the WT and vaccine strains, and the levels of neutralization against the strains varied homotypically and heterotypically. Results based on the geometric mean titers (GMTs) suggest that the humoral immune response after a natural infection of YFV can reach higher levels than that induced by vaccination (GMT of patients against WT YFV compared to GMT of vaccinees, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that the humoral immune responses triggered by the vaccine and WT strains of YFV are different, possibly due to genetic and antigenic differences between these viruses. Therefore, current means of assessing the immune response in naturally infected YF individuals and immunological surveillance methods in areas with intense viral circulation may need to be updated.IMPORTANCEYellow fever is a deadly febrile disease caused by the YFV. Despite the existence of effective vaccines, this disease still represents a public health concern worldwide. Much is known about the immune response against the vaccine strains of the YFV, but recent studies have shown that it differs from that induced by WT strains. The extent of this difference and the mechanisms behind it are still unclear. Thus, studies aimed to better understand the immune response against this virus are relevant and necessary. The present study evaluated levels of neutralizing antibodies of yellow fever patients from recent outbreaks in Brazil, in comparison with healthy vaccinees, using plaque reduction neutralization tests with WT and vaccine YFV strains. Results showed that the humoral immune response in naturally infected patients was higher than that induced by vaccination, thus providing new insights into the immune response triggered against these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Inmunidad Humoral , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Masculino , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunación , Pruebas de Neutralización , Adulto Joven , Anciano , Adolescente
10.
Vaccine ; 42(11): 2729-2732, 2024 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514353

RESUMEN

Studies on yellow fever vaccine (YF) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate YF neutralizing antibody seroprevalence and titers in previously vaccinated adults with CKD, on dialysis (D-CKD) or not (ND-CKD), compared to healthy persons. The micro Plaque Reduction Neutralization-Horseradish Peroxidase (µPRN-HP) test was used. Antibody titers were expressed as the reciprocal of the highest dilution that neutralized the challenge virus by 50 % (µPRN50). Seropositivity cut-off was set at ≥ 1:100. We included 153 participants: 46 ND-CKD, 50 D-CKD and 57 healthy adults. Median ages were 58.3, 55 and 52.2 years, respectively. Median time since YF vaccination was 22.3, 18.5 and 48.3 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in YF seroprevalence and neutralizing antibodies titers among groups: 100 % of ND-CKD; 96 % of D-CKD and 100 % of healthy participants were seropositive. Geometric mean titers (GMT) were 818.5, 683.0 and 665.5, respectively (p = 0.289).


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Fiebre Amarilla , Adulto , Humanos , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Vacunación , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1236, 2024 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336944

RESUMEN

The mosquito-borne disease, Yellow fever (YF), has been largely controlled via mass delivery of an effective vaccine and mosquito control interventions. However, there are warning signs that YF is re-emerging in both Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Imported from Africa in slave ships, YF was responsible for devastating outbreaks in the Caribbean. In Martinique, the last YF outbreak was reported in 1908 and the mosquito Aedes aegypti was incriminated as the main vector. We evaluated the vector competence of fifteen Ae. aegypti populations for five YFV genotypes (Bolivia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan, and Uganda). Here we show that mosquito populations from the Caribbean and the Americas were able to transmit the five YFV genotypes, with YFV strains for Uganda and Bolivia having higher transmission success. We also observed that Ae. aegypti populations from Martinique were more susceptible to YFV infection than other populations from neighboring Caribbean islands, as well as North and South America. Our vector competence data suggest that the threat of re-emergence of YF in Martinique and the subsequent spread to Caribbean nations and beyond is plausible.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Humanos , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Mosquitos Vectores , Indias Occidentales , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Uganda
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 24(6): 611-618, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2016, outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo led to a global vaccine shortage. A fractional dose of 17DD yellow fever vaccine (containing one-fifth [0·1 ml] of the standard dose) was used during a pre-emptive mass campaign in August, 2016, in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo among children aged 2 years and older and non-pregnant adults (ie, those aged 18 years and older). 1 year following vaccination, 97% of participants were seropositive; however, the long-term durability of the immune response is unknown. We aimed to conduct a prospective cohort study and invited participants enrolled in the previous evaluation to return 5 years after vaccination to assess durability of the immune response. METHODS: Participants returned to one of six health facilities in Kinshasa in 2021, where study staff collected a brief medical history and blood specimen. We assessed neutralising antibody titres against yellow fever virus using a plaque reduction neutralisation test with a 50% cutoff (PRNT50). Participants with a PRNT50 titre of 10 or higher were considered seropositive. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants seropositive at 5 years. FINDINGS: Among the 764 participants enrolled, 566 (74%) completed the 5-year visit. 5 years after vaccination, 539 (95·2%, 95% CI 93·2-96·7) participants were seropositive, including 361 (94·3%, 91·5-96·2) of 383 who were seronegative and 178 (97·3%, 93·8-98·8) of 183 who were seropositive at baseline. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) differed significantly across age groups for those who were initially seronegative with the lowest GMT among those aged 2-5 years and highest among those aged 13 years and older. INTERPRETATION: A fractional dose of the 17DD yellow fever vaccine induced an immunologic response with detectable titres at 5 years among the majority of participants in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. These findings support the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak prevention with the potential for sustained immunity. FUNDING: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance through the CDC Foundation. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/administración & dosificación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Preescolar , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Adulto Joven , Vacunación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 57: e004002023, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases are a group of infectious diseases caused by viruses transmitted by arthropods, mainly mosquitoes. These diseases, such as those caused by the dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, have a significant impact worldwide. In this context, entomological surveillance plays a crucial role in the control and prevention of arboviruses by providing essential information on the presence, distribution, and activity of vector mosquitoes. Based on entomological surveillance, transovarian transmission provides information regarding the maintenance and dissemination of arboviruses. The objective of this study was to detect these arboviruses in Goiânia, Goiás, and analyze the occurrence of transovarian transmission. METHODS: Aedes aegypti eggs were collected from different regions of Goiânia and cultivated under controlled laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Adult females were grouped into pools containing their heads and thoraxes. These pools were subsequently evaluated using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. RESULTS: A total of 157 pools (N=1570) were analyzed, with two pools testing positive for CHIKV and one pool testing positive for ZIKV, indicating that the offspring resulting from transovarian transmission are potentially infectious. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the demonstration of the vertical transmission mechanisms of CHIKV and ZIKV in A. aegypti serves as an alert to health authorities, as these diseases are still underreported, and their primary urban vector has likely acquired this capacity, contributing to the dissemination of these infections.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus , Fiebre Chikungunya , Virus Chikungunya , Dengue , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Femenino , Adulto , Humanos , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Fiebre Chikungunya/epidemiología , Mosquitos Vectores , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla
15.
Future Med Chem ; 16(4): 295-310, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288568

RESUMEN

Background: A vaccine or antiviral drug for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and a specific antiviral drug for yellow fever virus (YFV) infections has not yet been developed. Method: In this study, 2-indolinone-based N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamides were synthesized. Along with these new compounds, previously synthesized 2-indolinone-based N-(3-sulfamoylphenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamides were evaluated against various DNA and RNA viruses. Results: Some 2-indolinone compounds exhibited nontoxic and selective antiviral activities against RSV and YFV. Halogen substitution at the indole ring increased the anti-RSV activities. Moreover, 1-benzyl and 5-halogen or nitro-substituted compounds were the most effective compounds against YFV. Conclusion: Generally, the 3-sulfonamide-substituted compounds were determined to be more effective than 4-sulfonamide-substituted compounds against RSV and YFV.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Antivirales/farmacología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Halógenos , Sulfonamidas/farmacología , Fiebre Amarilla/tratamiento farmacológico , Indoles/química , Indoles/farmacología
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2301666, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163752

RESUMEN

In the past few decades, several emerging/re-emerging mosquito-borne flaviviruses have resulted in disease outbreaks of public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Due to cross-reactivities of antibodies recognizing the envelope protein of different flaviviruses, serosurveillance remains a challenge. Previously we reported that anti-premembrane (prM) antibody can discriminate between three flavivirus infections by Western blot analysis. In this study, we aimed to develop a serological assay that can discriminate infection or exposure with flaviviruses from four serocomplexes, including dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), West Nile (WNV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, and explore its application for serosurveillance in flavivirus-endemic countries. We employed Western blot analysis including antigens of six flaviviruses (DENV1, 2 and 4, WNV, ZIKV and YFV) from four serocomplexes. We tested serum samples from YF-17D vaccinees, and from DENV, ZIKV and WNV panels that had been confirmed by RT-PCR or by neutralization assays. The overall sensitivity/specificity of anti-prM antibodies for DENV, ZIKV, WNV, and YFV infections/exposure were 91.7%/96.4%, 91.7%/99.2%, 88.9%/98.3%, and 91.3%/92.5%, respectively. When testing 48 samples from Brazil, we identified multiple flavivirus infections/exposure including DENV and ZIKV, DENV and YFV, and DENV, ZIKV and YFV. When testing 50 samples from the Philippines, we detected DENV, ZIKV, and DENV and ZIKV infections with a ZIKV seroprevalence rate of 10%, which was consistent with reports of low-level circulation of ZIKV in Asia. Together, these findings suggest that anti-prM antibody is a flavivirus serocomplex-specific marker and can be employed to delineate four flavivirus infections/exposure in regions where multiple flaviviruses co-circulate.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Infecciones por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Flavivirus/genética , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Virus Zika/genética , Virus del Dengue/genética , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Flavivirus/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Reacciones Cruzadas
18.
Acta Trop ; 251: 107110, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163515

RESUMEN

Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral arbovirosis of Public Health importance. In Brazil, surveillance is focused mainly on detecting epizootic events of Platyrrhini. Herein, we compared the detection and phylogenetic analysis of YF virus in two neotropical primates (NTP), a Callithrix detected in the previous epidemic period (2016-2020), and a Callicebus nigrifons, showing a new introduction of YF in 2023. This paper illustrates the importance of joint actions of laboratory and field teams to ensure quick response to Public Health emergencies, such as the intensification of vaccination of susceptible human populations.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Animales , Humanos , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Filogenia , Brasil/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Callithrix , Brotes de Enfermedades
19.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 213: 266-273, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278309

RESUMEN

Yellow fever (YF) presents a wide spectrum of severity, with clinical manifestations in humans ranging from febrile and self-limited to fatal cases. Although YF is an old disease for which an effective and safe vaccine exists, little is known about the viral- and host-specific mechanisms that contribute to liver pathology. Several studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress triggered by viral infections contributes to pathogenesis. We evaluated whether yellow fever virus (YFV), when infecting human hepatocytes cells, could trigger an imbalance in redox homeostasis, culminating in oxidative stress. YFV infection resulted in a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels from 2 to 4 days post infection (dpi). When measuring oxidative parameters at 4 dpi, YFV infection caused oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA, evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation/8-isoprostane, carbonyl protein, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in addition to a reduction in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), indicating a pro-oxidant environment. However, no changes were observed in the enzymatic activity of the enzyme catalase (CAT) or in the gene expression of SOD isoforms (1/2/3), CAT, or GPx. Therefore, our results show that YFV infection generates an imbalance in redox homeostasis, with the overproduction of ROS and depletion of antioxidant enzymes, which induces oxidative damage to cellular constituents. Moreover, as it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress is a conspicuous event in YFV infection, therapeutic strategies based on antioxidant biopharmaceuticals may be new targets for the treatment of YF.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Oxidación-Reducción , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Disulfuro de Glutatión/metabolismo , Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Peroxidación de Lípido , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxicoguanosina/metabolismo
20.
J Infect Dis ; 229(3): 786-794, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36994927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Live attenuated vaccines alter immune functions and are associated with beneficial outcomes. We previously demonstrated that live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine (LA-YF-Vax) dampens T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling in vitro via an RNA-based mechanism. We examined study participants before and after LA-YF-Vax to assess TCR-mediated functions in vivo. METHODS: Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before and after LA-YF-Vax (with or without additional vaccines) or quadrivalent influenza vaccine. TCR-mediated activation was determined by interleukin 2 release or phosphorylation of the lymphocyte-specific Src kinase. TCR-regulating phosphatase (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type E [PTPRE]) expression was also measured. RESULTS: Compared with prevaccination findings, LA-YF-Vax recipient PBMCs demonstrated transient reduction in interleukin 2 release after TCR stimulation and PTPRE levels, unlike in control participants who received quadrivalent influenza vaccine. YFV was detected in 8 of 14 participants after LA-YF-Vax. After incubation of healthy donor PBMCs in serum-derived extracellular vesicles prepared from LA-YF-Vax recipients, TCR signaling and PTPRE levels were reduced after vaccination, even in participants without detectable YFV RNA. CONCLUSIONS: LA-YF-Vax reduces TCR functions and PTPRE levels after vaccination. Extracellular vesicles from serum recapitulated this effect in healthy cells. This likely contributes to the reduced immunogenicity for heterologous vaccines after LA-YF-Vax administration. Identification of specific immune mechanisms related to vaccines should contribute to understanding of the "off-target," beneficial effects of live vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla , Humanos , Interleucina-2 , Leucocitos Mononucleares , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla , Antígenos Virales , Vacunas Combinadas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T , ARN , Vacunas Atenuadas
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