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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(20): e2306287121, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709927

RESUMEN

This study examines the impact of residential mobility on electoral participation among the poor by matching data from Moving to Opportunity, a US-based multicity housing-mobility experiment, with nationwide individual voter data. Nearly all participants in the experiment were Black and Hispanic families who originally lived in high-poverty public housing developments. Notably, the study finds that receiving a housing voucher to move to a low-poverty neighborhood decreased adult participants' voter participation for nearly two decades-a negative impact equal to or outpacing that of the most effective get-out-the-vote campaigns in absolute magnitude. This finding has important implications for understanding residential mobility as a long-run depressant of voter turnout among extremely low-income adults.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Dinámica Poblacional , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Hispánicos o Latinos/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda Popular/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Negro o Afroamericano , Votación
2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 35(1): 159-185, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661865

RESUMEN

In the U.S., more than one million older adults with low incomes live in apartment buildings subsidized by the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit. Although this population experiences disproportionate rates of nursing home admission, little is known about residents' perspectives on factors that influence their ability to live independently in these settings. Fifty-eight residents aged 62 and older and eight study partners participated in qualitative interviews about their perspectives on living independently in subsidized housing, including barriers and facilitators. We analyzed transcripts using a hybrid inductive and deductive approach to qualitative thematic analysis. Barriers and facilitators for living independently in subsidized housing related to the influence of the social and physical environment on individuals' experiences of living independently, including factors unique to subsidized housing. Findings suggest how interventions to optimize functional status and promote independence among older adults living in subsidized housing can build on existing strengths of the subsidized housing environment to improve outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Vivienda Popular , Humanos , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pobreza , Estados Unidos , Entrevistas como Asunto
3.
Natl Health Stat Report ; (201): 1-19, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563774

RESUMEN

Objectives-Objective-This report demonstrates the use of linked National Hospital Care Survey (NHCS) and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) administrative data to examine demographic characteristics and maternal health outcomes among both patients who received and did not receive housing assistance. Methods-Administrative claims data and electronic health records data from the 2016 NHCS were linked to 2015-2017 HUD administrative data using patient identifiers. HUD administrative data for Housing Choice Voucher, Public Housing, and Multifamily housing program participation were used to identify patients who received housing assistance before, during, or after their delivery hospitalization. Exploratory analyses were conducted for patients who had a delivery hospitalization in 2016 and were eligible for linkage to HUD administrative data. Demographic characteristics and maternal health outcomes were compared by housing assistance status. The linked NHCS-HUD data are unweighted and not nationally representative. Results-In the 2016 NHCS, 146,672 patients had a delivery hospitalization and were eligible for linkage to 2015-2017 HUD administrative data (95.6% had a live birth, 1.0% had a stillbirth, and 3.4% were unspecified). Among this study population, 9,559 patients (6.5%) received housing assistance from 2015 to 2017. Among those who received housing assistance, 66.5% visited large metropolitan hospitals, 71.8% were insured by Medicaid, and 3.0% experienced severe maternal morbidity. Among patients who did not receive housing assistance, 74.0% visited large metropolitan hospitals, 35.6% were insured by Medicaid, and 1.9% experienced severe maternal morbidity. Nearly two-thirds of patients who received housing assistance from 2015 to 2017 were receiving housing assistance at the time of their delivery hospitalization (63.6%). Conclusion-Although these findings are not nationally representative, this report illustrates how linked NHCS-HUD data may provide insight into maternal health outcomes of patients who received housing assistance compared with those who did not.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda Popular , Remodelación Urbana , Estados Unidos , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Familia , Hospitales Urbanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7547, 2024 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555321

RESUMEN

Housing tenure is an important aspect to determine health. However, even though renters tend to have more socioeconomic disadvantages than homeowners, mortality risk between private and public renters compared with homeowners remains unclear. Japanese public rented housing, such as the Urban Renaissance Agency, has been developed for supplying an adequate living environment since 1950s. This study aimed to examine the mortality risk among older Japanese residents living in private and public rented houses compared with those living in owner-occupied houses using 9-year follow-up data. This study drew upon a 9-year follow-up of participants in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a population-based cohort study of Japanese independent adults aged ≥ 65 years. Mortality from 2010 to 2019 was analyzed for 44,007 respondents. Housing tenure was defined by a questionnaire. Cox regression models were used for calculating the hazard ratio for mortality. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple testing between rental houses. Overall, 10,638 deaths occurred during the follow-up period. Compared with housing owners, all rental housing groups had a significantly higher risk of mortality. Among renters, participants who lived in public rental housing had the lowest risk of mortality even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, health status, social status, and environmental status. Multiple testing among renters with Bonferroni correction showed that public renters had 0.80 times (95% CI 0.72-0.89) lower mortality risk than private renters. Although Japanese older adults living in public rental housing had a higher mortality risk than homeowners, this risk was lower than that among private renters. A positive neighborhood environment based on well-planned urban development may have contributed to this result. The results suggest that planned urban development lowers the risk of mortality in older renters in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Vivienda Popular , Humanos , Anciano , Japón , Estudios de Cohortes , Estado de Salud , Riesgo
5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(3): 37004, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477610

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Federal housing assistance is an important policy tool to ensure housing security for low-income households. Less is known about its impact on residential environmental exposures, particularly lead. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a quasi-experimental study to investigate the association between federal housing assistance and blood lead levels (BLLs) in a nationally representative US sample age 6 y and older eligible for housing assistance. METHODS: We used the 1999-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) linked with US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) administrative records to assess BLLs of NHANES participants with concurrent HUD housing assistance (i.e., current recipients, n=3,071) and those receiving assistance within 2 y after the survey (i.e., pseudo-waitlist recipients, n=1,235). We estimated BLL least squares geometric means (LSGMs), odds ratio (OR) for BLL ≥3.5µg/dL, and percent differences in LSGMs by HUD housing assistance status adjusting for age, sex, family income-to-poverty ratio, education, country of birth, race/ethnicity, region, and survey year. We also examined effect modification using interaction terms and stratified analyses by program type [i.e., public housing, multifamily, housing choice vouchers (HCV)], and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Current HUD recipients had a significantly lower LSGM [1.07µg/dL; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.12] than pseudo-waitlist recipients (1.21 µg/dL; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.28), with an adjusted OR of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.87) for BLL ≥3.5µg/dL. Some effect modification were observed: The protective association of HUD assistance on BLL was strongest among public housing (-19.5% LSGM; 95% CI: -27.5%, -10.7%), multifamily (-12.5% LSGM; 95% CI: -20.7%, -3.5%), and non-Hispanic White (-20.6% LSGM; 95% CI: -29.8%, -10.3%) recipients. It was weaker to null among HCV (-5.7% LSGM; 95% CI: -12.7, 1.7%), non-Hispanic Black (-1.6% LSGM; 95% CI: -8.1%, 5.4%), and Mexican American (-12.5% LSGM; 95% CI: -31.9%, 12.5%) recipients. DISCUSSION: Our research underscores the importance of social-structural determinants like federal housing assistance in providing affordable, stable, and healthy housing to very low-income households. More attention is needed to ensure housing quality and racial equity across HUD's three major housing assistance programs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP12645.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis C , Vivienda Popular , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Niño , Plomo , Encuestas Nutricionales , Pobreza
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 345: 116669, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417320

RESUMEN

This paper examines the impact of residence-based ethnic networks on mental health; such networks are defined as the concentration of residents from the same country of origin in a neighborhood. To estimate the effect, we utilize administrative registry data, together with data on quasi-random assignment of apartments to non-Western households with housing needs to various neighborhoods. After controlling for individual characteristics, time-invariant neighborhood characteristics, and general practitioners (GP) fixed effects, we find that a 1-percentage-point increase in the concentration of residence-based co-ethnics (RBCEs) increases the probability of being treated with psychiatric medications by 0.7-percentage point over a 5-year period after the assignment. With 19% of the population being treated with psychiatric medications the year before assignment, the result translates into an effect size of 3.7%. The results indicate that relatively high concentrations of co-ethnics treated with psychiatric medications increase the probability of being treated with psychiatric medications. The positive impact on treatment with psychiatric medication reflects an increase in the demand for these drugs when moving into a neighborhood with neighbors of the same ethnicity. If new residents are in good mental health condition when moving, these results suggest that moving into a neighborhood with a high co-ethic concentration worsens mental health status. However, as the population in this study is a vulnerable group an increase in treatment with psychiatric medications likely reflects that untreated mental health problems are treated, and the mental health status improved. The group of non-Western immigrants in this study differs significantly from the population in general, thus, results may not be generalized to all non-Western immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Salud Mental , Humanos , Animales , Vivienda para Animales , Características de la Residencia , Vivienda , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Vivienda Popular
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 250, 2024 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cohealth Health Concierge program operated in Melbourne, Australia from July 2020 to 30 June 2022. It provided peer-to-peer support to culturally and linguistically diverse residents of high-rise public housing. During this time, the COVID-19 public health response changed frequently and included movement restriction, testing and vaccination. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation to determine the Health Concierge program's impact on residents' engagement with health services and public health activities. METHODS: The evaluation, informed by a Project Reference Group, used the RE-AIM framework. We analysed data from 20,901 routinely collected forms describing interactions between Concierges and residents from August 2021 to May 2022. Additional evaluation-specific data were collected between March and May 2022 in four housing estates; we surveyed 301 residents and conducted 32 interviews with residents, Concierges and program stakeholders. RESULTS: Concierges promoted COVID-safe behaviours; linked residents with support, testing and vaccination services; and disseminated up-to-date information. Of the 20,901 recorded interactions, 8,872 (42%) included Concierges providing support around COVID-19 vaccination. Most surveyed residents (191/301, 63%) reported speaking with a Concierge in the previous six months. The self-reported two-dose COVID-19 vaccine uptake was 94% (283/301). Some residents described having meaningful, appreciated conversations with Concierges, and some described superficial interactions. While residents initially welcomed the program, many felt it failed to evolve. Poorly defined management and hiring criteria led to variable program implementation. A need for bicultural workers to continue linking residents with services was discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Concierges' impact on residents may have contributed to high community uptake of COVID-19 testing and vaccination, and had benefits beyond the COVID-19 remit. We recommend the program be revised and continued to inform further preparedness planning and support service access generally. Program models such as this have potential to inform and reassure high-risk communities during a pandemic. In addition, such programs can help overcome vaccine hesitancy and promote protective health behaviours, regardless of whether a pandemic is currently occurring. Ensuring these programs remain responsive to the changing needs of end-users needs over time is imperative.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Vivienda Popular , Australia/epidemiología , Educación en Salud
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(2): 278-286, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315918

RESUMEN

This article presents early findings on the causal effects of a housing voucher on family stress, which plays an important role in children's healthy development. Using the Housing and Children's Healthy Development study, which is the only randomized controlled trial of housing vouchers (conducted in the Cleveland, Ohio, and Dallas, Texas, metropolitan areas), we found measurable health and related benefits accruing to families who received vouchers even though half of those who leased housing with vouchers only lived in that dwelling for roughly one year or less. Vouchers also substantially improved cost burdens, sufficiency of space, adequacy of heat, and daytime neighborhood safety. Our analysis shows that the affordability secured by the voucher (reduction of cost burden) played the most important role in reducing parent stress. One policy implication of the affordability findings is the need to keep families' housing cost burden affordable.


Asunto(s)
Salud Infantil , Vivienda , Niño , Humanos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Ohio , Texas , Vivienda Popular
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(2): 297-304, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315928

RESUMEN

Improving housing quality may improve residents' health, but identifying buildings in poor repair is challenging. We developed a method to improve health-related building inspection targeting. Linking New York City Medicaid claims data to Landlord Watchlist data, we used machine learning to identify housing-sensitive health conditions correlated with a building's presence on the Watchlist. We identified twenty-three specific housing-sensitive health conditions in five broad categories consistent with the existing literature on housing and health. We used these results to generate a housing health index from building-level claims data that can be used to rank buildings by the likelihood that their poor quality is affecting residents' health. We found that buildings in the highest decile of the housing health index (controlling for building size, community district, and subsidization status) scored worse across a variety of housing quality indicators, validating our approach. We discuss how the housing health index could be used by local governments to target building inspections with a focus on improving health.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de la Vivienda , Vivienda , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York , Vivienda Popular
11.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(2): 457-469, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167990

RESUMEN

We examined whether a housing voucher intervention influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior (RSB) across 15 years in the Moving to Opportunity Study. Low-income families in public housing that resided in 5 cities were randomized to one of three treatment groups: a housing voucher to move to low-poverty neighborhoods (i.e., < 10% poverty rate), a Sect. 8 voucher but no housing relocation counseling, or a control group that could remain in public housing. Youth and their caregivers completed baseline surveys, as well as two uniform follow-ups: interim (2001-2002; 4-7 years after baseline) and final (2008-2010; 10-15 years after baseline). Approximately 4,600 adolescents (50.5% female) aged 13-20 years participated at the final timepoint. Adolescents reported on their RSB, including condom use, other contraceptive use, early sexual initiation (< 15 years old), and 2+ sexual partners in the past year. We modeled each indicator separately and as part of a composite index. We tested baseline health vulnerabilities as potential effect modifiers. The low-poverty voucher group and the Sect. 8 voucher group were combined due to homogeneity of their effects. Applying intent-to-treat (ITT) regression analyses, we found no significant main effects of voucher receipt (vs. control) on any RSB. However, we found protective effects of voucher receipt on RSB among youth with health problems that limited activity, and youth < 7 at baseline but adverse effects among females, youth > 7 at baseline, and youth who were suspended/expelled from school. Results highlight the importance of understanding how housing interventions differentially influence adolescent health and behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Vivienda , Humanos , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Vivienda Popular , Características de la Residencia , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Pobreza , Conducta Sexual/psicología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38248565

RESUMEN

This study examines support for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) mandatory smoke-free rule up to four years post-rule among smokers and non-smokers. A repeated cross-sectional design was used where District of Columbia public housing residents aged 18+ (n = 529) completed surveys during three time points: July 2018 (pre-rule), November 2018-March 2020 (post-rule), and September 2020-December 2022 (post-rule + COVID-19). Full support for the rule was indicated by agreeing that smoking should not be allowed in all indoor locations and within 25 feet of buildings. Descriptive statistics showed significant differences in support across time for smokers (5.3%, 30.7%, and 22.5%, respectively) and similar support across time for nonsmokers (48.2%, 52.2%, and 40.0%, respectively). In unstratified regression analysis, pre-rule support was lower than when the rule was in effect (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.90), and tobacco users were less likely to support the rule (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.50). Stratified logistic regression results showed that pre-rule support was lower among smokers compared to post-rule support (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.59); support among nonsmokers did not vary by time. Findings overall indicate low support for the smoke-free rule up to 4 years post-implementation. Engaging residents with the rule and promoting health and well-being may further enhance policy effectiveness and acceptance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vivienda Popular , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , No Fumadores , Fumadores
13.
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 66(2): 205-215, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943202

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Access to affordable housing may support cancer control for adults with low income by alleviating financial barriers to preventive care. This study examines relationships between cancer screening and receipt of government housing assistance among adults with low income. METHODS: Data are from the 2019 and 2021 National Health Interview Survey. Eligible respondents were classified as up-to-date or not with breast cancer (BC), cervical cancer (CVC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model guideline-concordant screening by receipt of government housing assistance, overall and stratified by urban-rural status, race/ethnicity, and age. Analyses were performed in 2023. RESULTS: Analyses for BC, CVC and CRC screening included 2,258, 3,132, and 3,233 respondents, respectively. There was no difference in CVC screening by housing assistance status, but screening for BC and CRC was higher among those who received assistance compared to those who did not (59.7% vs. 50.8%, p<0.01 for BC; 57.1% vs. 44.1%, p<0.01 for CRC). In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, health status and insurance, these differences were not statistically significant for either BC or CRC screening. In stratified adjusted models, housing assistance was statistically significantly associated with increased BC screening in urban areas (aOR=1.35, 95% CI=1.00-1.82) and among Hispanic women (aOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.01-4.78) and women 45-54 years of age (aOR=2.10, 95% CI=1.17-3.75). CONCLUSIONS: Policies that address housing affordability may enhance access to BC screening for some subgroups, including women in urban areas, Hispanic women, and younger women. More research on the mechanisms that link housing assistance to BC screening is needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Vivienda , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Vivienda Popular , Pobreza , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/prevención & control , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 9(1): 42-51, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37498803

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Research into the influence and role of social networks on oral health outcomes has been limited. This study aims to demonstrate via explanatory modeling the influence of social networks on oral health outcomes among women in who live in public housing in Boston, Massachusetts. METHODS: Individual- and network-level data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of adult female residents of 2 public housing developments in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants responded to close-ended questions about sociodemographic characteristics, oral and general health status, and health-related behaviors for themselves as well as their named social contacts. Based on this information, network-level variables were calculated for each participant, including the proportion of the social network with certain characteristics or attributes. To assess the salience of network measures in explaining the variability in self-reported oral health status, overall health status, use of dental services within the last year, and current dental treatment needs, logistic regression models with individual-level covariates were compared with corresponding models that additionally included network-level variables with McFadden R2 for comparison purposes. RESULTS: Model comparisons for each outcome of interest demonstrated that adding network-level covariates significantly improved model fit. Additionally, network-level covariates displayed strong independent associations with the outcomes of interest. The network proportion needing dental treatment was positively associated with participants' odds of reporting current dental treatment needs (odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.47 to 15.05). An individual's odds of reporting no dental visit within the past year decreased with increasing exposure to social contacts with reported dental visits within the past year (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.89). CONCLUSION: The salience of specific network attributes depended on the outcome under study. Interventions aimed at reducing the poor oral health burden in this and similar population groups may benefit from integrating information on social networks, including tailoring intervention delivery and/or messaging to account for the potential influence of social networks. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: This work may be beneficial to those developing policy solutions and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of poor oral health outcomes in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, such as women who reside in public housing developments. The potential for leveraging social networks to seed messaging about oral health, for example, may enhance efforts to reduce oral health disparities.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Vivienda Popular , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Red Social , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud
16.
Community Ment Health J ; 60(2): 259-271, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462796

RESUMEN

This study identified individual sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and service use patterns associated with quality of life (QoL) among 308 individuals living in permanent supportive housing (PSH) in Québec (Canada). Data were collected between 2020 and 2022, and linear multivariate analyses produced. Results demonstrated that better individual psychosocial conditions were positively associated with higher QoL. As well, living in PSH located in good neighborhoods for at least 5 years, higher self-esteem and community integration were positively associated with greater QoL. Met needs, satisfaction with housing support services, and no use of acute care were also linked with positive QoL. Comprehensive efforts to improve treatment for mental health disabilities responsive to the needs of PSH residents, and sustained long-term housing may reinforce QoL. Encouraging active participation in community-based activities, incorporating biophilic design into the neighborhoods around PSH, and promoting satisfaction with care may also enhance QoL.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Mala Vivienda , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Vivienda , Salud Mental , Características de la Residencia , Vivienda Popular
17.
J Epidemiol ; 34(4): 164-169, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37635084

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disaster survivors experience deterioration in lifestyles and an increase in constipation. After the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, some survivors were evacuated for a long term, even after moving to temporary housing and public reconstruction housing. However, annual changes in constipation and the association between lifestyles and constipation among the survivors are still unknown. METHODS: Overall, 9,234 survivors aged 18 years or older participated in this 9-year follow-up survey after the disaster. Information about the prevalence of constipation and lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, and mental health) was collected using a self-reported questionnaire. Their dietary intake was categorized into the following two dietary patterns: prudent (fish and shellfish, soybean products, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products) and meat (meat and eggs). Odds ratios for constipation according to lifestyle factors were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: In women, the prevalence of constipation was the highest at baseline (8.7%) and remained around 5% afterward. In both men and women, older age, poor mental health, and poor physical activity were significantly associated with higher odds ratios of constipation. Moreover, a lower frequency of meals and a lower prudent dietary score were significantly associated with women's constipation. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of constipation was the highest at baseline and remained around 5% in women. Lifestyle factors, such as poor mental health, physical inactivity, and low frequency of meals were associated with constipation. Our findings suggest continuous support for the survivors with constipation for medium- to long-term after disasters.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Japón/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Vivienda Popular
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 32(2): 390-397, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984557

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the effect of gentrification on the weight outcomes of New York City public school students living in public housing. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 19,022 New York City public school students in public housing followed during 2009-2017, weight outcomes of students living in public housing buildings in gentrified neighborhoods were compared to those living in consistently low-socioeconomic-status neighborhoods; assignment was quasi-random in each borough. RESULTS: Among the 42,182 student-year observations, gentrification did not increase weight outcomes significantly, for BMI z scores (0.037; 95% CI: -0.012 to 0.086), obesity (0.6 percentage points [pp]; 95% CI: -0.9 to 2.1), or overweight (1.3 pp; 95% CI: -0.7 to 3.2). However, heterogeneous effects by borough were found, where the gentrification in Manhattan increased students' BMI z scores by 0.19 (95% CI: 0.09-0.29), obesity by 3.4 pp (95% CI: 0.03-6.5), and overweight by 9.2 pp (95% CI: 6.3-12.1). No heterogeneity by race and ethnicity, gender, or age was found. CONCLUSIONS: With strong internal validity, this study shows that neighborhood gentrification differentially influenced children's health through obesity, based on borough of residence. Such findings could inform policies or interventions focused on subpopulations and geographies.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Infantil , Humanos , Niño , Obesidad Infantil/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Vivienda Popular , Estudios Prospectivos , Segregación Residencial , Estudiantes , Características de la Residencia
19.
J Community Psychol ; 52(1): 181-197, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37740986

RESUMEN

Objectives were (a) to understand a community-informed narrative, as told by community members (CMs) and community partners (CPs), about the strengths, experiences, and perspectives of public housing communities; and (b) to analyze similarities and differences between CMs' and CPs' experiences and perspectives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 CMs of public housing (ages 26-58, 100% female caregivers, 96% Black, 4% multiethnic) and 43 CPs (ages 28-78, 67.4% female, 81.4% Black and African American). Four themes were derived from the CM and CP interviews: (1) counters to public narratives, (2) disinvestment begets disinvestment, (3) community conditions should be better, and (4) community cohesion and connection. Findings from this study present community-centered narratives and experiences that were counter to stereotyped public narratives and could influence public perceptions and behavior to inform policy changes related to improving living conditions and supporting CMs in public and low-income housing communities.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Vivienda Popular , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Negro o Afroamericano , Narración
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 22316, 2023 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38102203

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic in many senses reconstructs social norms and reshapes social behaviour, which typically assumes a close correlation between mobility with a higher risk of COVID-19 infection. This may intensify the pre-existing discrimination against tenants and widen tenure-based health inequalities. Drawing on an online questionnaire survey conducted in five major cities in China in 2020, we employ multi-level regression models to examine the intensified discrimination against tenants during COVID-19 and its impacts on residents' physical and mental health inequalities. Results show that the pre-existing inequalities have been intensified during COVID-19 and the perceived discrimination has rendered worsened self-rated health and mental health and enlarged health inequalities. The discrimination particularly affected tenants with better economic profiles or worse health conditions; by contrast, despite being exposed to more tenant-related discriminatory experiences, rural hukou holders suffered from less severe health inequalities. A clear linkage is found between renting in poorly-managed and larger health gaps generated by discrimination. The negative health impact of intensified discrimination is found to be more significant in communities with lower infection risk, which points to the necessity of understanding the long-term health impact of discrimination against tenants in a more holistic way. In terms of community environment, we discover a positive effect of community social capital, i.e., higher level social capital helps mitigate the health threat of discrimination against tenants during COVID-19. Besides, public housing tenants reported better health outcomes and were less exposed to intensified discrimination during COVID-19 than private housing tenants. These findings provide a nuanced understanding of variations determined by individual and territorial factors, thus present timely policy implications for promoting healthy and inclusive urban development in the post-pandemic era.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Ciudades/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Vivienda Popular , Medio Social
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