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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249398, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793657

RESUMEN

The advent of Covid-19 pandemic adversely affected many programs worldwide, public health, including programming for obstetric fistula were not spared. Obstetric fistula is an abnormal connection between the vagina and the bladder or the rectum resulting from obstetric causes, mainly prolonged obstructed labour. Zimbabwe has two obstetric fistula repair centers. Because the program uses specialist surgeons from outside the country, the repairs are organized in quarterly camps with a target to repair 90 women per quarter. This study aimed at assessing the impact of restrictions on movement and gathering of people brought about by the Cocid-19 pandemic and to characterize participants of the camp which was held in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic at Mashoko Hospital. Specifically it looked at how Covid-19 pandemic affected programming for obstetric fistula repair and characterized participants of the fistula camp held in November to December 2020 at one of the repair centers. A review of the dataset and surgical log sheets for the camp and national obstetric fistula dataset was conducted. Variables of interest were extracted onto an excel spreadsheet and analyzed for frequencies and proportions. Data were presented in charts, tables and narratives. The study noted that Covid-19 pandemic negatively affected performance of fistula repairs greatly with only 25 women repaired in 2020 as compared to 313 in 2019. Ninety women were called to come for repairs but 52 did not manage to attend due to reasons related to the restriction of the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. Two thirds of those women suffered from urinary incontinence while the other third had fecal incontinence. The successful repair rate was 92%. This study concluded that the pandemic greatly affected programming of fistula repair in the country and recommended the Ministry of Health and Child Care to institute measures to resume programming as soon as the situation allows.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Programas de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto/epidemiología , Fístula Vesicovaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fístula Vesicovaginal/epidemiología , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirugía , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 131, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912301

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to healthcare for women, including disruption of cervical cancer screening services. Zimbabwe is a high cervical cancer burden country, with the cancer being the leading malignancy among women. The disruptions in screening could have long-term negative impacts on cervical cancer burden reduction in Zimbabwe. Factors related to institutions, policy, clients and healthcare workers have contributed to the decline in screening and need to be addressed urgently to restore this essential service.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Zimbabwe
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 342-345, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705366

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization and national guidelines recommend HIV testing and counseling at tuberculosis (TB) clinics for all patients, regardless of TB diagnosis (1). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) survey data for 2015-2016 in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed to assess HIV screening at TB clinics among persons who had positive HIV test results in the survey. The analysis was stratified by history of TB diagnosis* (presumptive versus confirmed†), awareness§ of HIV-positive status, antiretroviral therapy (ART)¶ status, and viral load suppression among HIV-positive adults, by history of TB clinic visit. The percentage of adults who reported having ever visited a TB clinic ranged from 4.7% to 9.7%. Among all TB clinic attendees, the percentage who reported that they had received HIV testing during a TB clinic visit ranged from 48.0% to 62.1% across the three countries. Among adults who received a positive HIV test result during PHIA and who did not receive a test for HIV at a previous TB clinic visit, 29.4% (Malawi), 21.9% (Zambia), and 16.2% (Zimbabwe) reported that they did not know their HIV status at the time of the TB clinic visit. These findings represent missed opportunities for HIV screening and linkage to HIV care. In all three countries, viral load suppression rates were significantly higher among those who reported ever visiting a TB clinic than among those who had not (p<0.001). National programs could strengthen HIV screening at TB clinics and leverage them as entry points into the HIV diagnosis and treatment cascade (i.e., testing, initiation of treatment, and viral load suppression).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Instituciones de Salud , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009254, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In order to protect health workers from SARS-CoV-2, there is need to characterise the different types of patient facing health workers. Our first aim was to determine both the infection status and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers. Our second aim was to evaluate the occupational and demographic predictors of seropositivity to inform the country's infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We invited 713 staff members at 24 out of 35 health facilities in the City of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. Compliance to testing was defined as the willingness to uptake COVID-19 testing by answering a questionnaire and providing samples for both antibody testing and PCR testing. SARS-COV-2 antibodies were detected using a rapid diagnostic test kit and SAR-COV-2 infection was determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Of the 713 participants, 635(89%) consented to answering the questionnaire and providing blood sample for antibody testing while 560 (78.5%) agreed to provide nasopharyngeal swabs for the PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing. Of the 635 people (aged 18-73) providing a blood sample 39.1% reported a history of past COVID-19 symptoms while 14.2% reported having current symptoms of COVID-19. The most-prevalent co-morbidity among this group was hypertension (22.0%) followed by asthma (7.0%) and diabetes (6.0%). The SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was 8.9%. Of the 560 participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2 participants (0.36%) were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. None of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive people were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: In addition to clinical staff, several patient-facing health workers were characterised within Zimbabwe's health system and the seroprevalence data indicated that previous exposure to SAR-CoV-2 had occurred across the full spectrum of patient-facing staff with nurses and nurse aides having the highest seroprevalence. Our results highlight the need for including the various health workers in IPC strategies in health centres to ensure effective biosecurity and biosafety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 28, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777296

RESUMEN

Despite numerous public health interventions introduced by the Zimbabwean government, the COVID-19 burden continues to grow. The number of confirmed cases increased from less than 600 to over 6000 in a period of two months, and the fatalities now exceed 150. The source of infection has significantly changed from imported cases to community transmission. The greatest burden of COVID-19 is in the country's two biggest provinces, Harare and Bulawayo, and differentiated approaches are urgently required to curb further transmissions whilst allowing other aspects of the population's livelihood to continue. We discuss some of the pitfalls and challenges for COVID-19 control, and the possible drivers of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission in the country. An urgent multi-sectoral intersection to effectively deal with these caveats is required, and political commitment to deal with the crisis remains an indispensable variable.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Pública , /prevención & control , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Política , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 85-91, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551502

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate community and health-care workers' perspectives on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and on early pandemic responses during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown in Zimbabwe. Methods: Rapid qualitative research was carried out between March and April 2020 via phone interviews with one representative from each of four community-based organizations and 16 health-care workers involved in a trial of community-based services for young people. In addition, information on COVID-19 was collected from social media platforms, news outlets and government announcements. Data were analysed thematically. Findings: Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications. Conclusion: It is important that prevention measures against COVID-19 are appropriate for the local context. In Zimbabwe, communities require support with basic needs and access to reliable information to enable them to follow prevention measures. In addition, health-care workers urgently need personal protective equipment and adequate salaries. Essential health-care services and medications for conditions other than COVID-19 must also continue to be provided to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Personal de Salud , Acceso a la Información , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa , Salarios y Beneficios , Zimbabwe
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145839, 2021 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631580

RESUMEN

Exposure to household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP) is associated with stroke. However, few studies have assessed stroke burden attributable to HAP globally and made comparisons across countries. We aimed to estimate the spatiotemporal trends in stroke burden and mortality attributable to household air pollution from solid fuels (HAP) in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Data on stroke burden and mortality attributable to HAP from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We estimated the numbers and age-standardized rates (ASRs) of stroke disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and mortality (ASDR and ASMR) by sex, age, and subtype, at global, regional, and national levels. Estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated to evaluate the temporal trends in ASDR and ASMR from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, globally, 14.7 million DALYs and 0.6 million deaths were caused by stroke attributable to HAP. The corresponding ASDR and ASMR increased with age, were highest in males and for intracerebral hemorrhage, with highest ASRs in the low sociodemographic index (SDI) regions and Solomon Islands, and varied greatly at the national level. From 1990 to 2019, the corresponding EAPCs in ASDR and ASMR were -4.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.21 to -3.80) and -4.12 (95% CI: -4.37 to -3.87), respectively. Stroke burden attributable to HAP decreased in all age groups. Females had a lower decreasing trend in ASDR and ASMR, compared with males. The decline was more significant for subarachnoid hemorrhage, while proportions of ischemic stroke in the numbers of stroke burden increased worldwide and in all SDI regions. Although most of countries and territories were in a decreasing trend in ASRs over the past three decades, Zimbabwe and Philippines showed an undesirable increased trend. Stroke burden attributable to HAP is still pronounced in males, old-age populations, low-income countries, and for intracerebral hemorrhage. Despite its decreasing spatiotemporal trends in most countries, continued efforts on HAP control are needed to reduce related stroke burden, especially in those countries with increased trends.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Femenino , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia , Filipinas , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Zimbabwe
8.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e87-e95, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Two phase 3 clinical trials showed that use of a monthly vaginal ring containing 25 mg dapivirine was well tolerated and reduced HIV-1 incidence in women by approximately 30% compared with placebo. We aimed to evaluate use and safety of the dapivirine vaginal ring (DVR) in open-label settings with high background rates of HIV-1 infection, an important step for future implementation. METHODS: We did a phase 3B open-label extension trial of the DVR (MTN-025/HIV Open-label Prevention Extension [HOPE]). Women who were HIV-1-negative and had participated in the MTN-020/ASPIRE phase 3 trial were offered 12 months of access to the DVR at 14 clinical research centres in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. At each visit (monthly for 3 months, then once every 3 months), women chose whether or not to accept the offer of the ring. Used, returned rings were tested for residual amounts of dapivirine as a surrogate marker for adherence. HIV-1 serological testing was done at each visit. Dapivirine amounts in returned rings and HIV-1 incidence were compared with data from the ASPIRE trial, and safety was assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02858037. FINDINGS: Between July 16, 2016, and Oct 10, 2018, of 1756 women assessed for eligibility, 1456 were enrolled and participated in the study. Median age was 31 years (IQR 27-37). At baseline, 1342 (92·2%) women chose to take the DVR; ring acceptance was more than 79% at each visit up until 12 months and 936 (73·2%) of 1279 chose to take the ring at all visits. 12 530 (89·3%) of 14 034 returned rings had residual dapivirine amounts consistent with some use during the previous month (>0·9 mg released) and the mean dapivirine amount released was greater than in the ASPIRE trial (by 0·21 mg; p<0·0001). HIV-1 incidence was 2·7 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1·9-3·8, 35 infections), compared with an expected incidence of 4·4 per 100 person-years (3·2-5·8) among a population matched on age, site, and presence of a sexually transmitted infection from the placebo group of ASPIRE. No serious adverse events or grade 3 or higher adverse events observed were assessed as related to the DVR. INTERPRETATION: High uptake and persistent use in this open-label extension study support the DVR as an HIV-1 prevention option for women. With an increasing number of HIV-1 prophylaxis choices on the horizon, these results suggest that the DVR will be an acceptable and practical option for women in Africa. FUNDING: The Microbicide Trials Network and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Institute of Mental Health, all components of the US National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos Femeninos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Pirimidinas/uso terapéutico , Tenofovir/uso terapéutico , Administración Intravaginal , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/inmunología , Humanos , Malaui , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad del Paciente , Seroconversión , Sudáfrica , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uganda , Zimbabwe
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) is common among children living with HIV (CLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the pathogenesis of CLD and its possible association with microbial determinants remain poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) among CLWH (established on ART) who had CLD (CLD+), or not (CLD-) in Zimbabwe and Malawi. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and sputa were collected from CLD+ CLWH (defined as forced-expiratory volume per second z-score < - 1 without reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol), at enrolment as part of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin (BREATHE trial - NCT02426112 ), and from age- and sex-matched CLD- CLWH. Samples were cultured, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using disk diffusion. Risk factors for bacterial carriage were identified using questionnaires and analysed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants (336 CLD+, 74 CLD-) were enrolled (median age, 15 years [IQR = 13-18]). SP and MC carriage in NP were higher in CLD+ than in CLD- children: 46% (154/336) vs. 26% (19/74), p = 0.008; and 14% (49/336) vs. 3% (2/74), p = 0.012, respectively. SP isolates from the NP of CLD+ children were more likely to be non-susceptible to penicillin than those from CLD- children (36% [53/144] vs 11% [2/18], p = 0.036). Methicillin-resistant SA was uncommon [4% (7/195)]. In multivariate analysis, key factors associated with NP bacterial carriage included having CLD (SP: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2 [95% CI 1.1-3.9]), younger age (SP: aOR 3.2 [1.8-5.8]), viral load suppression (SP: aOR 0.6 [0.4-1.0], SA: 0.5 [0.3-0.9]), stunting (SP: aOR 1.6 [1.1-2.6]) and male sex (SA: aOR 1.7 [1.0-2.9]). Sputum bacterial carriage was similar in both groups (50%) and was associated with Zimbabwean site (SP: aOR 3.1 [1.4-7.3], SA: 2.1 [1.1-4.2]), being on ART for a longer period (SP: aOR 0.3 [0.1-0.8]), and hot compared to rainy season (SP: aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.4]). CONCLUSIONS: CLD+ CLWH were more likely to be colonised by MC and SP, including penicillin-non-susceptible SP strains, than CLD- CLWH. The role of these bacteria in CLD pathogenesis, including the risk of acute exacerbations, should be further studied.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/microbiología , Adolescente , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and well-tolerated in adults and is rapidly being adopted globally. We describe the design of the ODYSSEY trial which evaluates the efficacy and safety of DTG-based ART compared with standard-of-care in children and adolescents. The ODYSSEY trial includes nested pharmacokinetic (PK) sub-studies which evaluated pragmatic World Health Organization (WHO) weight-band-based DTG dosing and opened recruitment to children < 14 kg while dosing was in development. METHODS: ODYSSEY (Once-daily DTG based ART in Young people vS. Standard thErapY) is an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, basket trial comparing the efficacy and safety of DTG + 2 nucleos(t) ides (NRTIs) versus standard-of-care (SOC) in HIV-infected children < 18 years starting first-line ART (ODYSSEY A) or switching to second-line ART (ODYSSEY B). The primary endpoint is clinical or virological failure by 96 weeks. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and June 2018, 707 children weighing ≥14 kg were enrolled; including 311 ART-naïve children and 396 children starting second-line. 47% of children were enrolled in Uganda, 21% Zimbabwe, 20% South Africa, 9% Thailand, 4% Europe. 362 (51%) participants were male; median age [range] at enrolment was 12.2 years [2.9-18.0]. 82 (12%) children weighed 14 to < 20 kg, 135 (19%) 20 to < 25 kg, 206 (29%) 25 to < 35 kg, 284 (40%) ≥35 kg. 128 (18%) had WHO stage 3 and 60 (8%) WHO stage 4 disease. Challenges encountered include: (i) running the trial across high- to low-income countries with differing frequencies of standard-of-care viral load monitoring; (ii) evaluating pragmatic DTG dosing in PK sub-studies alongside FDA- and EMA-approved dosing and subsequently transitioning participants to new recommended doses; (iii) delays in dosing information for children weighing 3 to < 14 kg and rapid recruitment of ART-naïve older/heavier children, which led to capping recruitment of participants weighing ≥35 kg in ODYSSEY A and extending recruitment (above 700) to allow for ≥60 additional children weighing between 3 to < 14 kg with associated PK; (iv) a safety alert associated with DTG use during pregnancy, which required a review of the safety plan for adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: By employing a basket design, to include ART-naïve and -experienced children, and nested PK sub-studies, the ODYSSEY trial efficiently evaluates multiple scientific questions regarding dosing and effectiveness of DTG-based ART in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT, NCT02259127 , registered 7th October 2014; EUDRACT, 2014-002632-14, registered 18th June 2014 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2014-002632-14/ES ); ISRCTN, ISRCTN91737921 , registered 4th October 2014.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-1/genética , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/administración & dosificación , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/efectos adversos , Oxazinas/administración & dosificación , Oxazinas/efectos adversos , Piperazinas/administración & dosificación , Piperazinas/efectos adversos , Piridonas/administración & dosificación , Piridonas/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Viral/genética , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tailandia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uganda/epidemiología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
11.
AIDS Behav ; 25(6): 1890-1900, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389318

RESUMEN

The dapivirine vaginal ring has been well-tolerated and shown to prevent HIV in clinical trials. The ring is female initiated, yet endorsement for use is sought from male partners in many relationships. In clinical studies, participants have expressed worries about men detecting rings during vaginal sex, which introduces concerns about product use disclosure, sexual pleasure, penile harm, inter-partner dynamics, and ring removals. This study reports African men's firsthand sexual experiences with the ring. Qualitative data were captured through 11 focus group discussions and one in-depth interview with 54 male partners of ring-users at six research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Following a semi-structured guide, and using demonstration rings, vulva and penis models, men were asked to discuss the ring's impact on sex and views on male engagement and ring use. Interviews were facilitated by local male social scientists, audio-recorded, translated into English, and analyzed thematically. 22 (41%) of the male partners reported feeling the ring during sex, often attributed to perceived incorrect insertion. Many men described the ring as "scratching" the tip of their penises, and sensations of "prodding" something that "blocked" the vagina and prohibited "full entry". In most cases, feelings dissipated with time or when sexual fluids increased. Less common descriptions included perceiving the vaginal texture, wetness and size as different, which increased pleasure for some, and decreased for others. Over half (59%) never noticed the ring; some attempting and failing to feel it during intercourse. A majority of men reported that the ring did not lead to changes in sexual positions, feelings, frequency or experience of sex, although some were initially afraid that the ring was a "magic snake" or "potion". Male partners expressed strong opinions that ring use was a shared prevention responsibility that men should be engaged in, especially for maintaining trust and open communication in relationships. The ring was noticed by many male partners, particularly during women's initial stages of ring use, although this led to few sexual problems or changes. Nevertheless, results suggest that risk of ring discovery should be discussed with women to mitigate any potential negative reactions or social harm. Strategies to increase male partner engagement will enhance support of this prevention method for women.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos Femeninos , Infecciones por VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pirimidinas , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Sudáfrica , Uganda , Zimbabwe
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 665-674, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children discharged from hospital following management of complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a high risk of mortality, especially HIV-positive children. Few studies have examined mortality in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to ascertain 52-wk mortality in children discharged from hospital for management of complicated SAM, and to identify independent predictors of mortality. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in children enrolled from 3 hospitals in Zambia and Zimbabwe between July 2016 and March 2018. The primary outcome was mortality at 52 wk. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for death, and to investigate whether HIV modifies these associations. RESULTS: Of 745 children, median age at enrolment was 17.4 mo (IQR: 12.8, 22.1 mo), 21.7% were HIV-positive, and 64.4% had edema. Seventy children (9.4%; 95% CI: 7.4, 11.7%) died and 26 exited during hospitalization; 649 were followed postdischarge. At discharge, 43.9% had ongoing SAM and only 50.8% of HIV-positive children were receiving ART. Vital status was ascertained for 604 (93.1%), of whom 55 (9.1%; 95% CI: 6.9, 11.7%) died at median 16.6 wk (IQR: 9.4, 21.9 wk). Overall, 20.0% (95% CI: 13.5, 27.9%) and 5.6% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.9%) of HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, respectively, died [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 3.83; 95% CI: 2.15, 6.82]. Additional independent risk factors for mortality were ongoing SAM (aHR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.25), cerebral palsy (aHR: 5.60; 95% CI: 2.72, 11.50) and nonedematous SAM (aHR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.01), with no evidence of interaction with HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive children have an almost 4-fold higher mortality than HIV-negative children in the year following hospitalization for complicated SAM. A better understanding of causes of death, an improved continuum of care for HIV and SAM, and targeted interventions to improve convalescence are needed.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores , Alta del Paciente , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/mortalidad , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Zambia/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e21244, 2021 01 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones may help young people (YP) access health information and support health service engagement. However, in low-income settings there is limited knowledge on YP's phone and internet access to inform the feasibility of implementing digital health interventions. OBJECTIVE: We investigated access to information and communication technologies among adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted from October to December 2018 among YP aged 13-24 years in 5 communities in urban and peri-urban Harare and Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe. Consenting YP completed a self-completed tablet-based questionnaire on mobile phone ownership and use, and use of the internet. The primary outcome was the proportion who reported owning a mobile phone. Secondary outcomes included phone and internet access and use behavior, and ownership and use of other technological devices. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with mobile phone ownership and with internet access, with adjustment for the one-stage cluster sampling design. A priori exploratory variables were age, sex, marital status, and urban/peri-urban residence. RESULTS: A total of 634/719 (88.2%) eligible YP, mean age 18.0 years (SD 3.3) and 62.6% (397/634) females, participated. Of the YP interviewed, 62.6% (396/633; 95% CI 58.5-66.5) reported owning a phone and a further 4.3% (27/633) reported having access to a shared phone. Phone ownership increased with age: 27.0% (43/159) of 13-15-year olds, 61.0% (72/118) of 16-17-year olds, 71.5% (103/144) of 18-19-year olds, and 84.7% (171/202) of 20-24-year olds (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.5) per year increase. Ownership was similar among females and males: 61.0% (236/387; 95% CI 55.6-66.1) versus 64.8% (153/236; 95% CI 57.8-71.2), age-adjusted OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-1.1); higher in those with secondary level education compared to primary or no education: 67.1% (346/516; 95% CI 62.6-71.2) versus 26% (21/82; 95% CI 16.4-37.7), age-adjusted OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1-4.8); and similar across other sociodemographic factors. YP reported that 85.3% (361/423) of phones, either owned or shared, were smartphones. Among phone owners, the most commonly used phone app was WhatsApp (71.2%, 282/396), and 16.4% (65/396) reported having ever used their phone to track their health. A total of 407/631 (64.5%; 95% CI 60.3-68.5) currently had access to the internet (used in last 3 months on any device) with access increasing with age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3 per year increase). In age-adjusted analysis, internet access was higher among males, the unmarried, those with a higher level of education, phone owners, and those who had lived in the community for more than 1 year. The aspect of the internet that YP most disliked was unwanted sexual (29.2%, 136/465) and violent (13.1%, 61/465) content. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile phone-based interventions may be feasible in this population; however, such interventions could increase inequity, especially if they require access to the internet. Internet-based interventions should consider potential risks for participants and incorporate skill-building sessions on safe internet and phone use.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiedad , Teléfono Inteligente , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245085, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444325

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Maintaining virologic suppression of children and adolescents on ART in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa is challenging. We explored switching drug regimens to protease inhibitor (PI) based treatment and reducing nevirapine and zidovudine use in a differentiated community service delivery model in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS: From 2016 through 2018, we followed 306 children and adolescents on ART in Hurungwe, Zimbabwe at Chidamoyo Christian Hospital, which provides compact ART regimens at 8 dispersed rural community outreach sites. Viral load testing was performed (2016) by Roche and at follow-up (2018) by a point of care viral load assay. Virologic failure was defined as viral load ≥1,000 copies/ml. A logistic regression model which included demographics, treatment regimens and caregiver's characteristics was used to assess risks for virologic failure and loss to follow-up (LTFU). RESULTS: At baseline in 2016, 296 of 306 children and adolescents (97%) were on first-line ART, and only 10 were receiving a PI-based regimen. The median age was 12 years (IQR 8-15) and 55% were female. Two hundred and nine (68%) had viral load suppression (<1,000 copies/ml) and 97(32%) were unsuppressed (viral load ≥1000). At follow-up in 2018, 42/306 (14%) were either transferred 23 (7%) or LTFU 17 (6%) and 2 had died. In 2018, of the 264 retained in care, 107/264 (41%), had been switched to second-line, ritonavir-boosted PI with abacavir as a new nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Overall viral load suppression increased from 68% in 2016 to 81% in 2018 (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Viral load testing, and switching to second-line, ritonavir-boosted PI with abacavir significantly increased virologic suppression among HIV-infected children and adolescents in rural Zimbabwe.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/metabolismo , Población Rural , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Zimbabwe
15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 122-132, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417838

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youth is high in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the uptake of testing for and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) infections among youth in community-based settings in Zimbabwe, and explored the facilitators and barriers to testing. METHODS: This study was nested within a cluster randomised trial of community-based delivery of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for youth aged 16-24 years. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing via urine samples using the Xpert CT/NG test was offered in the four intervention clusters in Harare, Zimbabwe. Factors associated with testing uptake were investigated in a subset of participants (n=257) using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. In-depth interviews with a separate purposively selected sample (n=26) explored facilitators and barriers to STI testing and partner notification and were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020, there were 6200 attendances by 4440 participants (78·2% women, 21·8% men) median age 20·3 (IQR 17·9-22·8) years. 1478 participants had 1501 tests done, and 248 tests were positive and 1253 tests were negative for chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both. STI test uptake was 33·3% (95% CI 31·9-34·7), increasing from 11·7% in June, 2019, to 37·1% in January, 2020. The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was 16·5% (95% CI 14·7-18·5; 248 of 1501), with only seven participants (3%) showing symptoms. The overall yield of testing was 4·0% (95% CI 3·5-4·5; 248 of 6200). Uptake was associated with having symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 14·8, 95% CI 1·66-132·07) and negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·13-0·84) or having a boyfriend or girlfriend (adjusted OR 0·19, 95% CI 0·087-0·43) compared with being married, and being a student compared with being employed (adjusted OR 0·26, 95% CI 0·10-0·68). Perceived risk and symptoms of STIs were motivators for testing whereas misinformation, anticipated stigma, and concern about confidentiality were barriers. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was high among youth but only a minority were symptomatic. Therefore most infections would remain untreated without access to STI testing. Provision of education, counselling, and confidentiality are essential to improve uptake and acceptability of STI testing. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
16.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 4, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397321

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coverage of palliative care in low and middle-income countries is very limited, and global projections suggest large increases in need. Novel approaches are needed to achieve the palliative care goals of Universal Health Coverage. This study aimed to identify stakeholders' data and information needs and the role of digital technologies to improve access to and delivery of palliative care for people with advanced cancer in Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a multi-country cross-sectional qualitative study in sub-Saharan Africa. In-depth qualitative stakeholder interviews were conducted with N = 195 participants across Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe (advanced cancer patients n = 62, informal caregivers n = 48, health care professionals n = 59, policymakers n = 26). Verbatim transcripts were subjected to deductive and inductive framework analysis to identify stakeholders needs and their preferences for digital technology in supporting the capture, transfer and use of patient-level data to improve delivery of palliative care. RESULTS: Our coding framework identified four main themes: i) acceptability of digital technology; ii) current context of technology use; iii) current vision for digital technology to support health and palliative care, and; iv) digital technologies for the generation, reporting and receipt of data. Digital heath is an acceptable approach, stakeholders support the use of secure data systems, and patients welcome improved communication with providers. There are varying preferences for how and when digital technologies should be utilised as part of palliative cancer care provision, including for increasing timely patient access to trained palliative care providers and the triaging of contact from patients. CONCLUSION: We identified design and practical challenges to optimise potential for success in developing digital health approaches to improve access to and enhance the delivery of palliative cancer care in Nigeria, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Synthesis of findings identified 15 requirements to guide the development of digital health approaches that can support the attainment of global health palliative care policy goals.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo , Tecnología Biomédica , Cuidadores , Personal de Salud , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Investigación Cualitativa , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Uganda , Zimbabwe
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 125, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalacticae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of serious infections among neonates. This study was carried out to identify antibiotic resistance and virulence genes associated with GBS isolated from pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 43 GBS isolates were obtained from 420 vaginal samples collected from HIV positive and negative women who were 13-35 weeks pregnant attending Antenatal Care at Chitungwiza and Harare Central Hospitals in Zimbabwe. Identification tests of GBS isolates was done using standard bacteriological methods and molecular identification testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer method and E-test strips. The boiling method was used to extract DNA and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to screen for 13 genes. Data was fed into SPSS 24.0. RESULTS: Nine distinct virulence gene profiles were identified and hly-scpB-bca-rib 37.2% (16/43) was common. The virulence genes identified were namely hly 97.8% (42/43), scpB 90.1% (39/43), bca 86.0% (37/43), rib 69.8% (30/43) and bac 11.6% (5/43). High resistance to tetracycline 97.7% (42/43) was reported followed by 72.1% (31/43) cefazolin, 69.8% (30/43) penicillin G, 58.1% (25/43) ampicillin, 55.8% (24/43) clindamycin, 46.5% (20/43) ceftriaxone, 34.9% (15/43) chloramphenicol, and 30.2% (13/43) for both erythromycin and vancomycin using disk diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes among the resistant and intermediate-resistant isolates showed high frequencies for tetM 97.6% (41/42) and low frequencies for ermB 34.5% (10/29), ermTR 10.3% (3/29), mefA 3.4% (1/29), tetO 2.4% (1/42) and linB 0% (0/35). The atr housekeeping gene yielded 100% (43/43) positive results, whilst the mobile genetic element IS1548 yielded 9.3% (4/43). CONCLUSION: The study showed high prevalence of hly, scpB, bca and rib virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from pregnant women. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly caused by the tetM gene, whilst macrolide resistance was predominantly due to the presence of erm methylase, with the ermB gene being more prevalent. Multi-drug resistance coupled with the recovery of resistant isolates to antimicrobial agents such as penicillins indicates the importance of GBS surveillance and susceptibility tests. It was also observed that in vitro phenotypic resistance is not always accurately predicted by resistance genotypes.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mujeres Embarazadas , Prevalencia , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
19.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(4): 312-322, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337977

RESUMEN

This article explores the experiences of HIV-positive adolescents disclosing their status to romantic partners in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Disclosure of HIV status continues to be one of the most pressing issues facing adolescents, especially those in relationships, yet health care workers have minimal tailored guidance on how to approach this except to encourage full disclosure. Motives for disclosure were: guilty conscience; legal and ethical obligations; preventing partners being infected; and supportive people, honesty and trust. Disclosure was done on a one-on-one basis in public spaces such as roadsides where the adolescents usually met, or in health care facilities through the help of health care workers, and through mobile phones using WhatsApp. Results revealed that disclosure was associated with negative and positive outcomes ranging from disruption of relationships, depression, breaches of confidential information and, in some instances, relationship and marriage assurance. However, results clearly showed that adolescents living with HIV struggle with disclosure because the process is complex and loaded with emotions and the outcomes can be unpredictable and difficult to handle. Optimism towards treatment, social support, rationalisation, and social comparison through attributing new meanings to the disease were employed to deal with negative outcomes of disclosure. Therefore, the development and implementation of evidence-based initiatives to raise awareness and train the youth to disclose is recommended. Through their experiences, we can learn what works well and what needs to be strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Apoyo Social , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375332

RESUMEN

There is potential for increased pesticide-related adverse health outcomes in the agricultural sector linked to adaptive increases in pesticide use necessitated, in part, by climate change-related increases in pest populations. To understand the role of adaptation practices in pesticide use and health risks, this study assessed Zimbabwean smallholder cotton farmers' adaptive responses linked to their climate change perceptions. In depth interviews were conducted with 50 farmers who had been growing cotton for at least 30 years. The study identified farmers' adaptation practices that increased their pesticide use, as well as those that presented opportunities for reducing pesticide use through non-pesticide-dependent adaptation pathways. The findings show that due to perceived climate change impacts, such as a shorter growing season, farmers were adopting a range of adaptive practices. These included changes in pest management practices, such as increasing pesticide spraying frequencies due to keeping ratoon crops, which were increasing farmers' overall pesticide use. Such incremental adaptive practices are potentially maladaptive, as they may increase farmers' pesticide-related health risks. Other practices, however, such as reducing cotton acreage and diversifying crops, resulting in transformational adaptation, suggest the existence of opportunities for decreasing overall pesticide use or totally eliminating pesticides from the farming system.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Cambio Climático , Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Agricultores , Gossypium , Humanos , Salud Laboral , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Zimbabwe
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