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1.
Rev Infirm ; 70(270): 33-34, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832727

RESUMEN

The United Kingdom, like many countries, is strongly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The vaccination campaign was launched last December. Ghislaine Young, a nurse, and Jim Hodgson, a general practitioner, both retired, are offering their services as vaccinators to help fight this epidemic. By the end of Febuary 2021, more than 20 million people had already been vaccinated.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Voluntarios , /epidemiología , /administración & dosificación , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924448

RESUMEN

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, some medical students devoted themselves to volunteer activities, but it was the first time that they had been exposed to such an infectious disease and they might have experienced fear in the face of the epidemic. We aimed to conduct a timely assessment of the psychological burden and experience on medical student volunteers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We used the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales to survey the psychology burden of students in April 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine medical students who signed up for volunteer activities in Chinese from February to April 2020. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results: The detection of depression, anxiety and stress of medical student volunteers were 26.8%, 20.2% and 11.1%, respectively. The volunteer's negative emotions were more pronounced before work and diminished gradually. Most participants expressed no concern about being infected themselves, but worry about family infection. Participant's motivations for volunteering were primarily their duties as medical students and encouragement from their families/teachers. The vast majority of medical students said they would be willing to work as medical assistants again and this experience would not affect their career choice. Conclusions: Chinese medical student volunteers tended to show negative emotions at the beginning of their work, and then gradually declined, while positive emotions emerged. Most medical students were willing to volunteer as medical assistants when their country needed them due to their sense of responsibility as medical students. This study on the psychological and experiential aspects were derived from Chinese medical student volunteers and might have a significant impact on future public health emergencies in similar settings.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Voluntarios
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 253, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863278

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged to use Medical Visit Companions (MVCs) for routine medical encounters; however, many vulnerable older adults attend alone or fail to attend. In the absence of available family or friends, community volunteers could potentially fill this gap. We aimed to understand the role and acceptability of volunteer MVCs accompanying older adults to medical visits and explore potential barriers and facilitators of increasing MVC availability and expanding roles beyond transportation. METHODS: Two moderators conducted 4 focus groups with 29 volunteers grouped by whether they provided (n = 15) or received (n = 14) rides to medical visits. All were members of Partners In Care (PIC), a community organization in Maryland, United States which offers a range of programs and services that support the independence of older adults including the provision of volunteer MVCs. Participants were asked to discuss why they were involved with PIC, and to describe their experiences with providing or receiving companionship during medical visits. Inductive thematic analysis was used to explore the views and experiences of participants, particularly around the roles played by MVCs and the feasibility of expanding these roles. RESULTS: All participants reported benefits from their role whether that was giving or receiving rides. Many accompanied participants reported missing medical appointments prior to joining PIC and being able to avail of the services of a MVC. Volunteer roles varied and ranged from transportation only, help with care coordination and in some cases accompanying the person into their medical visit. A subgroup of volunteers expressed a willingness to take on additional roles during the physician visit following additional training and isolated older adults welcomed the prospect of their assistance. CONCLUSION: Our qualitative data indicate that non-family, volunteer MVCs are willing and able to assist older people going to a medical visit. With appropriate training and support, volunteer companions could do much to improve the healthcare experience for those who otherwise would attend alone or would not attend medical visits.


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Voluntarios , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Maryland , Estados Unidos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809101

RESUMEN

Injury claims associated with minimal damage rear impact traffic crashes are often defended using a "biomechanical approach," in which the occupant forces of the crash are compared to the forces of activities of daily living (ADLs), resulting in the conclusion that the risk of injury from the crash is the same as for ADLs. The purpose of the present investigation is to evaluate the scientific validity of the central operating premise of the biomechanical approach to injury causation; that occupant acceleration is a scientifically valid proxy for injury risk. Data were abstracted, pooled, and compared from three categories of published literature: (1) volunteer rear impact crash testing studies, (2) ADL studies, and (3) observational studies of real-world rear impacts. We compared the occupant accelerations of minimal or no damage (i.e., 3 to 11 kph speed change or "delta V") rear impact crash tests to the accelerations described in 6 of the most commonly reported ADLs in the reviewed studies. As a final step, the injury risk observed in real world crashes was compared to the results of the pooled crash test and ADL analyses, controlling for delta V. The results of the analyses indicated that average peak linear and angular acceleration forces observed at the head during rear impact crash tests were typically at least several times greater than average forces observed during ADLs. In contrast, the injury risk of real-world minimal damage rear impact crashes was estimated to be at least 2000 times greater than for any ADL. The results of our analysis indicate that the principle underlying the biomechanical injury causation approach, that occupant acceleration is a proxy for injury risk, is scientifically invalid. The biomechanical approach to injury causation in minimal damage crashes invariably results in the vast underestimation of the actual risk of such crashes, and should be discontinued as it is a scientifically invalid practice.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Actividades Cotidianas , Aceleración , Cabeza , Humanos , Voluntarios
6.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(1): 1-13, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642318

RESUMEN

Background: Volunteering within the health-care sector is crucial during pandemics. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of clinical medical and dental students in Lagos, Nigeria, about volunteering during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst medical and dental students undergoing clinical postings at the two public universities in Lagos, Nigeria, using total population sampling. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to test for association at the level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 23.3 years ± 2.6 standard deviation and 62.5% were females. The majority (82.9%) of the respondents agreed to volunteer if provided with adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and if adequately trained to do so (79.3%). Although perceived as dangerous, the majority (91.2%) of the respondents considered volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of educational experience. Compared to the final-year students, penultimate year students were more likely to volunteer in the event of a health manpower shortage. The final-year students were more likely to volunteer if government made the request. Female students were more likely than male students to volunteer even if they were not compensated but would require parental approval. Conclusion: Medical and dental students perceived their involvement during the COVID-19 pandemic as a form of educational experience but would require adequate training and PPE. There is a need to train and provide adequate PPE for them to function as volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Adulto , Actitud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias , Percepción , Estudiantes de Odontología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Voluntarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Br Dent J ; 230(5): 271, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712755
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The question to involve or restrict medical students' involvement in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response remains contentious. As their state of preparation and perceptions in volunteering during this pandemic have yet to be investigated, this study aims to evaluate Indonesian medical students' willingness to volunteer and readiness to practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students throughout Indonesia. Socio-demographic and social interaction information, in addition to willingness to volunteer and readiness to practice, were obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Among 4870 participants, 2374 (48.7%) expressed their willingness to volunteer, while only 906 (18.6%) had adequate readiness to practice. Male students, students with prior volunteering experience in health or non-health sectors, and students from public universities or living in Central Indonesia (vs Java) had higher scores of willingness and readiness to volunteer. Students from Sumatra also had better preparedness (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-2.12, p = 0.004), while the opposite occurred for students from Eastern Indonesia (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, p = 0.002)-when compared to students from Java. In addition, compared to students with high family income, students from lower-middle income families were less willing to volunteer (OR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.98, p = 0.034), though those with low family income had better readiness (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.10-2.08, p = 0.011). Shortage of medical personnel, sense of duty, and solicitation by stakeholders were the main reasons increasing the students' willingness to volunteer; whereas contrarily fear for own's health, absence of a cure, and fear of harming patients were the primary factors diminishing their willingness to volunteer. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that many Indonesian medical students are willing to volunteer, yet only few of them were ready to practice, indicating that further preparations are required to maximize their potentials and minimize their exposure to hazards. We suggest that their potentials as a firm support system during the pandemic should not be overlooked, and that the integration of relevant courses to the medical curricula are imperative to prepare for future public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Competencia Clínica , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Motivación , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Voluntarios , Curriculum , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Indonesia , Masculino , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
9.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(1): 21-32, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735432

RESUMEN

Points of distribution, also known as points of dispensing (POD), are a means for public and private organizations to assist their communities in times of crisis. There are two principal categories of PODs, open and closed, but all PODs differ in design, properties, and application. This study investigates two POD variations: drive-through and supervisor, which have their own unique requirements for being stood up, run, and shut down, as well as differing requirements for planning, staffing, and logistics. There are also similarities in the requirements that each POD category share which lead to certain efficiencies in planning for POD standup, execution, and shutdown. The primary findings of this paper are that planners cannot rely on one POD design and its properties to accommodate every situation, and each POD design has its own strengths and weaknesses. These are related to staffing, security, space requirements, and material logistics needs. Flexibility should be exercised when choosing the correct design, and implementing the proper strategy is key to standing up and executing a POD that will best serve a community. Every situation is different and factors such as population, available infrastructure, resource requirements, and individual skill of the POD staff all influence the design of a POD. Planners should consider resources such as available volunteers, trained personnel (medical and security), and buildings or outdoor space available to run a POD. With proper planning, a POD is an excellent tool to effectively and efficiently serve the public.


Asunto(s)
Voluntarios , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
11.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(1): 90-102, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625329

RESUMEN

The Librarian Reserve Corps (LRC) is a volunteer network of medical, health sciences, and public health librarians who have responded to the urgent need for public health information during the early days of the COVID-19 crisis. The LRC was first formed to assist with the indexing of daily publication lists distributed within the World Health Organization's Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN). With the explosion of information related to COVID-19 beginning in December 2019, librarians have brought critical skills and experience to the response, providing comprehensive literature searching and indexing to COVID-19 research publications. The evolution of this effort follows the trajectory of scientific publication trends and developments related to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Indización y Redacción de Resúmenes , Defensa Civil/organización & administración , Bibliotecólogos/psicología , Bibliotecas Digitales/organización & administración , Bibliotecas Médicas/organización & administración , United States Public Health Service/organización & administración , Voluntarios/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Bibliotecas Digitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Bibliotecas Médicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
12.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(2): jrm00153, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Recovery of the quadriceps femoris muscle after anterior ligament reconstruction is im-paired. The aim of this study was to investigate satellite cell content and function of the vastus lateralis muscle after anterior ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 16 recreational athletes immediately before and again 12 weeks after anterior ligament reconstruction. Total satellite cell number (Pax7+), activated (Pax7+/MyoD+), differentiating (Pax7-/MyoD+), and apoptotic (Pax7+/TUNEL+) satellite cells, myofibers expressing myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and II, and neonatal MHC (MHCneo) were determined immunohistochemically. RESULTS: After anterior ligament reconstruction, the number of apoptotic satellite cells was significantly (p = 0.019) increased, concomitant with a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in total satellite cell number, with no change in activated and differentiating satellite cell number. MHCneo+ myofibers tended towards an increase. CONCLUSION: Satellite cell apoptosis and the reduction in the satellite cell pool might provide an explanation for prolonged quadriceps muscle atrophy after anterior ligament reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Músculo Cuádriceps/fisiopatología , Células Satélite del Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Adulto , Apoptosis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular , Voluntarios
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2035799, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523189

RESUMEN

Importance: Female community health volunteers (FCHVs) are frontline community health workers who have been a valuable resource in improving public health outcomes in Nepal, but their value is understudied in diabetes care. Objective: To assess whether an FCHV-delivered intervention is associated with reduced blood glucose levels among adults with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This community-based, open-label, 2-group, cluster randomized clinical trial with a 12-month delayed control group design was conducted in 14 clusters of a semiurban setting in Western Nepal. A total of 244 adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited between November 2016 and April 2017. The follow-up assessment was conducted at 12 months after enrollment. Data analysis was performed from January to February 2019. Interventions: Seven clusters were randomized to the FCHV-delivered intervention in which 20 FCHVs provided home visits 3 times a year (once every 4 months) for health promotion counseling and blood glucose monitoring. If participants had blood glucose levels of 126 mg/dL or higher, the FCHVs referred them to the nearest health facility, and if participants were taking antihyperglycemic medication, they were followed up by the FCHVs for adherence to their medication. Seven clusters were randomized to usual care (control group). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in mean fasting blood glucose from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included changes in mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, mean body mass index, percentage change in the proportion of low physical activity, harmful alcohol consumption, current smoking, low fruit and vegetable intake, and antihyperglycemic medication status. Results: Of 244 participants, 120 women (56.6%) and 92 men (43.4%) completed the trial. At baseline, the mean (SD) age was 51.71 (8.77) years; 127 participants were in the intervention group, and 117 participants were in the control group (usual care). At baseline, the mean (SD) fasting blood glucose level was 156.06 (44.48) mg/dL (158.48 [45.50] mg/dL in the intervention group and 153.43 [43.39] mg/dL in the control group). At 12-month follow-up, the mean fasting blood glucose decreased by 22.86 mg/dL in the intervention group, whereas it increased by 7.38 mg/dL in the control group. The mean reduction was 27.90 mg/dL greater with the intervention (95% CI, -37.62 to -18.18 mg/dL; P < .001). In secondary outcome analyses, there was a greater decline in mean systolic blood pressure in the intervention group than in the control group (-5.40 mm Hg; 95% CI, -8.88 to -1.92 mm Hg; P = .002). There was detectable difference in the intake of antihyperglycemic medication between the groups (relative risk, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.74; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that an FCHV-delivered intervention is associated with reduced blood glucose levels among adults with type 2 diabetes in a low-resource setting in Nepal. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03304158.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Mujeres , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Apoyo Social , Voluntarios , Pérdida de Peso
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 128, 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the disease caused by the novel coronavirus has spread globally, there has been significant economic instability in the healthcare systems. This reality was especially accentuated in Ecuador where, the shortage of healthcare workers combined with cultural and macroeconomic factors has led Ecuador to face the most aggressive outbreak in Latin America. In this context, the participation of final-year medical students on the front line is indispensable. Appropriate training on COVID-19 is an urgent requirement that universities and health systems must guarantee. We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Ecuadorian final-year medical students that could potentially guide the design of better medical education curricula regarding COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional 33-item online survey conducted between April 6 to April 2020 assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis toward COVID-19 in Ecuadorian final-year medical students. It was sent by email, Facebook, and WhatsApp. RESULTS: A total of 309 students responded to the survey. Out of which 88% of students scored high (≥ 70% correct) for knowledge of the disease. The majority of students were pessimistic about possible government actions, which is reflected in the negative attitude towards the control of COVID-19 and volunteering during the outbreak in Ecuador (77%, and 58% of the students, respectively). Moreover, 91% of students said they did not have adequate protective equipment. The latter finding was significantly associated with negative attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Although a large number of students displayed negative attitudes, the non-depreciable percentage of students who were willing to volunteer and the coexisting high level of knowledge displayed by students, suggests that Ecuador has a capable upcoming workforce that could benefit from an opportunity to strengthen, improve and advance their training in preparation for COVID-19. Not having personal protective equipment was significantly associated to negative attitudes. Providing the necessary tools and creating a national curriculum may be one of the most effective ways to ensure all students are trained, whilst simultaneously focusing on the students' most pressing concerns. With this additional training, negative attitudes will improve and students will be better qualified.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , /terapia , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557186

RESUMEN

Humanitarian workers are at an elevated risk of occupational trauma exposure and its associated psychological consequences, and experience increased levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population. Psychological first aid (PFA) aims to prevent acute distress reactions from developing into long-term distress by instilling feelings of safety, calmness, self- and community efficacy, connectedness and hope. Group PFA (GPFA) delivers PFA in a group or team setting. This research sought to understand 'What works, for whom, in what context, and why for group psychological first aid for humanitarian workers, including volunteers?' A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted. Initial theories were generated to answer the question and were subsequently refined based on 15 documents identified through a systematic search of databases and grey literature, in addition to the inputs from a core reference panel and two external experts in GPFA. The findings generated seven programme theories that addressed the research question and offered consideration for the implementation of GPFA for the humanitarian workforce across contexts and age groups. GPFA enables individuals to understand their natural reactions, develop adaptive coping strategies, and build social connections that promote a sense of belonging and security. The integrated design of GPFA ensures that individuals are linked to additional supports and have their basic needs addressed. While the evidence is sparce on GPFA, its ability to provide support to humanitarian workers is promising.


Asunto(s)
Primeros Auxilios , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Voluntarios
17.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 726-731, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Insomnia and affective temperaments influence depressive symptoms in the general population. However, the ways in which the interaction between insomnia and affective temperaments affects depressive symptoms remains unknown. We studied the moderating effects of affective temperaments on the relationship between insomnia and depressive symptoms in adult community volunteers. METHODS: The participants were recruited from a community in Japan (n = 525). The Athens Insomnia Scale; Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire version; and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were used to evaluate insomnia, affective temperaments, and depressive symptoms, respectively. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the interactions. RESULTS: Insomnia significantly and positively interacted with cyclothymic, depressive, and anxious temperaments with regard to depressive symptoms, while insomnia significantly and negatively interacted with hyperthymic temperament on depressive symptoms. No significant interaction between insomnia and irritable temperament with regard to depressive symptoms were observed. LIMITATIONS: Since the participants were adult community volunteers in Japan, the results may not be generalizable to other communities. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the influence of insomnia on depressive symptoms is moderated positively by cyclothymic, depressive, and anxious temperament and negatively by hyperthymic temperament. In adult community volunteers, affective temperaments may moderate the influence that insomnia has on depressive symptoms. Therefore, it may be useful to consider affective temperaments while dealing with depressive symptoms associated with insomnia.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Temperamento , Adulto , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Inventario de Personalidad , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Voluntarios
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570868

RESUMEN

As the world continues to adjust to life with COVID-19, one topic that requires further thought and discussion is whether elective international medical volunteerism can continue, and, if so, what challenges will need to be addressed. During a pandemic, the medical community is attentive to controlling the disease outbreak, and most of the literature regarding physician involvement during a pandemic focuses primarily on physicians traveling to areas of need to help treat the disease. As a result, little has been written about medical volunteerism that focuses on medical treatment unrelated to the disease outbreak. In a world-wide pandemic, many factors are to be considered in determining whether, and when, a physician should travel to another region to provide care and training for medical issues not directly related to the pandemic. Leaders of humanitarian committees of orthopaedic surgery subspecialties engaged with one another and host orthopaedic surgeons and a sponsoring organization to provide thoughtful insight and expert opinion on the challenges faced and possible pathways to provide continued orthopaedic support around the globe. Although this discussion focuses on international orthopaedic care, these suggestions may have a much broader application to the international medical community as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Misiones Médicas , Ortopedia , Sistemas de Socorro , Voluntarios , Humanos , Internacionalidad
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