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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 19(1): 17-33, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599913

RESUMEN

Background: During a period of intensified exercise (e.g. training/identification camps), often undertaken by competitive youth athletes, the maintenance of muscle function and peak performance can become challenging due to an accumulation of fatigue. The provision of post-exercise dairy protein in adults has been previously shown to accelerate recovery; however, its efficacy in youth athletes is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of increased dairy protein consumption with plain Greek yogurt (GY) on performance and recovery indices during an intensified soccer training camp in adolescent female soccer players. Methods: Thirteen players (14.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in a randomized, double blinded, crossover design study where they received 3 servings/day of either GY (~115 kcal, 17 g protein, ~11.5 g carbohydrates) or an isoenergetic carbohydrate control (CHO, ~115 kcal, 0.04 g protein, ~28.6 g carbohydrates) during two 5-day soccer-specific training camps. Performance was assessed before and after each training camp. Fasted, morning, creatine kinase (CK), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were measured in plasma pre- and post-training. Results: Training led to decrements in counter-movement jump (p = 0.01), broad jump (p = 0.04) and aerobic capacity (p = 0.006), with no effect of GY. A significant increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 was observed from pre- to post-training in GY (+26% [p = 0.008]) but not in CHO (p = 0.89). CRP and CK increased (+65% [p = 0.005] and +119% [p ≤ 0.001], respectively), while IGF-1 decreased (-34% [p ≤ 0.001]) from pre- to post-training with no difference between conditions. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that consumption of GY did not offer any added recovery benefit with respect to measures of performance and in the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage above that achieved with energy-matched carbohydrate in this group of young female soccer players. However, regular consumption of GY may assist with the acute anti-inflammatory response during periods of intensified training in adolescent athletes.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Fútbol , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Carbohidratos , Creatina Quinasa , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina , Interleucina-10 , Fútbol/fisiología , Yogur
2.
Food Funct ; 13(10): 5701-5714, 2022 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521810

RESUMEN

Yogurt consumption shows a wide range of effects on the gut microbial composition, and correlation of components in yogurt with the changes of gut microbia remains largely uncharacterized. We aimed to determine the effect of brown yogurt (SSN) on the composition of the gut microbiota and to explore the effects of the major components. We performed a randomized study of 70 healthy adults to compare the effects of SSN and standard probiotic-containing yogurt (YJD) during a 28-day intervention and a 10-day follow-up period. The results showed that the SSN group showed significant increases in the butyrate-producer Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus, and Veillonella (p < 0.05), whereas the YJD group showed increases in the butyrate-producer Megasphaera, Anaerostipes, and Eubacterium. There were reductions in the potential pathogens Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Gemmiger formicilis in both groups (p < 0.05). The SSN group had more Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella copri, Bifidobacterium and B. longum than the YJD group (p < 0.001), but fewer Bacteroides, unspecified Clostridiales and Coprococcus eutactus (p < 0.01). These differences might be at least in part explained by the higher concentrations of monosaccharide, palmitoleic acid, and glutamine synthetase adenyltransferase in the SSN product (p < 0.05), which were positively associated with F. prausnitzii (p ≤ 0.001) and B. longum (p < 0.05), and negatively associated with C. eutactus (p < 0.01). The single strain of starter culture and lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the SSN product were also related to the different changes of gut microbia, and the taxa F. prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium and B. longum were negatively associated with starter culture and PUFA (p < 0.01). These findings suggested that SSN is rich in prebiotic components and might be beneficial for healthy adults. Furthermore, bacterial taxa with potential health benefits could be encouraged through improving the formulation and technology used to produce the dairy products.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Bacteroides , Bifidobacterium , Butiratos , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Yogur/microbiología
3.
Food Funct ; 13(10): 5528-5535, 2022 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522849

RESUMEN

The food industry is constantly attempting to develop better products that will have a positive effect on health. Feiraco® and Clesa®, expressed their intention to create novel products using UNICLA® milk as a matrix to develop functional foods. In this respect, ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) at 1% was able to reduce the cholesterol concentration in Feiraco-UNICLA® milk products by around 87-85%. Products were fortified with omega-3 from fish oil with α- and ß-CD acting as carriers. It was possible to add around 50% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), with a high diet proportion of fibre and similar organoleptic properties to commercial omega-3 products. 80% of a sensory panel found our formulations satisfactory. The final product was stable, and the bioaccessibilty of the fatty acids added to the milk was around 74%. These results as a whole satisfy the aid of Feiraco® and Clesa® to develop improved products.


Asunto(s)
Ciclodextrinas , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Enfermedades Metabólicas , Animales , Ácidos Docosahexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Grasos , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Aceites de Pescado , Humanos , Leche/metabolismo , Yogur
4.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458754

RESUMEN

In recent times, consumers have shown increasing interest in plant substitutes for fermented dairy products. This study aimed to investigate the properties of yogurt-type rice-based beverages fermented with lactic acid bacteria and Propionibacterium. The changes in pH, viable population of bacteria, physical properties, and carbohydrate content of these beverages were tested. Fermentation using only Propionibacterium was insufficient to obtain a product with an acidity level similar to that of milk-based yogurt (pH < 4.5). After fermentation, the tested beverages had a high number of Lactobacillus sp. (7.42-8.23 log10 CFU/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (8.01-8.65 log10 CFU/mL), and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (8.28-8.50 log10 CFU/mL). The hardness (2.90-10.40 N) and adhesiveness (13.79-42.16 mJ) of the samples after 14 days of storage at 6 °C varied depending on the starter culture used. The syneresis of all samples ranged between 29% and 31%, which was lower or close to that of milk-based yogurts. The content of individual sugars in the samples also varied depending on the starter culture used for fermentation. The results suggest that the combination of lactic and propionic fermentation helps in the production of rice-based yogurt-type milk substitutes.


Asunto(s)
Bifidobacterium animalis , Productos Lácteos Cultivados , Lactobacillales , Oryza , Probióticos , Animales , Bebidas , Fermentación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Leche/química , Probióticos/química , Propionibacterium , Yogur/microbiología
5.
J Food Sci ; 87(5): 1943-1960, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362099

RESUMEN

The dairy products sector is an important part of the food industry, and their consumption is expected to grow in the next 10 years. Therefore, the authentication of these products in a faster and precise way is required for the sake of public health. This review proposes the use of near-infrared techniques for the detection of food fraud in dairy products as they are faster, nondestructive, environmentally friendly, do not require sample preparation, and allow multiconstituent analysis. First, we have described frequent forms of food fraud in dairy products and the application of traditional techniques for their detection, highlighting gaps and counterproductive characteristics for the actual global food chain, as longer sample preparation time and use of reagents. Then, the application of near-infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for the detection of food fraud mainly in cheese, butter, and yogurt are described. As these techniques depend on model development, the coverage of different dairy products by the literature will promote the identification of food fraud in a faster and reliable way.


Asunto(s)
Queso , Leche , Animales , Queso/análisis , Productos Lácteos/análisis , Fraude/prevención & control , Leche/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Yogur/análisis
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457579

RESUMEN

We examined whether post-exercise yogurt intake reduced cardiovascular strain during outdoor interval walking training (IWT) in older people during midsummer. The IWT is a training regimen repeating slow and fast walking at ~40% and ≥70% peak aerobic capacity, respectively, for 3 min each per set, ≥5 sets per day, and ≥4 days/wk. We randomly divided 28 male and 75 female older people (~73 yr), who had performed IWT ≥12 months, into a carbohydrate group (CHO-G) consuming jelly (45 g CHO, 180 kcal) and a yogurt group (YGT-G) consuming a yogurt drink (9.3 g protein, 39 g CHO, 192 kcal) immediately after daily IWT for 56 days while monitoring exercise intensity and heart rate (HR) with portable devices. We analyzed the results in 39 subjects for the CHO-G and 37 subjects for the YGT-G who performed IWT ≥ 4 days/wk, ≥60 min total fast walking/wk, and ≥4 sets of each walk/day. We found that the mean HR for fast walking decreased significantly from the baseline after the 30th day in the YGT-G (p < 0.03), but not in the CHO-G (p = 1.00). There were no significant differences in training achievements between the groups. Thus, post-exercise yogurt intake might reduce cardiovascular strain during outdoor walking training in older people.


Asunto(s)
Caminata , Yogur , Anciano , Tolerancia al Ejercicio/fisiología , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Caminata/fisiología
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056110, 2022 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361646

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To alleviate clinical symptoms of diabetic nephropathy (DN), several dietary and non-dietary strategies have been suggested. Probiotic-enriched foods, through their effects on modulating microflora, might help these patients control the adverse effects. The current study will be done to examine the effects of probiotic yoghurt consumption on albumin to creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Sixty patients with DN will be recruited in this study. After block matching for sex, body mass index and age, patients will be randomly assigned to receive 300 g/day probiotic yoghurt containing 106 CFU/g Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis strains or 300 g/day plain yoghurt daily for 8 weeks. Weight, height and waist circumference will be measured at study baseline and after the intervention. Biochemical indicators including glycaemic measures (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS)), inflammatory markers (high sensitivity-C reactive protein), lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) and finally renal makers (creatinine, albumin to creatinine ratio, eGFR) will be assessed at study baseline and at the end of the trial. DISCUSSION: Improving the condition of a person with DN is a serious clinical challenge. The use of probiotic supplements has been considered in these people, but the use of probiotic-enriched foods has received less attention. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) (IRCT20201125049491N1).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Probióticos , Albúminas , Bifidobacterium , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Irán , Probióticos/farmacología , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Yogur
8.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408465

RESUMEN

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce antimicrobial substances that could potentially inhibit the growth of pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus XN2, isolated from yak yoghurt, demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Clostridium butyricum, S. aureus, Listeria innocua CICC 10416, L. monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity was estimated to be 3200 AU/mL after 30 h cultivation. Time-kill kinetics curve showed that the semi-purified cell-free supernatants (CFS) of strain XN2 possessed bactericidal activity. Flow cytometry analysis indicated disruption of the sensitive bacteria membrane by semi-purified CFS, which ultimately caused cell death. Interestingly, sub-lethal concentrations of semi-purified CFS were observed to reduce the production of α-haemolysin and biofilm formation. We further investigated the changes in the transcriptional level of luxS gene, which encodes signal molecule synthase (Al-2) induced by semi-purified CFS from strain XN2. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus XN2 and its bacteriocin showed antagonistic activity at both cellular and quorum sensing (QS) levels. Finally, bacteriocin was further purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), named bacteriocin XN2. The amino acid sequence was Met-Lue-Lys-Lys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala-Tyr-Val.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriocinas , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Animales , Antibacterianos , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus , Yogur
9.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(5): 1404-1421, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393728

RESUMEN

Ethical, environmental and health concerns around dairy products are driving a fast-growing industry for plant-based dairy alternatives, but undesirable flavours and textures in available products are limiting their uptake into the mainstream. The molecular processes initiated during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria in dairy products is well understood, such as proteolysis of caseins into peptides and amino acids, and the utilisation of carbohydrates to form lactic acid and exopolysaccharides. These processes are fundamental to developing the flavour and texture of fermented dairy products like cheese and yoghurt, yet how these processes work in plant-based alternatives is poorly understood. With this knowledge, bespoke fermentative processes could be engineered for specific food qualities in plant-based foods. This review will provide an overview of recent research that reveals how fermentation occurs in plant-based milk, with a focus on how differences in plant proteins and carbohydrate structure affect how they undergo the fermentation process. The practical aspects of how this knowledge has been used to develop plant-based cheeses and yoghurts is also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Queso , Productos Lácteos Cultivados , Lactobacillales , Queso/microbiología , Productos Lácteos , Fermentación , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Yogur/microbiología
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0228021, 2022 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343770

RESUMEN

Lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus thermophilus are known to produce extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in fermented foods that enhance the creaminess and mouthfeel of the product, such as yogurt. Strains producing larger amounts of EPS are highly sought-after, and therefore, robust and accurate quantification methodologies are important. This study found that two commonly used methodologies significantly underestimated the amount of EPS produced as measured using a milk matrix. To this end, a proteolytic step was implemented prior to EPS extraction (Method C). An initial proteolytic step using xanthan gum-spiked milk significantly increased recovery yield to 64%, compared to 27.8% for Method A and 34.3% for Method B. Method C showed no improvement when assessed using a chemically defined medium. Method C was further validated using three strains of S. thermophilus with varying EPS-production capabilities (STLOW, STMID, STHIGH). Overall, Method C demonstrated significant improvements in the EPS extraction yield for all three S. thermophilus strains in fermented milk. On average, Method C improved isolation yield by ∼3- to 6-fold compared with Method A and by ∼2- to 3-fold compared with method B. There were no significant differences between samples when they were grown in a chemically defined medium, highlighting the importance of a proteolytic step specifically for fermented milk samples. In commercial applications, accurate quantification of EPS-production is an important aspect when finding new strains. IMPORTANCE Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by milk-fermenting microorganisms is a highly sought-after trait in improving the perceived thickness, creaminess, and mouthfeel of yogurt. Streptococcus thermophilus are commonly isolated and their EPS production is quantified in the search for higher-producing strains. In this study, we demonstrated that two commonly used methods for isolating EPS from milk samples significantly underestimated the true amount of EPS present. We demonstrated that the addition of a proteolytic step prior to EPS extraction isolated over 2-fold more EPS than identical samples processed using the traditional protocols. We further validated this method in fermented milk samples from three strains of S. thermophilus that included a low-, mid-, and high-EPS producing strain. Again, we showed significant improvements in EPS isolation using a proteolytic step. In the search for new S. thermophilus strains with enhanced EPS production, accurate quantification in an optimal medium is essential.


Asunto(s)
Leche , Streptococcus thermophilus , Animales , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Fermentación , Leche/química , Leche/metabolismo , Leche/microbiología , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Yogur/microbiología
11.
J Food Sci ; 87(4): 1796-1809, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289401

RESUMEN

The viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus when co-encapsulated with fructooligosaccharides in alginate-gelatin microgels, for incorporation into liquid, Greek, and frozen yogurts, during storage and in vitro-simulated digestion was studied. Liquid yogurt provided the highest viability for the encapsulated probiotics during storage, followed by frozen and Greek formulations when compared to free probiotics, highlighting the influence of microencapsulation, yogurt composition, and storage conditions. Addition of up to 20% of probiotic (AG) and symbiotic (AGF) microgels did not cause significant changes in the liquid and frozen yogurts' apparent viscosity (ηap ); however, it decreased ηap for the Greek yogurt, indicating that microgels can alter product acceptability in this case. Both AG and AGF microparticles improved viability of cells face to gastric conditions for liquid and frozen yogurts, delivering cells in the enteric stage. Summarizing, liquid yogurt was the most appropriate for probiotic viability during storage, while frozen yogurt presented better protection along digestibility.


Asunto(s)
Microgeles , Probióticos , Simbióticos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/metabolismo , Viabilidad Microbiana , Yogur
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 206: 148-158, 2022 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227703

RESUMEN

This study evaluated quality attributes and in vivo antioxidant activity of Auricularia cornea var. Li polysaccharide (ACP)-fortified set yogurt during 21 days of storage (4 °C). Set yogurt was manufactured using a commercial yogurt culture, and 3% (w/v) ACP was added. Physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, and water-holding capacity), textural, rheological, microstructural, flavor, and antioxidant properties of set yogurt were investigated. The results showed that the addition of ACP significantly enhanced WHC, viscosity, firmness, and cohesiveness, while inhibiting post-acidification of set yogurt during storage. The yogurt supplemented with ACP showed a larger hysteresis area and higher G' and G″ values, formed a porous, dense, mesh-like structure and exhibited a unique mushroom flavor. Antioxidant results showed that administration of ACP-fortified yogurt significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity in the liver and hippocampus of the mice. ACP-fortified yogurt might alleviate hepatic damage and hippocampal neuroinflammation induced by d-galactose. Additionally, ACP-fortified yogurt downregulated the expression of Keap1 and upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the liver. In conclusion, ACP may be used as an ingredient to produce yogurt with desired properties.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Yogur , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Auricularia , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch , Ratones , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2 , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología
13.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 8, 2022 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236423

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is increasing globally and is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disease, and cardiovascular disease. Vit D deficiency is also associated with increased systemic inflammation. The current study aimed to determine the efficacy of low-fat milk and yogurt fortified with 1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D, on systemic inflammation in abdominal obese participants. METHOD: This multi-center study was conducted using a 2.5-month parallel total-blind randomized clinical trial design. Two hundred and eighty nine subjects were allocated to four groups: low-fat milk fortified by 1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 (200 mL/day). Simple milk (200 mL/day), low-fat yogurt fortified by 1500 IU nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 (150 g/day), and simple yogurt (150 g/day). RESULTS: The results showed that serum levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) were significantly lower before and after the intervention in fortified dairy groups. The results showed that serum levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, and RDW before and after intervention in the fortified dairy groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The values of = neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelets to lymphocyte ratio, and RDW to platelets ratio (RPR) reduced significantly in the fortification group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Fortification with nano-encapsulated vitamin D3 of dairy products may decrease inflammation in individuals with abdominal obesity.


Asunto(s)
Colecalciferol , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Adulto , Animales , Colecalciferol/uso terapéutico , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Inflamación , Leche , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Vitamina D , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Yogur
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1343, 2022 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292630

RESUMEN

Meta-analyses suggest that yogurt consumption reduces type 2 diabetes incidence in humans, but the molecular basis of these observations remains unknown. Here we show that dietary yogurt intake preserves whole-body glucose homeostasis and prevents hepatic insulin resistance and liver steatosis in a dietary mouse model of obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. Fecal microbiota transplantation studies reveal that these effects are partly linked to the gut microbiota. We further show that yogurt intake impacts the hepatic metabolome, notably maintaining the levels of branched chain hydroxy acids (BCHA) which correlate with improved metabolic parameters. These metabolites are generated upon milk fermentation and concentrated in yogurt. Remarkably, diet-induced obesity reduces plasma and tissue BCHA levels, and this is partly prevented by dietary yogurt intake. We further show that BCHA improve insulin action on glucose metabolism in liver and muscle cells, identifying BCHA as cell-autonomous metabolic regulators and potential mediators of yogurt's health effects.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Fermentación , Hidroxiácidos/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Obesos , Yogur
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269670

RESUMEN

Laird's Large tamarillo powder is high in protein (10%) essential amino acids (EAAs), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and polyphenols (0.6% phenolics plus anthocyanins) and fibre 25%. This study aimed to investigate, using a standardized static in vitro digestion model, the stability of amino acids and antioxidant capacity of polyphenols in yoghurt fortified with 5, 10 and 15% tamarillo powder either before (PRE) or after (POS) fermentation. Compared to plain yoghurt, the fruit polyphenols (rutinosides and glycosides) were retained and substantial increases in FEAAs (free essential amino acids), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were observed particularly at the end of intestinal phase of digestion. Together with SDS-PAGE results, peptides and proteins in tamarillo yoghurts were more easily digested and therefore may be better absorbed in the small intestine compared to the control. TPC and antioxidant activity of fortified yoghurts increased significantly after in vitro digestion. Relatively high bioaccessibilty of chlorogenic acid and kaempferol-3-rutinoside in digested PRE samples was observed. The results suggest that the yoghurt matrix might protect some compounds from degradation, increasing bioaccessibility and in the small intestine allow increased absorption and utilization possible. Fortification would deliver intact polyphenols and fibre to the large intestine and improve gut health. Further research of acceptability, shelf life, and then trials for health effects should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Polifenoles , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Esenciales/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestión , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo , Polifenoles/química , Polvos , Yogur/análisis
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 208: 314-323, 2022 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278514

RESUMEN

In order to study the mechanism of high viscosity of Sayram ketteki yoghurt, the growth, acidification properties, in situ exopolysaccharides (EPS) production of Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 in milk medium were investigated. The microstructure of the yoghurt was analyzed. The characteristics of in situ EPS produced by this strain in yoghurt were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) analysis. The amount of in situ EPS produced could be up to 689.47 mg/L. The micrographs of Sayram ketteki yoghurt demonstrated that the in situ EPS secreted by ropy L. helveticus MB2-1 were closely connected with proteins, effectively filling the three-dimensional network structure of casein clusters, thereby resulting in high viscosity of yoghurt. Besides, the molecular weight of in situ EPS was 9.34 × 104 Da, and the in situ EPS was determined to be a new heteropolysaccharide, containing fucose, which made it unique. Moreover, the set yoghurts added with in situ EPS were demonstrated fine effects on the texture improvement. These results illustrated that L. helveticus MB2-1 could be set as a good starter and the in situ EPS could be considered as a probiotic stabilizer substitute for fermented dairy products.


Asunto(s)
Productos Lácteos Cultivados , Lactobacillus helveticus , Fermentación , Lactobacillus helveticus/química , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Yogur
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(5): 3758-3769, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248379

RESUMEN

Monk fruit extract (MFE) is widely used as a sweetener in foods. In this study, the effects of the consumption of MFE-sweetened synbiotic yogurt on the lipid biomarkers and metabolism in the livers of type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The results revealed that the MFE-sweetened symbiotic yogurt affected the phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerol, lysophosphatidic acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylglycerols, lysophosphatidylinositols, lysophosphatidylserines, and fatty acid-hydroxy fatty acids biomarkers in the livers of type 2 diabetic rats. In addition, the consumption of the MFE-sweetened synbiotic yogurt significantly altered 12 hepatic metabolites, which are involved in phenylalanine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, bile secretion, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism in the liver. Furthermore, a multiomics (metabolomic and transcriptomic) association study revealed that there was a significant correlation between the MFE-sweetened synbiotic yogurt and the metabolites and genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, bile secretion, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. The findings of this study will provide new insights on exploring the function of sweeteners for improving type 2 diabetes mellitus liver lipid biomarkers.


Asunto(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Simbióticos , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Glioxilatos/metabolismo , Glioxilatos/farmacología , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Lípidos/farmacología , Hígado/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas , Enfermedades de los Roedores/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/análisis , Yogur/análisis
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271145

RESUMEN

This study focuses on the use of thermodynamic sensors (TDS) in baking, brewing, and yogurt production at home. Using thermodynamic sensors, a change in the temperature flow between the two sensor elements during fermentation was observed for the final mixture (complete recipe for pizza dough production), showing the possibility of distinguishing some phases of the fermentation process. Even during the fermentation process in the preparation of wort and yogurt with non-traditional additives, the sensors were able to indicate significant parts of the process, including the end of the process. The research article also mentions as a new idea the use of trivial regulation at home in food production to determine the course of the fermentation process. The results presented in this article show the possibility of using TDS for more accurate characterization and adjustment of the production process of selected foods in the basic phase, which will be further applicable in the food industry, with the potential to reduce the cost of food production processes that involve a fermentation process.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos , Yogur , Fermentación , Temperatura , Termodinámica
19.
Anal Sci ; 38(1): 191-197, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287222

RESUMEN

We developed a simple and rapid method based on the combination of image analysis and k-means clustering to selectively enumerate cocci and bacilli from among lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercially prepared yogurt. We used our previously reported method for recovering only LAB without non-microbial substances from commercial yogurt, and found that the shape and light intensity of LAB cell images taken by optical microscopy were factors that could distinguish cocci and bacilli, allowing the selective enumeration of LAB. Also, k-means clustering was executed on a dataset of the mean light intensity and aspect ratio of each LAB obtained by image analysis, and each LAB in the image could be automatically assigned to either the cocci or bacilli group. The results obtained by this automated method were in good agreement with those obtained by manually counting the LAB under a microscope, with an overall error within 10%. In addition, this method could provide results within a few hours, which is approximately 1/32 of the time required for the conventional colony-counting method.


Asunto(s)
Lactobacillales , Bacterias , Análisis por Conglomerados , Yogur/microbiología
20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 22(1): 102, 2022 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255811

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, it is necessary to find an easy and cost-effective method in its management and treatment. Probiotics are a group of living microorganisms that might affect NAFLD through the intestinal-liver axis. The present clinical trial aims to examine the effect of probiotic yogurt consumption on liver enzymes, steatosis and liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with NAFLD will be recruited in this study. After block matching for sex, BMI and age, patients will be randomly assigned to receive 300 g/d probiotic yogurt containing 106 cfu/g of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis strains or 300 g/d plain yogurt daily for 12 weeks and those in the control group would receive similar amounts of plain yogurts. Weight, height, and waist circumference will be measured at study baseline and after the intervention. Biochemical indicators including plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, liver markers (ALT, AST and GGT) will be examined at study baseline and at the end of the trial. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity will be determined using the HOMA-IR and QUICKI equation. The degree of steatosis and hepatic fibrosis will also be assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention by the same gastroenterologist using elastography with fibroscan. DISCUSSION: Probiotics have been suggested as a new strategy in the management of NAFLD. Their effects might be mediated through intestinal microbiota modification and production of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of probiotic-enriched foods, rather than their supplements, might be a cost-effective method for long-term use in these patients. In case of finding the beneficial effects of probiotic yogurt consumption in the current clinical trial, its inclusion in the dietary plan of NAFLD patients can be recommended. Trial registration This clinical trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ( www.irct.ir ) at 2021-04-19 with code number of IRCT20210201050210N1.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Probióticos , Humanos , Irán , Cirrosis Hepática , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Yogur/microbiología
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