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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 303-6, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798314

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the imaging features of focus of knee joint tendon in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) technique. METHODS: One hundred KOA patients and 100 healthy subjects were included. All the KOA patients were palpated by the sequence of foot yangming meridian, foot shaoyang meridian, foot taiyang meridian and foot three yin-meridians, and the focus of knee tendon and its frequency were recorded by MSUS technique. The top-5 focus of knee tendon of KOA patients and the corresponding focus of knee tendon of healthy subjects were selected as the observation sites to compare the differences of thickness of ligament and tendon soft tissue in the extension and flexion positions of the knee joint. RESULTS: The top-5 focus of knee tendon of KOA patients were located in medial inferior patella, medial tibial condyle, inferior patella, Zusanlici and Hedingci. The thickness of ligaments and tendons in extension and flexion positions in KOA patients were thicker than that in healthy subjects (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The focus of knee joint tendon in KOA patients shows significantly thickened musculoskeletal imaging features.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Tendones/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 28, 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653279

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for food group intake in Japan, the reproducibility and partial validity of which were previously confirmed for nutrients. METHODS: A total of 288 middle-aged healthy volunteers from 11 different areas of Japan provided nonconsecutive 3-day weighed dietary records (DRs) at 3-month intervals over four seasons. We evaluated reproducibility based on the first (FFQ1) and second (FFQ2) questionnaires and their validity against the DRs by comparing the intake of 20 food groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (SRs) were calculated between energy-adjusted intake from the FFQs and that from the DRs. RESULTS: The intake of 20 food groups estimated from the two FFQs was mostly equivalent. The median energy-adjusted SRs between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (range 0.38-0.86) for men and 0.66 (0.45-0.84) for women. For validity, the median de-attenuated SRs between DRs and the FFQ1 were 0.51 (0.17-0.76) for men and 0.47 (0.23-0.77) for women. Compared with the DRs, the proportion of cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the FFQ1 ranged from 58 to 86% in men and from 57 to 86% in women. According to the robust Z scores and the Bland-Altman plot graphs, the underestimation errors in the FFQ1 tended to be greater in individuals with high mean levels of consumption for meat for men and for other vegetables for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The FFQ demonstrated high reproducibility and reasonable validity for food group intake. This questionnaire is short and remains appropriate for identifying associations between diet and health/disease among adults in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5559, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692464

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for noninvasive respiratory support devices has dramatically increased, sometimes exceeding hospital capacity. The full-face Decathlon snorkeling mask, EasyBreath (EB mask), has been adapted to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as an emergency respiratory interface. We aimed to assess the performance of this modified EB mask and to test its use during different gas mixture supplies. CPAP set at 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O was delivered to 10 healthy volunteers with a high-flow system generator set at 40, 80, and 120 L min-1 and with a turbine-driven ventilator during both spontaneous and loaded (resistor) breathing. Inspiratory CO2 partial pressure (PiCO2), pressure inside the mask, breathing pattern and electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) were measured at all combinations of CPAP/flows delivered, with and without the resistor. Using the high-flow generator set at 40 L min-1, the PiCO2 significantly increased and the system was unable to maintain the target CPAP of 10 and 15 cmH2O and a stable pressure within the respiratory cycle; conversely, the turbine-driven ventilator did. EAdi significantly increased with flow rates of 40 and 80 L min-1 but not at 120 L min-1 and with the turbine-driven ventilator. EB mask can be safely used to deliver CPAP only under strict constraints, using either a high-flow generator at a flow rate greater than 80 L min-1, or a high-performance turbine-driven ventilator.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/instrumentación , Respiración Artificial/instrumentación , Adulto , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/métodos , Buceo , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias , Respiración , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Ventiladores Mecánicos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1577, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707427

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new recently emerged sarbecovirus. This virus uses the human ACE2 enzyme as receptor for cell entry, recognizing it with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the viral spike protein. We present the use of phage display to select anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies from the human naïve antibody gene libraries HAL9/10 and subsequent identification of 309 unique fully human antibodies against S1. 17 antibodies are binding to the RBD, showing inhibition of spike binding to cells expressing ACE2 as scFv-Fc and neutralize active SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VeroE6 cells. The antibody STE73-2E9 is showing neutralization of active SARS-CoV-2 as IgG and is binding to the ACE2-RBD interface. Thus, universal libraries from healthy human donors offer the advantage that antibodies can be generated quickly and independent from the availability of material from recovering patients in a pandemic situation.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticuerpos Antivirales/genética , /inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , /química , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/aislamiento & purificación , Anticuerpos Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Afinidad de Anticuerpos , Línea Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Biblioteca de Genes , Voluntarios Sanos , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/genética , Inmunoglobulina G/aislamiento & purificación , Modelos Moleculares , Mutación , Pruebas de Neutralización , Pandemias , Biblioteca de Péptidos , Dominios y Motivos de Interacción de Proteínas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Células Vero
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25196, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726013

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to study sonoelastographic features of thesartorius muscle, and its relation to the demographic factors.The study included 70 muscles in 35 healthy subjects. High-resolution ultrasound and shearwave elastography were used to evaluate the sartorius muscle. Stiffness values were measured.The mean shear elastic modulus of the sartorius muscle was 21.96 ±â€Š5.1 kPa. Demographic factors showed no relation to the elastic modulus of the left sartorius muscle. Positive statistical correlation was noted between the elastic modulus of the right sartorius muscle, weight, and body mass index.Our results could be a reference point for evaluating sartorius muscle stiffness in future research considering different pathologies.


Asunto(s)
Módulo de Elasticidad , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagen , Muslo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/métodos , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adulto Joven
7.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645567

RESUMEN

We study the effect of surgical masks on cardiopulmonary function based on a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). This study shows that surgical masks reduce cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and ventilation in healthy young subjects and wearing masks might affect aerobic exercise capacity more in female subjects than in male subjects.


Asunto(s)
Voluntarios Sanos , Corazón/fisiología , Pulmón/fisiología , Máscaras , Adulto , Electrocardiografía , Electrodos , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Espirometría , Adulto Joven
8.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(2): 185-249, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620672

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Systolic blood pressure (SBPA) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) were quantified using different methodological and calibration approaches to analyze (1) the association and agreement between different SBPA and PPA parameters and (2) the association between these SBPA and PPA parameters and left ventricle (LV) and atrium (LA) structural and functional characteristics. METHODS: In 269 healthy subjects, LV and LA parameters were echocardiography-derived. SBPA and PPA parameters were quantified using: (1) different equations (n = 9), (2) methodological approaches (n = 3): brachial sub-diastolic (Mobil-O-Graph®) and supra-systolic oscillometry (Arteriograph®) and aortic diameter waveform re-calibration (RCD; ultrasonography), and (3) using three different calibration schemes: systo-diastolic (SD), calculated mean (CM) and oscillometric mean (OscM). RESULTS: SBPA and PPA parameters obtained with different equations, techniques, and calibration schemes show a highly variable association level (negative, non-significant, and/or positive) among them. The association between SBPA and PPA with cardiac parameters were highly variable (negative, non-significant, or positive associations). Differences in BPA parameter data between approaches were more sensitive to the calibration method than to the device used. Both, SBPA and PPA obtained with brachial sub-diastolic technique and calibrated to CM or OscM showed higher levels of association with LV and LA structural characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that many of the parameters that assume to quantify the same phenomenon of BPA are not related to each other in the different age groups. Both, SBPA and PPA obtained with brachial sub-diastolic technique and calibrated to CM or OscM showed higher levels of association with LV and LA structural characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Función del Atrio Izquierdo , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Presión Sanguínea , Corazón/fisiología , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Calibración , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Ecocardiografía Doppler , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oscilometría , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
9.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(2): 329-336, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523774

RESUMEN

Budesonide is one of the intranasal corticosteroids, referred as first-line therapy for allergic rhinitis. Its determination is a challenging task due to its extremely low plasma levels, which limits the progress in the investigation of pharmacokinetics and quality control of preparations. In this study, a sensitive and high-throughput method to determine budesonide in human plasma using budesonide-d8 as the internal standard was developed and validated. A small volume of plasma sample (0.2 mL) was diluted with 0.2 mL water, followed by a solid-phase extraction using Cleanert PEP-2 products. Extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an InertSustain AQ-C18 HP column (3 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) under the reversed-phase condition with gradient elution. With the assay, linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration range of 10-1200 pg/mL for budesonide, with considerable extraction recoveries (84.7-89.4%), and negligible matrix effects (<4.1). Moreover, the newly developed method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of two budesonide intranasal formulations with and without charcoal block in healthy volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Budesonida/farmacocinética , Carbón Orgánico , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Budesonida/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Cromatografía Liquida , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Plasma , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1071-1080, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549447

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a main determinant of autonomic function and related to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) disease. Hypertension develops in black populations at an earlier age, which could be due to differences in the autonomic nervous system activity and sodium/potassium handling in black and white populations. We investigated whether HRV is associated with 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure (BP) in a young bi-ethnic cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 423 black and 483 white healthy adults (aged 24.5 ± 3.1 years) for 24 h HRV, including standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) reflecting autonomic variations over time, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) reflecting parasympathetic activity. We measured 24 h urinary sodium and potassium concentration and BP. The black group had lower SDNN and potassium excretion as well as higher RMSSD, sodium and Na/k ratio compared to the white group (all p < 0.05). Only in black individuals, urinary potassium excretion was independently and negatively associated with SDNN (ß[95% CI];-0.26[-0.50;-0.02]ms) and RMSSD (-0.14[-0.27;-0.01]ms, p < 0.05). One unit increase in sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio was associated with higher SDNN (ß[95% CI]; 3.04[0.89; 5.19]ms) and RMSSD (1.60[0.41; 2.78]ms) in the black cohort only (both p < 0.001). In both groups elevated 24 h diastolic BP was associated with lower RMSSD (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lower potassium excretion and higher Na/K ratio related independently to higher HRV in young and healthy black adults. A better ethnic-specific understanding of sodium and potassium handling is required as part of preventive cardiology, especially in black individuals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03292094; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03292094.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Presión Sanguínea , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Hipertensión/etnología , Potasio/orina , Eliminación Renal , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/orina , Masculino , Natriuresis , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Sodio/orina , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540795

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a conventional gait model (CGM), the Plug-in Gait model, to calculate the angles of the hip, knee, and ankle during initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO). Gait analysis was performed using the Vicon Motion System® (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK). The study group consisted of 50 healthy subjects. To evaluate the test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM), the minimal detectable change (MDC), and the Bland-Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement were calculated. The ICC for the joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle was higher than 0.80. However, the ankle angle at IC had an ICC lower than 0.80. The SEM was <5° for all parameters. The MDC was large (>5°) for the hip angle at IC. The Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the magnitude of divergence was between ±5° and ±9° at IC and around ±7° at TO. In conclusion, the ICC for the plug-in gait model was good for the hip, knee, and ankle angles during IC and TO. The plots revealed a disagreement between measurements that should be considered in patients' clinical assessments.


Asunto(s)
Marcha , Dedos del Pie , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24855, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607859

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To analyze the prevalence of latent infection of pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Chinese healthy population and its influencing factors, so as to provide reference for the prevention and control of HFMD. METHODS: A systematic literature searching about the incidence of latent infection of HFMD was conducted in Chinese and English databases. The inclusion and exclusion criteria of the retrieved literature were established. The qualified literatures were screened and the data were extracted. The pooled rate and its 95% confidence interval was used to assess the latent infection rate of HFMD pathogens in healthy Chinese population, and subgroup analysis was conducted based on gender and age. All statistical analyses were performed using the STATA version 12.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 31 literatures were included in this meta-analysis. The recessive infection rate of HFMD pathogens reported in the literature of Chinese healthy people ranged from 4.59% to 44.12%. The results of meta-analysis showed that the latent infection rate of human enteroviruses (HEVs) in healthy Chinese population was 17.5% (14.9-20.1%), among which, the latent infection rates of EV-A71, CV-A16, and other HEVs were 3.3% (2.2-4.4%), 1.7% (1.0-2.5%), and 15.1% (11.1-17.1%), respectively. The latent infection rates of HEVs in healthy men and women in China were 16.7% (12.9-20.4%) and 14.4% (10.8-18.0%), respectively. The latent infection rates of HEVs in the healthy population aged 0 to 5 years and over 5 years were 24.4% (20.4-28.5%) and 9.4% (6.5-12.2%), respectively. Meta regression showed that the factors affecting the latent infection rate of HEVs in Chinese healthy population included sampling period, sampling area, and study population. CONCLUSION: The latent infection rate of HEVs is high in healthy people in China, but it is mainly caused by other enteroviruses. The latent infection rate of HEVs in male was higher than that of female and was greater in people aged 0 to 5 than that of aged over 5 years. Limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed for further verification in the future.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Voluntarios Sanos/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Manejo de Datos , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Enterovirus/patogenicidad , Enterovirus Humano A/genética , Enterovirus Humano A/aislamiento & purificación , Enterovirus Humano A/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Femenino , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/prevención & control , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037209, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576818

RESUMEN

Importance: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used broadly as a less-lethal force option for police officers. However, there is no clear picture of the possible health risks in humans on the basis of rigorously assessed scientific evidence from the international peer-reviewed literature. Objective: To synthesize and systematically evaluate the strength of published evidence for an association between exposure to different models of CEWs and adverse acute as well as chronic conditions. Evidence Review: Following a preregistered review protocol, the literature search strategy was based on a search of reviews published between January 1, 2000, and April 24, 2020, of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library, as well as relevant online databases and bibliographic sources, such as reference sections of recent publications. The identified studies were independently assessed in terms of scope, relevance, methodologic bias, and quality. Peer-reviewed publications of human studies were included, using original data and with a focus on the use of taser CEWs in the context of law enforcement. Eligible studies examined clearly defined health outcomes as dependent variables following exposure to a CEW. The review followed the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. A meta-analysis could not be conducted. Findings: Of the 1081 unique records screened, 33 relevant studies were identified, all of them of experimental design and conducted in the US. Eleven studies had a low risk of bias and 22 had a higher bias risk. Studies focused on outcomes such as physiologic stress responses, heart rate, blood pressure, arrhythmias, or cognitive performance. Independently of bias risk, the studies reported few or no acute health problems, apart from the wounds caused by the darts. Furthermore, no long-term outcomes were studied. Most of the studies were performed on healthy, physically fit individuals (eg, police officers) in a controlled setting, with short exposure duration (5 seconds). Half of the studies, mainly those with a higher risk of bias, were at least partly funded by the manufacturer. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the findings of the reviewed studies, the risk for adverse health outcomes due to CEW exposure can be currently estimated as low. However, most of the reviewed studies had methodologic limitations. Considering that recruited participants were not representative of the population that usually encounters a CEW deployment, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding exposure outcomes in potentially vulnerable populations or high-risk groups, such as those under the influence of substances.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Lesiones por Armas Conductoras de Energía/fisiopatología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Armas , Acidosis Láctica/epidemiología , Acidosis Láctica/etiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Lesiones por Armas Conductoras de Energía/complicaciones , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Policia , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(1): 69-72, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559429

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the excitatory effect of the sensory cortex through somatic electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at Taichong (LR3). METHODS: Ten healthy volunteer men ranging in age from 20 to 50 years were enrolled in this study. EA (2 Hz, a tolerable strength) was applied to the left LR3. Before and after EA, the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) from the Cz' area of the scalp was recorded by electrical stimulation of the bilateral dorsal penile nerves and the indentation behind the medial malleolus of the foot, termed as the pudendal SEP (PSEP) and lower extremity SEP (LSEP), respectively. RESULTS: The amplitude of the left LSEP induced by stimulation of the left medial malleolus was significantly increased after EA (P < 0.05), but there were no significant changes in the latency of LSEP and PSEP, and the amplitude of right LSEP evoked by stimulation of the left medial malleolus, and that of the PSEP. CONCLUSION: EA at LR3 increases the excitability of the contralateral cerebral sensory cortex (lower extremity area), but has no effect on the adjacent sensory cortex (genital area).


Asunto(s)
Electroacupuntura , Adulto , Corteza Cerebral , Estimulación Eléctrica , Potenciales Evocados Somatosensoriales , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 721, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526780

RESUMEN

Aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with progressive brain disorganization. Although structural asymmetry is an organizing feature of the cerebral cortex it is unknown whether continuous age- and AD-related cortical degradation alters cortical asymmetry. Here, in multiple longitudinal adult lifespan cohorts we show that higher-order cortical regions exhibiting pronounced asymmetry at age ~20 also show progressive asymmetry-loss across the adult lifespan. Hence, accelerated thinning of the (previously) thicker homotopic hemisphere is a feature of aging. This organizational principle showed high consistency across cohorts in the Lifebrain consortium, and both the topological patterns and temporal dynamics of asymmetry-loss were markedly similar across replicating samples. Asymmetry-change was further accelerated in AD. Results suggest a system-wide dedifferentiation of the adaptive asymmetric organization of heteromodal cortex in aging and AD.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Corteza Cerebral/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3061, 2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542252

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 has raised interest in the kinin-kallikrein system. Viral blockade of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 impedes degradation of the active kinin des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, which thus increasingly activates bradykinin receptors known to promote inflammation, cough, and edema-symptoms that are commonly observed in COVID-19. However, lean and reliable investigation of the postulated alterations is currently hindered by non-specific peptide adsorption, lacking sensitivity, and cross-reactivity of applicable assays. Here, an LC-MS/MS method was established to determine the following kinins in respiratory lavage fluids: kallidin, bradykinin, des-Arg(10)-kallidin, des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, bradykinin 1-7, bradykinin 2-9 and bradykinin 1-5. This method was fully validated according to regulatory bioanalytical guidelines of the European Medicine Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration and has a broad calibration curve range (up to a factor of 103), encompassing low quantification limits of 4.4-22.8 pg/mL (depending on the individual kinin). The application of the developed LC-MS/MS method to nasal lavage fluid allowed for the rapid (~ 2 h), comprehensive and low-volume (100 µL) determination of kinins. Hence, this novel assay may support current efforts to investigate the pathophysiology of COVID-19, but can also be extended to other diseases.


Asunto(s)
Bradiquinina/análisis , Sistema Calicreína-Quinina , Líquido del Lavado Nasal/química , Adulto , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Adulto Joven
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23999, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545992

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate sonoelastographic features of the tibial nerve.The study included 72 tibial nerves in 36 healthy subjects. High resolution ultrasound and Shear wave elastography were used to evaluate the tibial nerve. Cross sectional area and stiffness were measured.The mean cross sectional area of the tibial nerve was 13.4 mm2. The mean shear elastic modulus of the tibial nerve in the short axis was 23.3 kPa. The mean shear elastic modulus of the tibial nerve in long axis was 26.1 kPa. The tibial nerve elastic modulus also showed no correlation with cross sectional area neither in the long axis nor short axis. Age, height, weight, and body mass index showed no correlation with tibial nerve elastic modulus in short or long axes.The elastic modulus of the tibial nerve has been determined in healthy subjects and can serve as a reference for future assessment of polyneuropathy.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Nervio Tibial/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Módulo de Elasticidad/fisiología , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/métodos , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Nervio Tibial/fisiología , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adulto Joven
18.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 77-83, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559579

RESUMEN

Background: Literature has limited evidence concerning the morphology of volar surface of distal radius. A mismatch between the plate-contour and contour of the actual volar bony surface can result in malreduction. The purpose of this study is to analyze the normal curvature morphology of volar surface of distal radius and related parameters that can help in designing of the volar plates for fixation of distal radial fractures. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CT scans of uninjured healthy distal radii performed during a one year period (2018-2019). The mediolateral extent of the pronator quadratus line, the mediolateral curve of the pronator quadratus line, the mediolateral surface angle between intermediate column and radial column of distal radius, the curvatures and locations of their vertices for radial and intermediate columns were measured. Results: A total of 84 CT-based studies were analyzed. The mediolateral extent of the pronator quadratus line, the mediolateral curve of the pronator quadratus line, and the mediolateral surface angle between intermediate column and radial column of the distal radius were 24.27 mm, 144.8 degrees and 163.1 degrees, respectively. The mean volar curvatures of the radial and intermediate columns were 156.5 and 151.4 degrees, respectively and distances of their vertices from the pronator-quadratus line were 10.96 mm and 14.13 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Considerable variations occur in curvature morphology of distal radial volar surface. A best fit rather than an anatomical fit can be considered during implant selection owing to these variations. Besides volar curvature of radial and ulnar columns, location of their vertices, mediolateral angulation and surface curvature between these columns at the level of watershed line should also be considered in plate selection. A combination of a few serial increments of the described parameters in the designs of volar fixation plates would be helpful for surgeons in the best implant selection.


Asunto(s)
Placas Óseas , Diseño de Prótesis , Fracturas del Radio/cirugía , Radio (Anatomía)/anatomía & histología , Radio (Anatomía)/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Fijación Interna de Fracturas/instrumentación , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Masculino , Ajuste de Prótesis , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto Joven
19.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616093

RESUMEN

Accurate measurement of skeletal kinematics in vivo is essential for understanding normal joint function, the influence of pathology, disease progression, and the effects of treatments. Measurement systems that use skin surface markers to infer skeletal motion have provided important insight into normal and pathological kinematics, however, accurate arthrokinematics cannot be attained using these systems, especially during dynamic activities. In the past two decades, biplanar videoradiography (BVR) systems have enabled many researchers to directly study the skeletal kinematics of the joints during activities of daily living. To implement BVR systems for the distal upper extremity, videoradiographs of the distal radius and the hand are acquired from two calibrated X-ray sources while a subject performs a designated task. Three-dimensional (3D) rigid-body positions are computed from the videoradiographs via a best-fit registrations of 3D model projections onto to each BVR view. The 3D models are density-based image volumes of the specific bone derived from independently acquired computed-tomography data. Utilizing graphics processor units and high-performance computing systems, this model-based tracking approach is shown to be fast and accurate in evaluating the wrist and distal radioulnar joint biomechanics. In this study, we first summarized the previous studies that have established the submillimeter and subdegree agreement of BVR with an in vitro optical motion capture system in evaluating the wrist and distal radioulnar joint kinematics. Furthermore, we used BVR to compute the center of rotation behavior of the wrist joint, to evaluate the articulation pattern of the components of the implant upon one another, and to assess the dynamic change of ulnar variance during pronosupination of the forearm. In the future, carpal bones may be captured in greater detail with the addition of flat panel X-ray detectors, more X-ray sources (i.e., multiplanar videoradiography), or advanced computer vision algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia/métodos , Radio (Anatomía)/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Grabación de Cinta de Video , Articulación de la Muñeca/diagnóstico por imagen , Muñeca/diagnóstico por imagen , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Algoritmos , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Cadáver , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Radio (Anatomía)/cirugía , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/instrumentación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/normas , Muñeca/cirugía , Articulación de la Muñeca/cirugía
20.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(1): 104-110, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474898

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate A1 pulley thickness of flexor tendon in healthy volunteers and to analyze its influence factors. Methods: The study included 90 healthy volunteers and the A1 pulley thickness at bilateral fingers was measured using high frequency ultrasound. The following parameters were recorded for each participant: age, gender, weight, height, body mass index (BMI). Results: High-frequency ultrasound can clearly show A1 pulley. There was no significant difference in A1 pulley thickness between the bilateral fingers ( P>0.05). A1 pulley thickness was significantly different in different fingers ( P<0.05). Further comparison showed that A1 pulley thickness could be divided into two subsets: thumb and little finger ((0.196±0.051) mm), index, middle and ring fingers ((0.230±0.055) mm). A1 pulley thickness was positively correlated with age ( r=0.468, P<0.001). The normal reference ranges for thumb and little finger were 0.09-0.23 mm, 0.12-0.30 mm and 0.12-0.32 mm, respectively. The normal reference ranges for index, middle and ring fingers were 0.11-0.27 mm, 0.15-0.35 mm and 0.17-0.35 mm in volunteers aged 3-19 yr., 20-49 yr., and ≥50 yr., respectively. Gender and BMI had negligible impact on A1 pulley thickness ( P>0.05). Conclusion: High-frequency ultrasound can clearly show and measure A1 pulley. Site and age should be taken into account when determining the reference range of normal A1 pulley thickness. High-frequency ultrasound can be a quantitative evaluation method for A1 pulley lesions.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Dedo en Gatillo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Dedos/diagnóstico por imagen , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Tendones/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastorno del Dedo en Gatillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía , Adulto Joven
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