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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 342-345, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705366

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization and national guidelines recommend HIV testing and counseling at tuberculosis (TB) clinics for all patients, regardless of TB diagnosis (1). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) survey data for 2015-2016 in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed to assess HIV screening at TB clinics among persons who had positive HIV test results in the survey. The analysis was stratified by history of TB diagnosis* (presumptive versus confirmed†), awareness§ of HIV-positive status, antiretroviral therapy (ART)¶ status, and viral load suppression among HIV-positive adults, by history of TB clinic visit. The percentage of adults who reported having ever visited a TB clinic ranged from 4.7% to 9.7%. Among all TB clinic attendees, the percentage who reported that they had received HIV testing during a TB clinic visit ranged from 48.0% to 62.1% across the three countries. Among adults who received a positive HIV test result during PHIA and who did not receive a test for HIV at a previous TB clinic visit, 29.4% (Malawi), 21.9% (Zambia), and 16.2% (Zimbabwe) reported that they did not know their HIV status at the time of the TB clinic visit. These findings represent missed opportunities for HIV screening and linkage to HIV care. In all three countries, viral load suppression rates were significantly higher among those who reported ever visiting a TB clinic than among those who had not (p<0.001). National programs could strengthen HIV screening at TB clinics and leverage them as entry points into the HIV diagnosis and treatment cascade (i.e., testing, initiation of treatment, and viral load suppression).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Instituciones de Salud , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Zambia/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 28, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777296

RESUMEN

Despite numerous public health interventions introduced by the Zimbabwean government, the COVID-19 burden continues to grow. The number of confirmed cases increased from less than 600 to over 6000 in a period of two months, and the fatalities now exceed 150. The source of infection has significantly changed from imported cases to community transmission. The greatest burden of COVID-19 is in the country's two biggest provinces, Harare and Bulawayo, and differentiated approaches are urgently required to curb further transmissions whilst allowing other aspects of the population's livelihood to continue. We discuss some of the pitfalls and challenges for COVID-19 control, and the possible drivers of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission in the country. An urgent multi-sectoral intersection to effectively deal with these caveats is required, and political commitment to deal with the crisis remains an indispensable variable.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Salud Pública , /prevención & control , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Política , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009254, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In order to protect health workers from SARS-CoV-2, there is need to characterise the different types of patient facing health workers. Our first aim was to determine both the infection status and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers. Our second aim was to evaluate the occupational and demographic predictors of seropositivity to inform the country's infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We invited 713 staff members at 24 out of 35 health facilities in the City of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. Compliance to testing was defined as the willingness to uptake COVID-19 testing by answering a questionnaire and providing samples for both antibody testing and PCR testing. SARS-COV-2 antibodies were detected using a rapid diagnostic test kit and SAR-COV-2 infection was determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Of the 713 participants, 635(89%) consented to answering the questionnaire and providing blood sample for antibody testing while 560 (78.5%) agreed to provide nasopharyngeal swabs for the PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing. Of the 635 people (aged 18-73) providing a blood sample 39.1% reported a history of past COVID-19 symptoms while 14.2% reported having current symptoms of COVID-19. The most-prevalent co-morbidity among this group was hypertension (22.0%) followed by asthma (7.0%) and diabetes (6.0%). The SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was 8.9%. Of the 560 participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2 participants (0.36%) were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. None of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive people were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: In addition to clinical staff, several patient-facing health workers were characterised within Zimbabwe's health system and the seroprevalence data indicated that previous exposure to SAR-CoV-2 had occurred across the full spectrum of patient-facing staff with nurses and nurse aides having the highest seroprevalence. Our results highlight the need for including the various health workers in IPC strategies in health centres to ensure effective biosecurity and biosafety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) is common among children living with HIV (CLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the pathogenesis of CLD and its possible association with microbial determinants remain poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) among CLWH (established on ART) who had CLD (CLD+), or not (CLD-) in Zimbabwe and Malawi. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and sputa were collected from CLD+ CLWH (defined as forced-expiratory volume per second z-score < - 1 without reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol), at enrolment as part of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin (BREATHE trial - NCT02426112 ), and from age- and sex-matched CLD- CLWH. Samples were cultured, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using disk diffusion. Risk factors for bacterial carriage were identified using questionnaires and analysed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants (336 CLD+, 74 CLD-) were enrolled (median age, 15 years [IQR = 13-18]). SP and MC carriage in NP were higher in CLD+ than in CLD- children: 46% (154/336) vs. 26% (19/74), p = 0.008; and 14% (49/336) vs. 3% (2/74), p = 0.012, respectively. SP isolates from the NP of CLD+ children were more likely to be non-susceptible to penicillin than those from CLD- children (36% [53/144] vs 11% [2/18], p = 0.036). Methicillin-resistant SA was uncommon [4% (7/195)]. In multivariate analysis, key factors associated with NP bacterial carriage included having CLD (SP: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2 [95% CI 1.1-3.9]), younger age (SP: aOR 3.2 [1.8-5.8]), viral load suppression (SP: aOR 0.6 [0.4-1.0], SA: 0.5 [0.3-0.9]), stunting (SP: aOR 1.6 [1.1-2.6]) and male sex (SA: aOR 1.7 [1.0-2.9]). Sputum bacterial carriage was similar in both groups (50%) and was associated with Zimbabwean site (SP: aOR 3.1 [1.4-7.3], SA: 2.1 [1.1-4.2]), being on ART for a longer period (SP: aOR 0.3 [0.1-0.8]), and hot compared to rainy season (SP: aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.4]). CONCLUSIONS: CLD+ CLWH were more likely to be colonised by MC and SP, including penicillin-non-susceptible SP strains, than CLD- CLWH. The role of these bacteria in CLD pathogenesis, including the risk of acute exacerbations, should be further studied.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/microbiología , Adolescente , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 665-674, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children discharged from hospital following management of complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a high risk of mortality, especially HIV-positive children. Few studies have examined mortality in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to ascertain 52-wk mortality in children discharged from hospital for management of complicated SAM, and to identify independent predictors of mortality. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in children enrolled from 3 hospitals in Zambia and Zimbabwe between July 2016 and March 2018. The primary outcome was mortality at 52 wk. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for death, and to investigate whether HIV modifies these associations. RESULTS: Of 745 children, median age at enrolment was 17.4 mo (IQR: 12.8, 22.1 mo), 21.7% were HIV-positive, and 64.4% had edema. Seventy children (9.4%; 95% CI: 7.4, 11.7%) died and 26 exited during hospitalization; 649 were followed postdischarge. At discharge, 43.9% had ongoing SAM and only 50.8% of HIV-positive children were receiving ART. Vital status was ascertained for 604 (93.1%), of whom 55 (9.1%; 95% CI: 6.9, 11.7%) died at median 16.6 wk (IQR: 9.4, 21.9 wk). Overall, 20.0% (95% CI: 13.5, 27.9%) and 5.6% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.9%) of HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, respectively, died [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 3.83; 95% CI: 2.15, 6.82]. Additional independent risk factors for mortality were ongoing SAM (aHR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.25), cerebral palsy (aHR: 5.60; 95% CI: 2.72, 11.50) and nonedematous SAM (aHR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.01), with no evidence of interaction with HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive children have an almost 4-fold higher mortality than HIV-negative children in the year following hospitalization for complicated SAM. A better understanding of causes of death, an improved continuum of care for HIV and SAM, and targeted interventions to improve convalescence are needed.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores , Alta del Paciente , Desnutrición Aguda Severa/mortalidad , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Zambia/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 125, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalacticae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is one of the most important causative agents of serious infections among neonates. This study was carried out to identify antibiotic resistance and virulence genes associated with GBS isolated from pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 43 GBS isolates were obtained from 420 vaginal samples collected from HIV positive and negative women who were 13-35 weeks pregnant attending Antenatal Care at Chitungwiza and Harare Central Hospitals in Zimbabwe. Identification tests of GBS isolates was done using standard bacteriological methods and molecular identification testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer method and E-test strips. The boiling method was used to extract DNA and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to screen for 13 genes. Data was fed into SPSS 24.0. RESULTS: Nine distinct virulence gene profiles were identified and hly-scpB-bca-rib 37.2% (16/43) was common. The virulence genes identified were namely hly 97.8% (42/43), scpB 90.1% (39/43), bca 86.0% (37/43), rib 69.8% (30/43) and bac 11.6% (5/43). High resistance to tetracycline 97.7% (42/43) was reported followed by 72.1% (31/43) cefazolin, 69.8% (30/43) penicillin G, 58.1% (25/43) ampicillin, 55.8% (24/43) clindamycin, 46.5% (20/43) ceftriaxone, 34.9% (15/43) chloramphenicol, and 30.2% (13/43) for both erythromycin and vancomycin using disk diffusion. Antibiotic resistance genes among the resistant and intermediate-resistant isolates showed high frequencies for tetM 97.6% (41/42) and low frequencies for ermB 34.5% (10/29), ermTR 10.3% (3/29), mefA 3.4% (1/29), tetO 2.4% (1/42) and linB 0% (0/35). The atr housekeeping gene yielded 100% (43/43) positive results, whilst the mobile genetic element IS1548 yielded 9.3% (4/43). CONCLUSION: The study showed high prevalence of hly, scpB, bca and rib virulence genes in S. agalactiae strains isolated from pregnant women. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly caused by the tetM gene, whilst macrolide resistance was predominantly due to the presence of erm methylase, with the ermB gene being more prevalent. Multi-drug resistance coupled with the recovery of resistant isolates to antimicrobial agents such as penicillins indicates the importance of GBS surveillance and susceptibility tests. It was also observed that in vitro phenotypic resistance is not always accurately predicted by resistance genotypes.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mujeres Embarazadas , Prevalencia , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Streptococcus agalactiae/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidad , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective and well-tolerated in adults and is rapidly being adopted globally. We describe the design of the ODYSSEY trial which evaluates the efficacy and safety of DTG-based ART compared with standard-of-care in children and adolescents. The ODYSSEY trial includes nested pharmacokinetic (PK) sub-studies which evaluated pragmatic World Health Organization (WHO) weight-band-based DTG dosing and opened recruitment to children < 14 kg while dosing was in development. METHODS: ODYSSEY (Once-daily DTG based ART in Young people vS. Standard thErapY) is an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, basket trial comparing the efficacy and safety of DTG + 2 nucleos(t) ides (NRTIs) versus standard-of-care (SOC) in HIV-infected children < 18 years starting first-line ART (ODYSSEY A) or switching to second-line ART (ODYSSEY B). The primary endpoint is clinical or virological failure by 96 weeks. RESULTS: Between September 2016 and June 2018, 707 children weighing ≥14 kg were enrolled; including 311 ART-naïve children and 396 children starting second-line. 47% of children were enrolled in Uganda, 21% Zimbabwe, 20% South Africa, 9% Thailand, 4% Europe. 362 (51%) participants were male; median age [range] at enrolment was 12.2 years [2.9-18.0]. 82 (12%) children weighed 14 to < 20 kg, 135 (19%) 20 to < 25 kg, 206 (29%) 25 to < 35 kg, 284 (40%) ≥35 kg. 128 (18%) had WHO stage 3 and 60 (8%) WHO stage 4 disease. Challenges encountered include: (i) running the trial across high- to low-income countries with differing frequencies of standard-of-care viral load monitoring; (ii) evaluating pragmatic DTG dosing in PK sub-studies alongside FDA- and EMA-approved dosing and subsequently transitioning participants to new recommended doses; (iii) delays in dosing information for children weighing 3 to < 14 kg and rapid recruitment of ART-naïve older/heavier children, which led to capping recruitment of participants weighing ≥35 kg in ODYSSEY A and extending recruitment (above 700) to allow for ≥60 additional children weighing between 3 to < 14 kg with associated PK; (iv) a safety alert associated with DTG use during pregnancy, which required a review of the safety plan for adolescent girls. CONCLUSIONS: By employing a basket design, to include ART-naïve and -experienced children, and nested PK sub-studies, the ODYSSEY trial efficiently evaluates multiple scientific questions regarding dosing and effectiveness of DTG-based ART in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT, NCT02259127 , registered 7th October 2014; EUDRACT, 2014-002632-14, registered 18th June 2014 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2014-002632-14/ES ); ISRCTN, ISRCTN91737921 , registered 4th October 2014.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-1/genética , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/administración & dosificación , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/efectos adversos , Oxazinas/administración & dosificación , Oxazinas/efectos adversos , Piperazinas/administración & dosificación , Piperazinas/efectos adversos , Piridonas/administración & dosificación , Piridonas/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Cálculo de Dosificación de Drogas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Viral/genética , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Tailandia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Uganda/epidemiología , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
9.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 122-132, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417838

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youth is high in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the uptake of testing for and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) infections among youth in community-based settings in Zimbabwe, and explored the facilitators and barriers to testing. METHODS: This study was nested within a cluster randomised trial of community-based delivery of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for youth aged 16-24 years. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing via urine samples using the Xpert CT/NG test was offered in the four intervention clusters in Harare, Zimbabwe. Factors associated with testing uptake were investigated in a subset of participants (n=257) using hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. In-depth interviews with a separate purposively selected sample (n=26) explored facilitators and barriers to STI testing and partner notification and were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020, there were 6200 attendances by 4440 participants (78·2% women, 21·8% men) median age 20·3 (IQR 17·9-22·8) years. 1478 participants had 1501 tests done, and 248 tests were positive and 1253 tests were negative for chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both. STI test uptake was 33·3% (95% CI 31·9-34·7), increasing from 11·7% in June, 2019, to 37·1% in January, 2020. The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was 16·5% (95% CI 14·7-18·5; 248 of 1501), with only seven participants (3%) showing symptoms. The overall yield of testing was 4·0% (95% CI 3·5-4·5; 248 of 6200). Uptake was associated with having symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 14·8, 95% CI 1·66-132·07) and negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0·33, 95% CI 0·13-0·84) or having a boyfriend or girlfriend (adjusted OR 0·19, 95% CI 0·087-0·43) compared with being married, and being a student compared with being employed (adjusted OR 0·26, 95% CI 0·10-0·68). Perceived risk and symptoms of STIs were motivators for testing whereas misinformation, anticipated stigma, and concern about confidentiality were barriers. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of chlamydia or gonorrhoea, or both, was high among youth but only a minority were symptomatic. Therefore most infections would remain untreated without access to STI testing. Provision of education, counselling, and confidentiality are essential to improve uptake and acceptability of STI testing. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/psicología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
10.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(4): 312-322, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337977

RESUMEN

This article explores the experiences of HIV-positive adolescents disclosing their status to romantic partners in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Disclosure of HIV status continues to be one of the most pressing issues facing adolescents, especially those in relationships, yet health care workers have minimal tailored guidance on how to approach this except to encourage full disclosure. Motives for disclosure were: guilty conscience; legal and ethical obligations; preventing partners being infected; and supportive people, honesty and trust. Disclosure was done on a one-on-one basis in public spaces such as roadsides where the adolescents usually met, or in health care facilities through the help of health care workers, and through mobile phones using WhatsApp. Results revealed that disclosure was associated with negative and positive outcomes ranging from disruption of relationships, depression, breaches of confidential information and, in some instances, relationship and marriage assurance. However, results clearly showed that adolescents living with HIV struggle with disclosure because the process is complex and loaded with emotions and the outcomes can be unpredictable and difficult to handle. Optimism towards treatment, social support, rationalisation, and social comparison through attributing new meanings to the disease were employed to deal with negative outcomes of disclosure. Therefore, the development and implementation of evidence-based initiatives to raise awareness and train the youth to disclose is recommended. Through their experiences, we can learn what works well and what needs to be strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Apoyo Social , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193958

RESUMEN

Zimbabwe reported its first case of COVID-19 on 20 March 2020, and since then the number has increased to over 4000. To contain the spread of the causative SARS-CoV-2 and prepare the healthcare system, public health interventions, including lockdowns, were imposed on 30 March 2020. These resulted in disruptions in healthcare provision, and movement of people and supply chains. There have been resultant delays in seeking and accessing healthcare by the patients. Additionally, disruption of essential health services in the areas of maternal and child health, sexual and reproductive health services, care for chronic conditions and access to oncological and other specialist services has occurred. Thus, there may be avoidable excess morbidity and mortality from non-COVID-19 causes that is not justifiable by the current local COVID-19 burden. Measures to restore normalcy to essential health services provision as guided by the World Health Organisation and other bodies needs to be considered and implemented urgently, to avoid preventable loss of life and excess morbidity. Adequate infection prevention and control measures must be put in place to ensure continuity of essential services whilst protecting healthcare workers and patients from contracting COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Pacientes no Asegurados , Medicina , Modelos Teóricos , Mortalidad , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/provisión & distribución , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008451, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Treatment needs for Schistosoma haematobium are commonly evaluated using urine filtration with detection of parasite eggs under a microscope. A common symptom of S. haematobium is hematuria, the passing of blood in urine. Hence, the use of hematuria-based diagnostic techniques as a proxy for the assessment of treatment needs has been considered. This study evaluates data from a national survey in Zimbabwe, where three hematuria-based diagnostic techniques, that is microhematuria, macrohematuria, and an anamnestic questionnaire pertaining to self-reported blood in urine, have been included in addition to urine filtration in 280 schools across 70 districts. METHODOLOGY: We developed an egg count model, which evaluates the infection intensity-dependent sensitivity and the specificity of each diagnostic technique without relying on a 'gold' standard. Subsequently, we determined prevalence thresholds for each diagnostic technique, equivalent to a 10% urine filtration-based prevalence and compared classification of districts according to treatment strategy based on the different diagnostic methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 10% urine filtration prevalence threshold corresponded to a 17.9% and 13.3% prevalence based on questionnaire and microhematuria, respectively. Both the questionnaire and the microhematuria showed a sensitivity and specificity of more than 85% for estimating treatment needs at the above thresholds. For diagnosis at individual level, the questionnaire showed the highest sensitivity (70.0%) followed by urine filtration (53.8%) and microhematuria (52.2%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high sensitivity and specificity of a simple questionnaire to estimate treatment needs of S. haematobium suggests that it can be used as a rapid, low-cost method to estimate district prevalence. Our modeling approach can be expanded to include setting-dependent specificity of the technique and should be assessed in relation to other diagnostic methods due to potential cross-reaction with other diseases.


Asunto(s)
Hematuria , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/métodos , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/diagnóstico , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/orina , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237239, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790692

RESUMEN

Disconcerting levels of misdiagnosis are common in point-of-care rapid HIV testing programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate potential pathways to misdiagnosis, we interviewed 28 HIV testers in Zimbabwe and conducted weeklong observations at four testing facilities. Approaching adherence to national HIV testing algorithms as a social and scripted practice, dependent on the integration of certain competences, materials and meanings, our thematic analysis revealed three underlying causes of misdiagnosis: One, a lack of confidence in using certain test-kits, coupled with changes in testing algorithms and inadequate training, fed uncertainties with some testing practices. Two, difficult work conditions, including high workloads and resource-depleted facilities, compounded these uncertainties, and meant testers got distracted or resorted to testing short-cuts. Three, power struggles between HIV testers, and specific client-tester encounters created social interactions that challenged the testing process. We conclude that these contexts contribute to deviances from official and recommended testing procedures, as well as testing and interpretation biases, which may explain cases of misdiagnoses. We caution against user-error explanations to misdiagnosis in the absence of a broader recognition of how broader structural determinants affect HIV testing practices.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Errores Diagnósticos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Investigación Cualitativa , Incertidumbre , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008494, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833994

RESUMEN

Helminth control at the national level is currently based on mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Perception of the MDA programs for helminth control by the affected populations influences compliance and future designs of the programs. We determined the perception of Zimbabwe's National Helminth Control Program (2012-2017) with a specific focus on schistosomiasis in the school children treated with praziquantel, schoolteachers and village health workers (VHW). The study enrolled 409 children from Grades 6 and 7 who had the full benefit of the 6 years of MDA from 2012 to 2017. Thirty-six schoolteachers and 22 VHW serving the schools were also recruited. A structured questionnaire developed in English, translated into the local language Shona, and validated prior to the study was administered to the children and the adults. The questions focused on the perceived impact on health, school attendance and performance and Knowledge Attitudes and Practice (KAP) among the school children. Data were captured electronically on android platforms using the Open Data Kit. Overall, 84% of the children responded that their awareness of schistosomiasis (transmission, disease, treatment and infection avoidance) had improved because of participating in the MDAs. Of the 151 children self-diagnosed with schistosomiasis, 74% reported that their health had improved following treatment with praziquantel. This included resolution of haematuria, painful urination, sore stomach, tiredness and falling asleep during class lessons. The children and teachers reported improvements in both pupil school attendance and performance at school while the VHW and teachers reported an increase in health-seeking behaviour amongst the school children for schistosomiasis treatment in-between MDAs. The majority of VHW (96%) reported improvement in handwashing behaviour, schistosomiasis awareness (96%) and treatment uptake (91%) within the communities where the school children belonged. However, only 59% of the VHW reported improvement in toilet use while only 50% of the VHW reported improvement in clean water use within their communities. This study indicated that the surveyed children perceived the MDA program had improved their health, school attendance, school performance and awareness of schistosomiasis. The VHW also perceived that the MDA program had improved the community KAP.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Praziquantel/administración & dosificación , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237904, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853215

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We report trends in mortality patterns and causes among HIV positive patients, who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), at an urban clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which routinely collected data for patients enrolled and followed up between February 2004 and December 2017 were assessed. Patients follow up was from the day of the treatment initiation until exit by death, transfer out or loss to follow up. Two doctors categorized causes of death (COD) as tuberculosis (TB), communicable AIDS, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), malignancies, others and unknown. We used competing risk survival analysis, first to estimate all-causes and cause-specific mortality rates over time, and then to assess risk factors of different causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 4 868 patients were followed up for 27 527 person years (PY). Among the 506 patients who died, COD was unknown for 76 patients (15%) and common COD were TB (n = 71, 14%), Malignancies (n = 54, 10.7%) Meningitis (n = 39, 7.7%) and NCDs (n = 60, 11.9%). 49.4% of the deaths were within the first year of starting ART. Median age at death was 36 years (IQR:19-46). There was a near threefold increase in proportion of deaths due to NCDs and malignancies over the period of follow up. Low baseline CD4 cell count and WHO stages 3 & 4 were significant risk factors for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: TB remains the leading cause of death among HIV infected people. Deaths due to NCDs and malignancies increased over time. ART facilities need to incorporate management of NCDs including cancer as part of comprehensive care of PLHIV to reduce mortality.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Seropositividad para VIH/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 253, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) as a source of income is rapidly gaining importance in the economically difficult times in Zimbabwe. Besides limited epidemiological data, no data about the self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of artisanal and small-scale gold miners exist. The aim of the project was to access HRQoL of ASGM workers to improve the data base and compare the data to the urban Zimbabwean population. METHODS: Data from 83 artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Kadoma, Zimbabwe was analysed. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) accompanied by the cognition add-on questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L+C) and associated visual analogue scale (VAS). We described the EQ-5D dimensions and VAS values and computed health utility (HU) values using the Zimbabwean tariff. The proportions of miners reporting no problem in each EQ-5D dimension were compared with corresponding proportions reporting any problem (moderate or severe), and mean HU and VAS values were analysed across subgroups of the sample. To test differences between subgroups, Fisher's exact test was used and between urban and mining population, Student's t-test was used. RESULTS: The reported health states of miners were homogenous, with a large amount (42%) reporting 'full health'. Mean (SD) VAS and HU values were 81.0 (17.5) and 0.896 (0.13), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that miners with a lower education reported significantly more problems in the dimension of daily activities and miners with mercury contact had more problems in the dimensions of pain/discomfort and cognition. Comparison between mining and urban population showed that in the oldest age group, self-rated VAS values of miners were significantly higher than of their urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the HRQoL of mining and urban populations. However, the reason might be adverse health effects faced by the urban population that do not apply to rural mining areas. A higher education level of miners can improve the HRQoL, which is especially impaired by problems in the cognition dimension.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Autoinforme/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Oro , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minería , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233234, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544161

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) is safe and effective. Nevertheless, MC programs require multiple post-operative visits. In Zimbabwe, a randomized control trial (RCT) found that post-operative two-way texting (2wT) between clients and MC providers instead of in-person reviews reduced provider workload and safeguarded patient safety. A critical component of the RCT assessed usability and acceptability of 2wT among providers and clients. These findings inform scale-up of the 2wT approach to post-operative follow-up. METHODS: The RCT assigned 362 adult MC clients with cell phones into 2wT; these men responded to 13 automated daily texts supported by interactive texting or in-person follow-up, when needed. A subset of 100 texting clients filled a self-administered usability survey on day 14. 2wT acceptability was ascertained via 2wT response rates. Among 2wT providers, eight key informant interviews focused on 2wT acceptability and usability. Influences of wage and age on response rates and client-reported potential AEs were explored using linear and logistic regression models, respectively. RESULTS: Clients felt confident, comfortable, satisfied, and well-supported with 2wT-based follow-up; few noted texting challenges or concerns about healing. Clients felt 2wT saved them time and money. Response rates (92%) suggested 2wT acceptability. Both clients and providers felt 2wT was highly usable. Providers noted 2wT saved them time, empowered clients to engage in their healing, and closed gaps in MC service quality. For scale, providers reinforced good post-operative counseling on AEs and texting instructions. Wage and age did not influence text response rates or potential AE texts. CONCLUSION: Results strongly suggest that 2wT is highly usable and acceptable for providers and patients. Men with concerns solicited provider guidance and reassurance offered via text. Providers noted that men engaged proactively in their healing. 2wT between providers and patients should be expanded for MC and considered for other short-term care contexts. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, trial NCT03119337, and was activated on April 18, 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03119337.


Asunto(s)
Circuncisión Masculina/métodos , Cuidados Posoperatorios/métodos , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/tendencias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Seguridad del Paciente , Periodo Posoperatorio , Carga de Trabajo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528624

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) scourge has challenged the world's health systems and presented multiple socio-economic and public health challenges to the states it has affected. Zimbabwe has been affected by the pandemic, and in response, the government has set up an array of measures, including a national lockdown, to curb transmission. While it is critical to maintain such vigorous containment measures, socio-economic pressures in Zimbabwe will challenge the sustainability of the lockdown. Given the potential for lift of the lockdown before the Covid-19 pandemic ends, we discuss the Covid-19 pandemic situation in Zimbabwe and viewpoints on important considerations and strategies for lifting the lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Control Social Formal/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Espacio Personal , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
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