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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(6): 525-533, 2020 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023372

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the results of a trial of prenatal vitamin D supplementation to prevent asthma and recurrent wheeze in young children, which suggested that supplementation provided a protective effect at the age of 3 years. We followed the children through the age of 6 years to determine the course of asthma and recurrent wheeze. METHODS: In this follow-up study, investigators and participants remained unaware of the treatment assignments through the children's sixth birthday. We aimed to determine whether, when maternal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were taken into account, children born to mothers who had received 4400 IU of vitamin D3 per day during pregnancy (vitamin D group) would have a lower incidence of asthma and recurrent wheeze at the age of 6 years than would those born to mothers who had received 400 IU of vitamin D3 per day (control group). Time-to-event methods were used to compare the treatment groups with respect to time to the onset of asthma or recurrent wheeze. Multivariate methods were used to compare longitudinal measures of lung function between the treatment groups. RESULTS: There was no effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on asthma and recurrent wheeze in either an intention-to-treat analysis or an analysis with stratification according to the maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level during pregnancy. There was no effect of prenatal vitamin D supplementation on most of the prespecified secondary outcomes. We found no effects of prenatal supplementation on spirometric indexes. Although there was a very small effect on airway resistance as measured by impulse oscillometry, this finding was of uncertain significance. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation during the prenatal period alone did not influence the 6-year incidence of asthma and recurrent wheeze among children who were at risk for asthma. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; VDAART ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00920621.).


Asunto(s)
Resistencia de las Vías Respiratorias/efectos de los fármacos , Asma/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Atención Prenatal , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Asma/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/embriología , Embarazo , Ruidos Respiratorios/efectos de los fármacos , Espirometría , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangre
2.
Life Sci ; 244: 117305, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953161

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder involving multiple deleterious molecular pathways and cellular defects leading to disturbance in the biologic milieu. It is currently a global health concern with growing incidence, especially among younger adults. There is an unmet need to find new therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes. Vitamin D is a promising target in the pathophysiology of DM, especially since vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with diabetes compared to people without diabetes. Evidence suggests that it can play significant roles in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, however, the exact pathophysiological mechanism is not clarified yet. In this current study, we have reviewed the evidence on the effect of vitamin D in improving insulin resistance via distinct molecular pathways.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa/prevención & control , Homeostasis , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Animales , Intolerancia a la Glucosa/etiología , Humanos
3.
Life Sci ; 244: 117331, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972209

RESUMEN

AIM: Drug-induced liver and kidney injuries are worldwide problems that cause restrictions in the use of drugs. The injury is highly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. So, demonstrating the role of the natural compound (Vit.D) on the prevention of acetaminophen (APAP) overdose toxicity and the molecular mechanism through NrF2/BACH1/HO-1 pathway is promising. EXPERIMENTAL: Male Sprague Dawley rats (40 rats) were divided randomly into 4 groups: Normal, APAP, APAP+Vit.D (500 IU/kg) and APAP+Vit.D (1000 IU/kg). The APAP toxicity caused by 2 g/kg (orally) on day 7. KEY FINDINGS: Vit D decreased significantly liver and kidney functions: serum ALT and AST activities (P < 0.0005); creatinine and urea (P < 0.0005) concentrations; liver and kidney histopathological scores. Furthermore, Vit.D ameliorated APAP-caused oxidative stress through the liver malondialdehyde concentration's decrease and the total antioxidant capacity's increase (P < 0.0005). The molecular mechanism of Vit.D may include the prevention of high deteriorating increase of oxidative stress mediators: hepatic and renal NrF2 and BACH1 tissue expression in addition to serum HO-1 (P < 0.0005); the increase of inflammatory mediators; hepatic and renal NF-κB tissue expression, serum interleukin-10 (P < 0.0005) and TNF-α (P < 0.05). The 500 IU/kg Vit.D administration caused better protection results especially on the histopathological and immunohistochemical results than the 1000 IU/kg Vit.D administration. SIGNIFICANCE: Vit.D ameliorates APAP-induced liver and kidney injury that may be attributed to its ability to moderately increase antioxidant status to counteract the toxicity without the massive destructive increase in the anti-oxidant pathway (NrF2/HO-1/BACH1). So, this work represents a great prophylactic role of Vit.D against drug-induced liver and kidney injury.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/toxicidad , Factores de Transcripción con Cremalleras de Leucina de Carácter Básico/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Hemo Oxigenasa (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteínas Represoras/metabolismo , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/toxicidad , Animales , Factores de Transcripción con Cremalleras de Leucina de Carácter Básico/genética , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hemo Oxigenasa (Desciclizante)/genética , Riñón/metabolismo , Riñón/patología , Masculino , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/genética , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Represoras/genética , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 628-638, dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-184790

RESUMEN

Background: Studies trying to find the association between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have led to inconsistent results, and community-based data for individuals living in the Middle East are limited. Objectives: To find out if MetS and its components are associated with vitamin D status among female teachers residing in Yazd city during winter 2015. Materials and methods: A total of 276 female teachers (case group, n = 124 and control group, n = 152) aged 20-60 years were included. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, daily energy intake, physical activity, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3), fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were assessed. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds ratio of MetS according to vitamin D status. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D3 was 32.79 ± 18.62 ng/ml and 33.73 ± 20.20, in females with and without MetS, respectively (P > 0.142). Compared to those with 25(OH)D3of < 20 ng/ml, the odds ratio for MetS was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.48-2.13) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.56-1.60) for those with serum 25(OH)D3 levels of 20-29 ng/ml and ≥ 30 ng/ml, respectively (P trend = 0.84). The association remained insignificant after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, vitamin D status was not associated with MetS components (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Although several studies have claimed the association between vitamin D status and MetS, we could not find a similar connection in a sample of Iranian female teachers. Prospective studies are needed to determine the possible effect of vitamin D in the development of MetS, particularly in the Yazd province


Antecedentes: Los estudios en busca de una asociación entre el estado de vitamina D y el síndrome metabólico (SM) han dado resultados no concluyentes, y los datos sobre comunidades de personas residentes en Oriente Próximo son limitados. Objetivos: Averiguar si existe asociación entre el SM y sus componentes y el estado de vitamina D en profesoras residentes en la ciudad de Yazd durante el invierno de 2015. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyó a un total de 276 profesoras (grupos de casos, n = 124 y grupo de control, n = 152) de 20-60 años de edad. Se determinaron el peso, la talla, el perímetro de la cintura, la presión arterial, la ingesta diaria de energía, la actividad física y los niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OH)D3), glucosa en ayunas, triglicéridos y colesterol de las proteínas de alta densidad (C-HDL). Se utilizó regresión logística para determinar la razón de probabilidades de SM en función del estado de vitamina D. Resultados: La concentración sérica media de 25(OH)D3 era de 32,79 ± 18,62 ng/ml y 33,73 ± 20,20 en las mujeres con y sin SM, respectivamente (P > 0,142). En comparación con las que tenían < 20 ng/ml de 25(OH)D3, la razón de probabilidades de SM era 1,01 (IC al 95%, 0,48-2,13) y 0,95 (IC al 95%, 0,56-1,60) en las que tenían valores de 20-29 ng/ml y ≥ 30 ng/ml, respectivamente (tendencia de P = 0,84). La asociación seguía siendo no significativa después del ajuste por posibles factores de confusión. Además, el estado de vitamina D no se asociaba con los componentes del SM (P > 0,05). Conclusión: Aunque varios estudios han informado de una asociación entre el estado de la vitamina D y el SM, no pudimos hallar una relación similar en una muestra de profesoras iraníes. Se necesitan estudios prospectivos para determinar el posible efecto de la vitamina D en el desarrollo del SM, especialmente en la provincia de Yazd


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Irán , Modelos Logísticos , Peso por Estatura , Relación Cintura-Cadera , Presión Arterial , Presión Sanguínea , Ejercicio/fisiología
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4627-4635, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519560

RESUMEN

In the clinical setting, administration of high daily or bolus doses of vitamin D is often solely based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] testing. This review summarizes the evidence of the effect of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that CVD risk markers, such as lipid parameters, inflammation markers, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness, are largely unaffected by vitamin D supplementation. Similar results have been obtained regarding CVD events and mortality from (meta)-analyses of RCTs, even in subgroups with 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l. Likewise, Mendelian randomization studies have indicated that the genetic reduction of the 25(OH)D concentration does not increase CVD risk. Some studies do not exclude the possibility of adverse vitamin D effects, such as elevated plasma calcium concentration and an increased CVD risk at a 25(OH)D concentration >125 nmol/l. Based on a conservative benefit-risk management approach, vitamin D doses beyond the nutritionally recommended amounts of 600 to 800 IE daily currently cannot be advised for the prevention of CVD events.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Sobredosis de Droga/complicaciones , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/efectos adversos , Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
6.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 33(2): 290-300, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547984

RESUMEN

In view of the high imminent risk for subsequent fractures, evaluation as early as possible after the fracture will result in early decisions about drug treatment, fall prevention and nutritional supplements. Drug treatment includes anti-resorptive and bone forming agents. Anti-resorptive therapy with broad spectrum fracture prevention and early anti-fracture effects are the first choice. In patients with multiple or severe VFs, the bone forming agent teriparatide should be considered. Adequate calcium and vitamin D are needed in all patients, together with appropriate nutrition, including adequate protein intake.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Fracturas Óseas/prevención & control , Necesidades Nutricionales , Prevención Secundaria/métodos , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/uso terapéutico , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8587-8603, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400903

RESUMEN

Yogurt is a good source of probiotics, calcium, and proteins, but its content of vitamin D is low. Therefore, yogurt could be a good choice for vitamin D fortification to improve the positive health outcomes associated with its consumption. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of vitamin D-fortified yogurt compared with plain yogurt on levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD). The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of fortified yogurt on parathyroid hormone, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for eligible studies; that is, randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared vitamin D-fortified yogurt with control treatment without any additional supplement. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. Findings from 9 RCT (n = 665 participants) that lasted from 8 to 16 wk are summarized in this review. The meta-analyzed mean differences for random effects showed that vitamin D-fortified yogurt (from 400 to 2,000 IU) increased serum 25OHD by 31.00 nmol/L. In addition, vitamin D-fortified yogurt decreased parathyroid hormone by 15.47 ng/L, body weight by 0.92 kg, waist circumference by 2.01 cm, HOMA-IR by 2.18 mass units, fasting serum glucose by 22.54 mg/dL, total cholesterol by 13.38 mg/dL, and triglycerides by 30.12 mg/dL compared with the controlled treatments. No publication bias was identified. Considerable between-study heterogeneity was observed for most outcomes. Vitamin D-fortified yogurt may be beneficial in improving serum 25OHD, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and anthropometric parameters and decreasing parathyroid hormone level in pregnant women and adult and elderly subjects with or without diabetes, prediabetes, or metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Fortificados , Valor Nutritivo , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Yogur , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangre , Vitamina D/farmacología , Vitaminas/farmacocinética
8.
Life Sci ; 233: 116744, 2019 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401314

RESUMEN

The prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) has increased over the past few decades. Vitamin D deficiency is a common factor in many of these diseases, whose etiology remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to review published data on the role of vitamin D in ADs. Vitamin D insufficiency has been described as an important factor in the development of some ADs, generally attributed to the key role of this vitamin in the immune system. Most studies show that adequate supplementation can prevent and improve the development of some of these diseases, although the optimal vitamin D dose remains controversial. We highlight the importance of measuring serum vitamin D levels of the population and developing strategies to improve and maintain levels with no health risks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/sangre , Vitaminas/sangre , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/etiología , Humanos , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
10.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2375-2380, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405646

RESUMEN

AIM: Diabetes increases the odds of depression and depression is often associated with poor glycemic control and complications of diabetes. Vitamin D is also believed to improve glycemic control and ameliorate depressive symptoms. Therefore, we examined effects of vitamin D monotherapy (without antidepressant drugs) on depressive symptoms in Type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted 12 weeks, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial on 68 subjects with T2DM and mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Subjects received 100 µg (4000 IU) vitamin D (n = 32) or placebo (n = 34) daily. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-PERSIAN) was applied for assessment of the severity of depression. Depression scores and metabolic profiles were measured at the beginning and end of trail. RESULTS: after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation, mean values of 25(OH) D increased from 15.5 ±â€¯8.8 to 32.2 ±â€¯8.9 ng/ml (p-value <0.001) in the vitamin D group. Moreover, BDI-II scores decreased from 15.2 ±â€¯9.6 to 9.8 ±â€¯7.2 (p-value <0.001) in the vitamin D group and 15.5 ±â€¯11.2 to 13.7 ±â€¯11.5 (p-value = 0.03) in placebo group. This decrease in BDI-II scores were significant (27.6% vs 10.8%) compared with placebo (p-value = 0.02). In term of metabolic profiles, mean change in level of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and triglycerides (TG) were significantly higher in response to the treatment with vitamin D compared to placebo (p-value <0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, supplementation of vitamin D in T2DM patients may protect these patients against the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD), with noticeable favorable effects on measures of metabolic profiles. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03008057.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Suplementos Dietéticos , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/fisiopatología , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Biomarcadores/análisis , Glucemia/análisis , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/etiología , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico
11.
BMJ ; 366: l4673, 2019 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405892

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower mortality in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register from their inception to 26 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin D supplementation with a placebo or no treatment for mortality were included. Independent data extraction was conducted and study quality assessed. A meta-analysis was carried out by using fixed effects and random effects models to calculate risk ratio of death in the group receiving vitamin D supplementation and the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 52 trials with a total of 75 454 participants were identified. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all cause mortality (risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.02, I2=0%), cardiovascular mortality (0.98, 0.88 to 1.08, 0%), or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality (1.05, 0.93 to 1.18, 0%). Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death (0.84, 0.74 to 0.95, 0%). In subgroup analyses, all cause mortality was significantly lower in trials with vitamin D3 supplementation than in trials with vitamin D2 supplementation (P for interaction=0.04); neither vitamin D3 nor vitamin D2 was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation alone was not associated with all cause mortality in adults compared with placebo or no treatment. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%. Additional large clinical studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is associated with lower all cause mortality. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018117823.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Mortalidad , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Colecalciferol/administración & dosificación , Ergocalciferoles/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
12.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(8): 2267-2273, 2019 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450894

RESUMEN

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of IL-6 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) signaling in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line. Methods: TNBC cell line, HCC 1806, was treated with IL-6 and 1,25D for three and six days. Also, the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was studied by transfection of TNBC cell line with VDR gene and transfection efficiency was assessed using Human VDR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in E-cadherin gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Also, changes in CD44+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Finally, morphological changes were investigated by light microscopy after 6 days. Results: Treatment of HCC1806 cells with IL-6 has no significant effect either on E-cadherin gene expression or CD44+ cells, (p > 0.05). However, E-cadherin gene expression was significantly up-regulated after treatment with 1,25D for 6 days, (p < 0.05). Also, CD44+ cells were significantly reduced after treatment with 1,25D either for 3 or 6 days, (p < 0.05). Transfection of TNBC cell line with VDR gene significantly up-regulated VDR protein expression, (p < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of VDR in TNBC cells and treatment with 1,25D significantly up-regulated E-cadherin gene expression, (p < 0.05) and reduced CD44+ cells, (p < 0.05). Moreover, transfection with VDR and treatment with a combination of 1,25D and IL-6 significantly down-regulated E-cadherin gene expression and increased CD44+ cells compared with transfected cells with VDR treated with 1,25D alone, (p < 0.05). No significant morphological changes were observed in treated cells, 6 days post-treatment. Conclusion: The presence of IL-6 in the breast tumor microenvironment may impair the activity of vitamin D3 signaling, limiting its anti-tumor effects in TNBC.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Cadherinas/metabolismo , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-6/administración & dosificación , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/patología , Microambiente Tumoral/efectos de los fármacos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Antígenos CD/genética , Cadherinas/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Transducción de Señal , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/metabolismo , Células Tumorales Cultivadas , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
13.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(16): 1120-1124, 2019 08.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416103

RESUMEN

Adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium are fundamental for the treatment of osteoporosis. A normal vitamin D status is required for optimal intestinal calcium absorption. However, general calcium and vitamin D supplementation is not sufficient for prevention of osteoporotic fractures in persons older than 50 years. Nevertheless, vitamin D deficiency should be avoided and corrected. In particular, parts of the population with increased risk for vitamin D deficiency (immobilized or older individuals, swarthy, migrants) should be tested. Secondary causes of vitamin D deficiency should be identified and treated.


Asunto(s)
Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea , Osteoporosis , Vitamina D , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/administración & dosificación , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/uso terapéutico , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Calcio/uso terapéutico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Osteoporosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteoporosis/fisiopatología , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina D
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 349-358, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468413

RESUMEN

Taurine is a ß-amino acid found most broadly distributed in human body, abundant in animal foods, and has an antioxidative function. Current nutritional intake and dietary habits of children in elementary schools show low level of the intake of vegetable foods and high level of the intake of processed foods and fast foods; this necessitates the emphasis of the intake of antioxidative nutrients for children. On account of the less consumption of vegetable foods as a main source of antioxidative nutrients for elementary school children, animal foods containing abundant amount of taurine can be preferably taken as an alternative foods therefor. Many previous studies have reported the protein intake of the children in elementary schools so far. However, the studies, reported the intake of taurine of elementary school children, are few. Thus, this study analyzed taurine and nutrients intake for children in Daegu, Korea. The average daily energy intake of the children was 153 ± 155 mg/day. The mean taurine intake values are followed; 27.6 ± 11.6 mg/day in the Q1 group, 61.2 ± 10.0 mg/day in the Q2 group, 137.7 ± 51.1 mg/day in the Q3 group, and 385.9 ± 123.6 mg/day in the Q4 group (p < .001). Q3 and Q4 groups showed significantly higher level of the intake of vitamin D, vitamin B12, Calcium, and folate than those of Q1 and Q2 groups. In the study, foods that affected the intake of taurine were as followed; fish and shellfish (79%), meat (14%), seaweed (5%), and other food products (2%).As a consequence, Taurine intake appears to be affected by seafood intake, and if seafood is consumed primarily, the amount of energy intake would be appropriate and will contribute to the increase of intakes of taurine, calcium and vitamin D.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Taurina/administración & dosificación , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Niño , Humanos , Nutrientes/administración & dosificación , República de Corea , Alimentos Marinos , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación
15.
Actual. osteol ; 15(2): 94-102, mayo - ago. 2019. tab.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048478

RESUMEN

El propósito de la terapia en el desorden del metabolismo óseo mineral asociado a la enfermedad renal crónica (IRC) consiste en restaurar el balance mineral, y, en la osteoporosis, mantener o aumentar la masa ósea. Ambas terapias tratan de evitar la fractura ósea. La mayoría de los osteoactivos están contraindicados en la insuficiencia renal crónica avanzada (estadios 4 y 5), y las terapias son empíricas. Algunos autores opinan que sin anomalías bioquímicas del desorden del metabolismo óseo mineral asociado a la enfermedad renal crónica avanzada se podría intentar el tratamiento estándar para la osteoporosis. Antes de intentar la terapia osteoactiva se debe corregir el desorden mineral óseo que pudiera presentarse asociado a la IRC, y en la indicación del tipo de osteoactivo se sugiere seleccionar al paciente según su estado óseo. Se aconseja que la administración de los antirresortivos se realice a dosis menores con respecto a los que tienen mejor función renal junto con aportes adecuados de calcio y vitamina D, antes y durante el tratamiento para prevenir el riesgo de severas hipocalcemias y un efecto óseo excesivo. Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 65 años, con diagnóstico de osteoporosis de etiología multifactorial, fractura de pelvis, múltiples fracturas vertebrales e insuficiencia renal crónica avanzada, entre otras comorbilidades, y probable enfermedad ósea adinámica. Recibió inicialmente terapia con teriparatide y luego con denosumab, complicándose con hipocalcemia asintomática. (AU)


The purpose of therapy for the bone mineral metabolism disorder associated with chronic kidney disease is to restore the mineral balance; and to maintain or increase bone mass in osteoporosis. The goal of both types of therapy is to avoid bone fractures. Most antiosteoporotic drugs are contraindicated in advanced chronic renal failure (CRF) stages 4 and 5, and the therapies are empirical. Some authors believe that without biochemical abnormalities of the mineral bone metabolism disorder associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, standard treatment for osteoporosis could be attempted. Before attempting antiosteoporotic therapy, the bone mineral disorder that may be associated with CRF must be corrected, and in the indication of the type drug it is suggested that the patient be selected according to their bone status. It is advised that the administration of anti-resorptives be performed at lower doses in individuals with poor renal function compared to those with better renal function together with adequate calcium and vitamin D, before and during treatment to prevent the risk of severe hypocalcemia, and an excessive bone effect. We present the clinical case of a 65-year-old woman with a diagnosis of osteoporosis of multifactorial etiology, pelvic fracture, multiple vertebral fractures and advanced chronic renal failure, among other comorbidities and probable adynamic bone disease. The patient received initial therapy with teriparatide and followed by denosumab administration and exhibited asymptomatic hypocalcemia. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Trastorno Mineral y Óseo Asociado a la Enfermedad Renal Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Fracturas Óseas/prevención & control , Osteoporosis/terapia , Trastorno Mineral y Óseo Asociado a la Enfermedad Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Trastorno Mineral y Óseo Asociado a la Enfermedad Renal Crónica/metabolismo , Trastorno Mineral y Óseo Asociado a la Enfermedad Renal Crónica/terapia , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/uso terapéutico , Calcio/administración & dosificación , Calcio/uso terapéutico , Alendronato/uso terapéutico , Teriparatido/administración & dosificación , Teriparatido/efectos adversos , Teriparatido/uso terapéutico , Difosfonatos/administración & dosificación , Difosfonatos/efectos adversos , Difosfonatos/uso terapéutico , Cinacalcet/uso terapéutico , Ácido Risedrónico/uso terapéutico , Denosumab/administración & dosificación , Denosumab/efectos adversos , Denosumab/uso terapéutico , Hipocalcemia/prevención & control
16.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330899

RESUMEN

Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , VIH-1 , Fenilbutiratos/farmacología , Vitamina D/farmacología , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Suplementos Dietéticos , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenilbutiratos/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto Joven
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1093-1098, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin D supplementation along with endurance physical activity on lipid profile among metabolic syndrome patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a parallel randomized placebo controlled trial, 70 metabolic syndrome patients, were randomly assigned into three groups. Biochemical tests were assessed as baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: The mean vitamin D levels was increased significantly in both vitamin D and vitamin D plus physical activity groups (P value < 0.05). No significant change was observed in the placebo group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-C in vitamin D plus physical activity group (P value < 0.05). No significant differences in changes of triglycerides and HDL-C among the three groups (P value > 0.05). While, in vitamin D group a decreased in total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and increase in triglycerides were observed, but did not reach a statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation of vitamin D for 12 weeks, along with moderate endurance physical activity, significantly increase vitamin D concentration and induce a significant reduction in lipid profile in metabolic syndrome patients.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ejercicio , Lípidos/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/etiología , Síndrome Metabólico/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008873, 2019 07 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be needed to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2012 and then in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether vitamin D supplementation alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2018), contacted relevant organisations (15 May 2018), reference lists of retrieved trials and registries at clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (12 July 2018). Abstracts were included if they had enough information to extract the data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy in comparison to placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of trials against the inclusion criteria, ii) extracted data from included trials, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 30 trials (7033 women), excluded 60 trials, identified six as ongoing/unpublished trials and two trials are awaiting assessments.Supplementation with vitamin D alone versus placebo/no interventionA total of 22 trials involving 3725 pregnant women were included in this comparison; 19 trials were assessed as having low-to-moderate risk of bias for most domains and three trials were assessed as having high risk of bias for most domains. Supplementation with vitamin D alone during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.79; 4 trials, 499 women, moderate-certainty evidence) and gestational diabetes (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 4 trials, 446 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and probably reduces the risk of having a baby with low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; 5 trials, 697 women, moderate-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Vitamin D supplementation may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks compared to no intervention or placebo (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.30; 7 trials, 1640 women, low-certainty evidence). In terms of maternal adverse events, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.91; 1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence). There were no cases of hypercalcaemia (1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence), and we are very uncertain as to whether vitamin D increases or decreases the risk of nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; 1 trial, 135 women, very low-certainty evidence). However, given the scarcity of data in general for maternal adverse events, no firm conclusions can be drawn.Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium versus placebo/no interventionNine trials involving 1916 pregnant women were included in this comparison; three trials were assessed as having low risk of bias for allocation and blinding, four trials were assessed as having high risk of bias and two had some components having a low risk, high risk, or unclear risk. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.78; 4 trials, 1174 women, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention is uncertain on gestational diabetes (RR 0.33,% CI 0.01 to 7.84; 1 trial, 54 women, very low-certainty evidence); and low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.10 to 4.55; 2 trials, 110 women, very low-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks in comparison to women who received placebo or no intervention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.28; 5 trials, 942 women, low-certainty evidence). No trial in this comparison reported on maternal adverse events.Supplementation with vitamin D + calcium + other vitamins and minerals versus calcium + other vitamins and minerals (but no vitamin D)One trial in 1300 participants was included in this comparison; it was assessed as having low risk of bias. Pre-eclampsia was not assessed. Supplementation with vitamin D + other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.59; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence); or low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.51; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether it makes any difference to the risk of gestational diabetes (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.73) or maternal adverse events (hypercalcaemia no events; hypercalciuria RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.02 to 3.97; 1 trial, 1298 women,) because the certainty of the evidence for both outcomes was found to be very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included 30 trials (7033 women) across three separate comparisons. Our GRADE assessments ranged from moderate to very low, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and indirectness.Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D alone probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birthweight and may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. It may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation. Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and calcium probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia but may increase the risk of preterm births < 37 weeks (these findings warrant further research). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation or low birthweight (less than 2500 g). Additional rigorous high quality and larger randomised trials are required to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, particularly in relation to the risk of maternal adverse events.


Asunto(s)
Resultado del Embarazo , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Calcio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Diabetes Gestacional/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Preeclampsia/prevención & control , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
19.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 153, 2019 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299987

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal 25-OH Vitamin D serum levels and neonatal early-onset sepsis in newborns by the effective factors. METHODS: A case-control study was done and 64 neonates hospitalized in Akbar Abadi Hospital (Tehran- Iran; 2016) and their mothers were enrolled. The case group consisted of 32 NICU term hospitalized neonates due to neonatal early-onset sepsis. Thirty-two term newborns that referred to hospital for rule out hyperbilirubinemia during the first 72 h of life were also considered as the control. RESULTS: Sixty- four mothers with mean age 28.76 ± 6.60 years and mean gestational age 39.64 ± 1.62 weeks entered the study. There was a significant correlation between sepsis and older age of mothers and low Apgar score (P-value = 0.02, 0.01 respectively). The maternal vitamin D serum level was reversely correlated with neonatal sepsis occurrence (P-value = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between maternal vitamin D supplement intake during pregnancy and lower risk for neonatal sepsis (P-value = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The level of maternal serum Vitamin D was inversely correlated with neonatal sepsis occurrence and intake of vitamin D supplement during pregnancy could decrease the risk of early neonatal sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis Neonatal/etiología , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Irán , Masculino , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Embarazo , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/dietoterapia
20.
J Mol Neurosci ; 69(1): 150-156, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313056

RESUMEN

It is possible that vitamin D acts as a neurosteroid and that vitamin D deficiency may have an adverse impact on brain function and cognitive function. There are a few reports that have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between common, functional vitamin D-associated gene variants and cognitive abilities and to investigate the effect size of this polymorphism on cognitive capabilities associated with high-dose vitamin D supplementation. A total of 319 healthy adolescents received a high dose of vitamin D (50,000 IU)/week for 9 weeks. A questionnaire was used to assess cognitive abilities at baseline and after treatment. The genotypes of the CYP2R1-rs10766197 and GC-rs4588 variants were determined using TaqMan genotyping techniques. At baseline, total cognitive ability scores were higher in the AA group who were homozygous for the uncommon allele, compared with the other (AG and GG) genotypes of the CYP2R1-rs10766197 polymorphism (104.9 ± 27.8 vs. 79.1 ± 38.8 vs. 73.1 ± 25.6; p < 0.001, respectively). During the supplementation period, cognitive ability scores increased in individuals with the AG and GG genotypes, while individuals with a AA genotype did not show significant change in total score after intervention (p = 0.17). For GC SNP (rs4588), no major differences at baseline and trial-net change of cognitive tasks score were observed between the genotypes under three genetic models (pSNP = 0.67). Vitamin D supplements have trait-dependent effects on cognitive performance that suggests a causal role for vitamin D in cognitive performance. The rs10766197 variant, near the CYP2R1 gene locus, significantly modified the efficacy of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for its effects on improving cognitive abilities indicate that some subjects might require a higher dose to benefit from in terms of cognitive performance.


Asunto(s)
Colestanotriol 26-Monooxigenasa/genética , Cognición , Familia 2 del Citocromo P450/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/sangre
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