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1.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 43: 101660, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911187

RESUMEN

Buccal swabs from 200 unrelated Zimbabwean males were collected from voluntary participants located in Harare province. The 5-dye SureID® 27Y Human STR Identification Kit was used to perform multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and generate Y-chromosomal DNA profiles. This kit targets markers DYS456, DYS576, DYS570, DYS481, DYF387S1, DYS627, DYS393, DYS391, DYS390, DYS635, DYS449, DYS533, DYS438, DYS389I, DYS448, DYS389II, DYS19, GATA_H4, DYS518, DYS458, DYS460, DYS437, DYS439, DYS392, and DYS385, similar to the Yfiler® Plus Amplification Kit. A total of 161 haplotypes were generated with the PowerPlex® Y system, whereas 159 complete haplotypes were generated for the Yfiler® Plus system. Haplotype Discrimination Capacity (DC) with the Yfiler® Plus system was determined to be 0.9686, while the Genetic Diversity (GD) of the targeted loci ranged from 0.03748 at DYS392 to 0.867239 at DYS449. One haplotype contained the triallelic pattern 37, 38, and 39 at DYS387S1. In addition, marker DYS387S1 and marker DYS385 had 13 counts of microvariant alleles overall, while 9 null allele counts were noted at marker DYS448. Genetic distances between our population data and 22 other data sets from African countries and people of African descent were estimated and results showed significant genetic variation.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Dermatoglifia del ADN/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Alelos , Variación Genética/genética , Haplotipos , Humanos , Zimbabwe/etnología
2.
J Child Sex Abus ; 28(7): 860-884, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211664

RESUMEN

Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is the commonest, though the under-reported, form of child sexual abuse in Marondera District and Zimbabwe generally. However, little is known about what drives it and what practitioners know about it. This study explored the factors associated with the incidence of intrafamilial child sexual abuse in Marondera based on perceptions of Victim-Friendly Court professionals in the district. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to twenty-five professionals from thirteen agencies implementing the Victim-Friendly Court initiative in Marondera. Relevant court records of intrafamilial child sexual abuse cases were also reviewed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, descriptive statistics and document analysis. The study revealed that intrafamilial child sexual abuse in Marondera is associated with very subtle structural factors which put children at risk of abuse, prevent children, families, and communities from reporting, and reduce the accessibility of formal systems of social control. There are 'conflicts' between normative/legal and traditional socio-cultural value systems such that there is no shared understanding of the fundamental issues driving this phenomenon. Policy/practice responses need to take cognizance of these peculiarities. As a basic first step, a comprehensive national prevalence study is required. Further in-depth research of the socio-cultural determinants of intrafamilial child sexual abuse is also recommended.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Familia , Jurisprudencia , Adulto , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/etnología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Familia/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Zimbabwe/etnología
3.
Hum Nat ; 30(2): 217-241, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888612

RESUMEN

There has been a long-standing debate about the roles of San in the militaries of southern Africa and the prevalence of violence among the Ju/'hoansi and other San people. The evolutionary anthropology and social anthropological debates over the contexts in which violence and warfare occurs among hunters and gatherers are considered, as is the "tribal zone theory" of warfare between states and indigenous people. This paper assesses the issues that arise from these discussions, drawing on data from San in Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. Utilizing cases of how San have been affected by military forces and wildlife conservation agencies in what became protected areas in southern Africa, this article shows that indigenous peoples have been treated differentially by state and nongovernmental organizations involved in anti-poaching, shoot-to-kill, and forced resettlement policies. Particular emphasis is placed on the !Xun and Khwe San of southern Angola and northern Namibia and the Tshwa San of western Zimbabwe and northern Botswana, who have been impacted by militarization and coercive conservation efforts since the late nineteenth century. Principal conclusions are that conservation and militarization efforts have led to a reduction in land and resources available to indigenous people, higher levels of poverty, increased socioeconomic stratification, and lower levels of physical well-being. San have responded to these trends by engaging in social activism, forming community-based institutions, and pursuing legal actions aimed at obtaining human rights and equitable treatment.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Derechos Humanos , Violencia/etnología , Guerra/etnología , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Angola/etnología , Botswana/etnología , Humanos , Namibia/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
4.
Women Birth ; 32(2): e216-e222, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030020

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: In non-Western societies, childlessness carries numerous social consequences and has a significant impact on the gender identity and well-being of the women. BACKGROUND: The desire of women in non-Western societies is governed by numerous socio-cultural expectations including social norms and their own social position. At present, little is known about how Zimbabwean migrant women living in Australia perceive and experience childlessness and motherhood. AIM: To discuss how children are seen in Zimbabwean culture and examine the personal and social ramification of infertility and cultural expectations of motherhood among Zimbabwean migrant women living in Australia. The perspectives and experiences of this migrant community are crucial so that we can avoid misunderstanding about the essence of motherhood among Zimbabwean women. This will ultimately lead to sensitive and culturally appropriate health and social care for migrants in a multicultural society of Australia. METHODS: The study is situated within the constructivist paradigm. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing, drawings and photo elicitation) were conducted with 15 Zimbabwean women. Data were analysed using thematic analysis method. FINDINGS: Being able to bear a child in Zimbabwean culture had a significant meaning to the women. Not only children could ensure the continuity of the society, having children was a form of social security as parents would be cared for by their children in old age. Childlessness threatens the social position of a woman and carries social consequences which significantly impact on their gender identity and well-being. Cultural expectations of motherhood placed the sole responsibility of caring for the children emotionally and physically on the mother. CONCLUSION: The procreative value has not diminished despite having settled in Australia. An increased awareness of procreative needs for Zimbabwean women in a culturally and sensitive manner would enhance the emotional well-being of these women.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad/psicología , Madres/psicología , Embarazo/etnología , Migrantes/psicología , Mujeres/psicología , Femenino , Fertilidad , Humanos , Salud Mental/etnología , Victoria , Zimbabwe/etnología
5.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 54(5-6): 696-714, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452611

RESUMEN

Millions of refugees are on the move globally, mostly settling in low- and middle-income (LMIC) "host" countries, where they often receive insufficient assistance and encounter a multitude of barriers. Despite a risk for developing mental illness, limited research exists on their struggles and coping strategies in these settings, especially outside of camps. Against this backdrop, our qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of refugee experiences in Durban, South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 18 adult refugees from Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo at a community-based support center in Durban. Participants described their problems, effects on mental health, and coping abilities. Interviews were recorded and analyzed for themes. Major problems were reported with work, xenophobia/racism, mental health, physical safety, housing, healthcare, and quality of life. Participants discussed feelings of worry, fear, emotional pain, anger, powerlessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, and passive suicidal ideation. Coping mechanisms consisted of friendships, church, praying, work, physical activities, family, learning the local language, and avoidance of thoughts. Many interviewees expressed a strong desire to either return to their homeland or move elsewhere. Refugees in South Africa face considerable hardships including xenophobia, physical abuse, and work/legal obstructions. More research is needed in LMICs to identify the challenges, psychological effects, and coping in such populations so that appropriate and accessible mental health services can be created for those who require them.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Salud Mental/etnología , Refugiados/psicología , Adulto , República Democrática del Congo/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
6.
Midwifery ; 45: 72-78, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: little is known about the meanings and experiences of motherhood among Zimbabwean migrant women. This paper discusses the meanings and experiences of motherhood from the perspectives of Zimbabwean migrant women living in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing, photo elicitation and drawing) were conducted with 15 Zimbabwean women who had children in Zimbabwe and in Australia. Data were analysed using thematic analysis method. FINDINGS: Zimbabwean women defined motherhood in varied ways. Common to all women was that becoming a mother had a significant meaning. Motherhood came with a sense of responsibility for children which resulted from their compromise and sacrifice. The dedication was exhibited by participants who demonstrated commitment to motherhood when striving to be a good mother. While motherhood provided pleasure and joy, some women found the role of motherhood burdensome in their new homeland. Due to cultural expectations of motherhood, women kept their difficulties silent for fear of being judged a 'bad mother'. The unfamiliarity with the health and social care systems in Australia presented challenges to these women. Often, they were treated without respect and felt discriminated against. CONCLUSIONS: our findings reveal the paradox of motherhood. Although motherhood can be burdensome, there are positive changes brought about by the process of motherhood. Due to a lack of knowledge about the health and social care system and the negative experiences with health care in Australia, the women felt overwhelmed about becoming a mother in Australia. IMPLICATIONS: healthcare providers, including midwives, need to understand how migrant women perceive and experience motherhood and their mothering role as this will help to improve the health and social care for these women and their children. Findings from this study provide a basis for further investigation into the formation and strengthening of support networks for Zimbabwean mothers in particular, and to other migrant women in general.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Conducta Materna/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Australia , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Materna/etnología , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Zimbabwe/etnología
7.
J Health Psychol ; 22(10): 1265-1276, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893295

RESUMEN

Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n=4) and patients (n=15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6months.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/etnología
8.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 56(1): 47-63, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888516

RESUMEN

Social psychologists typically conceptualize intergroup processes in terms of unequal pairs of social categories, such as an advantaged majority (e.g., 'Whites') and a disadvantaged minority (e.g., 'Blacks'). We argue that this two-group paradigm may obscure the workings of intergroup power by overlooking: (1) the unique dynamics of intergroup relations involving three or more groups, and (2) the way some two-group relationships function as strategic alliances that derive meaning from their location within a wider relational context. We develop this argument through a field study conducted in a grape-farming town in South Africa in 2009, focusing on an episode of xenophobic violence in which a Zimbabwean farm worker community was forcibly evicted from their homes by their South African neighbours. Discursive analysis of interview accounts of the nature and origins of this violence shows how an ostensibly binary 'xenophobic' conflict between foreign and South African farm labourers was partially constituted through both groups' relationship with a third party who were neither victims nor perpetrators of the actual violence, namely White farmers. We highlight some potential political consequences of defaulting to a two-group paradigm in intergroup conflict studies.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Procesos de Grupo , Violencia/etnología , Xenofobia/etnología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 21(1): 18-29, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595022

RESUMEN

This paper discusses the influence of cross-cultural modes of communication on perceptions of sexual health and wellbeing for Shona (Zimbabwean) women living in Australia and their children. Data was collected using focus groups in South Australia with fourteen women, between the ages of 29 and 53. Transcripts were analysed thematically. The women primarily constructed sexual health and wellbeing in customary Shona ways, which not only maintain secrecy about sexual health and wellbeing discourse, but also prohibit parents from talking to children about sexual health as such talk is reserved for particular kin and non-kin relationships. These constructions however became more fluid the longer the women resided in Australia. For these women the notions of sexual health and wellbeing are a negotiation between Australian constructs and those from Shona culture, especially when applied to their children. This research highlights the potential influence of various cultural world views on sexual health communication among African migrant women and their children and questions the appropriateness of sexual health and wellbeing campaigns and their responsiveness for cross-cultural youth.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Comunicación , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Salud Sexual/etnología , Migrantes/psicología , Salud de la Mujer/etnología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Cultura , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
10.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 37(4): 147-155, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27400371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are a critical strategy in the prevention of cervical cancer, especially in countries like Zimbabwe where cervical cancer screening rates are low. In Zimbabwe, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women but the HPV vaccine is not yet widely available. This study examined healthcare providers': (1) perceptions of current hospital practices and issues in cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Zimbabwe; (2) knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines; and (3) perspectives on introducing HPV vaccination programs in Zimbabwe, including potential facilitators and barriers to successful implementation. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at a rural hospital with 15 healthcare providers in Zimbabwe. Interviews included eight main questions and a number of additional probes that reflected the study's purpose. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported that women are not consistently being screened for cervical cancer. There were generally low levels of knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, but participants asked many questions indicating a desire to learn more. Although they were highly supportive of implementing HPV vaccination programs in Zimbabwe, they also identified a number of likely psychosocial, cultural, and logistical barriers to successful implementation, including cost, vaccine schedule, and hospital infrastructure. However, participants also provided a number of culturally relevant solutions, including education and community engagement. CONCLUSION: This study provides insight from healthcare providers about barriers to implementation and possible solutions that can be used by policy makers, practitioners, and other stakeholders to facilitate the successful implementation of forthcoming HPV immunization programs in Zimbabwe.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud/etnología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales Rurales , Humanos , Masculino , Zimbabwe/etnología
11.
J Sex Res ; 53(9): 1096-1106, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566583

RESUMEN

Despite efforts to use culturally appropriate, understandable terms for sexual behavior in HIV prevention trials, the way in which participants interpret questions is underinvestigated and not well understood. We present findings from qualitative interviews with 88 women in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe who had previously participated in an HIV prevention trial. Findings suggested that participants may have misinterpreted questions pertaining to penile-anal intercourse (PAI) to refer to vaginal sex from behind and subsequently misreported the behavior. Three key issues emerge from these findings: first, the underreporting of socially stigmatized sexual behaviors due to social desirability bias; second, the inaccurate reporting of sexual behaviors due to miscomprehension of research terms; and third, the ambiguity in vernacular terms for sexual behavior and lack of acceptable terms for PAI in some languages. These findings highlight methodological challenges around developing clear and unambiguous definitions for sexual behaviors, with implications not only for clinical trials but also for clinical practice and sexual risk assessment. We discuss the challenges in collecting accurate and reliable data on heterosexual PAI in Africa and make recommendations for improved data collection on sensitive behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Terminología como Asunto , Traducción , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica/etnología , Uganda/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
12.
Int J Cancer ; 138(6): 1416-21, 2016 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26437451

RESUMEN

Data from 20 years of cancer registration in Harare (Zimbabwe) are used to investigate the risk of cancer in the white population of the city (of European origin), relative to that in blacks (of African origin). In the absence of information on the respective populations-at-risk, we calculated odds of each major cancer among all cancers, and took the odds ratios of whites to blacks. Some major differences reflect obvious phenotypic differences (the very high incidence of skin cancer-melanoma and nonmelanoma--in the white population), whereas others (high rates of liver cancer, Kaposi sarcoma and conjunctival cancers in blacks) are the result of differences in exposure to infectious agents. Of particular interest are cancers related to lifestyle factors, and how the differences in risk are changing over time, as a result of evolving lifestyles. Thus, the high risk of cancers of the esophagus and cervix uteri in blacks (relative to whites) and colorectal cancers in whites show little change over time. Conversely, the odds of breast cancer, on average four times higher in whites than blacks, has shown a significant decrease in the differential over time. Cancer of the prostate, with the odds initially (1991-1997) 15% higher in whites had become 33% higher in blacks by 2004-2010.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/historia , Oportunidad Relativa , Vigilancia de la Población , Sistema de Registros , Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología , Zimbabwe/etnología
13.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(2): 222-9, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25946246

RESUMEN

Lactotransferrin, also known as lactoferrin, is an iron binding glycoprotein that displays antiviral activity against many different infectious agents, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Lactotransferrin is present in the breast milk and in the female genitourinary mucosa and it has been hypothesised as a possible candidate to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To verify if two functional polymorphisms, Thr29Ala and Arg47Lys, in the lactotransferrin encoding gene (LTF) could affect HIV-1 infection and vertical transmission, a preliminary association study was performed in 238 HIV-1 positive and 99 HIV-1 negative children from Brazil, Italy, Africa and India. No statistically significant association for the Thr29Ala and Arg47Lys LTF polymorphisms and HIV-1 susceptibility in the studied populations was found. Additionally LTF polymorphisms frequencies were compared between the four different ethnic groups.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , VIH-1/genética , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Lactoferrina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/etnología , Adolescente , Brasil/etnología , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , India/etnología , Recién Nacido , Italia/etnología , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Zimbabwe/etnología
14.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 17(4): 1146-56, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989494

RESUMEN

This study examines challenges faced by refugee new parents from Africa in Canada. Refugee new parents from Zimbabwe (n = 36) and Sudan (n = 36) were interviewed individually about challenges of coping concurrently with migration and new parenthood and completed loneliness and trauma/stress measures. Four group interviews with refugee new parents (n = 30) were subsequently conducted. Participants reported isolation, loneliness, and stress linked to migration and new parenthood. New gender roles evoked marital discord. Barriers to health-related services included language. Compounding challenges included discrimination, time restrictions for financial support, prolonged immigration and family reunification processes, uncoordinated government services, and culturally insensitive policies. The results reinforce the need for research on influences of refugees' stressful experiences on parenting and potential role of social support in mitigating effects of stress among refugee new parents. Language services should be integrated within health systems to facilitate provision of information, affirmation, and emotional support to refugee new parents. Our study reinforces the need for culturally appropriate services that mobilize and sustain support in health and health related (e.g., education, employment, immigration) policies.


Asunto(s)
Padres/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Adulto , Canadá , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Racismo/etnología , Racismo/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Sudán/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
15.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e111224, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25360782

RESUMEN

Across the globe, the emergence of complex societies excites intense academic debate in archaeology and allied disciplines. Not surprisingly, in southern Africa the traditional assumption that the evolution of socio-political complexity began with ideological transformations from K2 to Mapungubwe between CE1200 and 1220 is clouded in controversy. It is believed that the K2-Mapungubwe transitions crystallised class distinction and sacred leadership, thought to be the key elements of the Zimbabwe culture on Mapungubwe Hill long before they emerged anywhere else. From Mapungubwe (CE1220-1290), the Zimbabwe culture was expressed at Great Zimbabwe (CE1300-1450) and eventually Khami (CE1450-1820). However, new fieldwork at Mapela Hill, when coupled with a Bayesian chronology, offers tremendous fresh insights which refute this orthodoxy. Firstly, Mapela possesses enormous prestige stone-walled terraces whose initial construction date from the 11th century CE, almost two hundred years earlier than Mapungubwe. Secondly, the basal levels of the Mapela terraces and hilltop contain élite solid dhaka (adobe) floors associated with K2 pottery and glass beads. Thirdly, with a hilltop and flat area occupation since the 11th century CE, Mapela exhibits evidence of class distinction and sacred leadership earlier than K2 and Mapungubwe, the supposed propagators of the Zimbabwe culture. Fourthly, Mapungubwe material culture only appeared later in the Mapela sequence and therefore post-dates the earliest appearance of stone walling and dhaka floors at the site. Since stone walls, dhaka floors and class distinction are the essence of the Zimbabwe culture, their earlier appearance at Mapela suggests that Mapungubwe can no longer be regarded as the sole cradle of the Zimbabwe culture. This demands not just fresh ways of accounting for the rise of socio-political complexity in southern Africa, but also significant adjustments to existing models.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Cultura , Teorema de Bayes , Vidrio , Datación Radiométrica , Zimbabwe/etnología
16.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 16(1): 7-17, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23238581

RESUMEN

Intersections between migration and sex work are underexplored in southern Africa, a region with high internal and cross-border population mobility, and HIV prevalence. Sex work often constitutes an important livelihood activity for migrant women. In 2010, sex workers trained as interviewers conducted cross-sectional surveys with 1,653 female sex workers in Johannesburg (Hillbrow and Sandton), Rustenburg and Cape Town. Most (85.3%) sex workers were migrants (1396/1636): 39.0% (638/1636) internal and 46.3% (758/1636) cross-border. Cross-border migrants had higher education levels, predominately worked part-time, mainly at indoor venues, and earned more per client than other groups. They, however, had 41% lower health service contact (adjusted odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.86) and less frequent condom use than non-migrants. Police interaction was similar. Cross-border migrants appear more tenacious in certain aspects of sex work, but require increased health service contact. Migrant-sensitive, sex work-specific health care and health education are needed.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables/etnología , Zimbabwe/etnología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159001

RESUMEN

(1) As of 2011, 38% of young Zimbabwean women have had sex by age 18, as have 23% of young men; this difference has widened over time. Females now first have sex nearly two years sooner than males. (2) One-quarter of 15-19-year-old women have started childbearing; one-third of all births to adolescents are unplanned (wanted later or not at all). (3) Favorable trends of rising modern contraceptive use in urban areas were likely interrupted by the worst of the economic crisis in 2008. Use among married adolescents declined in urban areas (from 50% in 2006 to 29% in 2011), even as it rose in rural areas (from 30% to 37%). (4) Patterns in unmet need for contraception followed suit: In urban areas, the proportion of married adolescents who wanted to postpone childbearing but were not using a method rose between 2006 and 2011(from 14% to 28%); among their counterparts in rural areas, unmet need fell from 20% to 15% over this period. (5) Single, sexually active adolescents have by far the greatest unmet need--62% as of 2011, compared with 19% among their married counterparts. (6) Existing policies need clarification to assure that no adolescent is illegally denied services because of age. Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health programs should be prioritized so today's HIV-positive adolescents, many of whom have been infected since birth, do not transmit the virus to yet another generation.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Embarazo en Adolescencia/etnología , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Adolescente , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Política de Salud , Humanos , Ilegitimidad/etnología , Masculino , Matrimonio , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural , Población Urbana , Zimbabwe/etnología
18.
J Inj Violence Res ; 5(1): 17-27, 2013 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22095004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life's challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. METHODS: Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. RESULTS: Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration), during the immigration journey (mid-migration), and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration). While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed. Recommendations advocating for culturally congruent mental health research, the training of culturally competent researchers and clinicians, and the development of policies that could influence the quality of life of Zimbabwean refugees are provided.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Emigración e Inmigración , Salud Mental , Refugiados/psicología , Ajuste Social , Adulto , Competencia Cultural , Inteligencia Emocional , Etnopsicología/métodos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Mental/normas , Calidad de Vida , Apoyo Social , Sudáfrica , Zimbabwe/etnología
19.
J Health Commun ; 18(2): 146-59, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23181430

RESUMEN

As a result of the collapse of the national economy and political instability, Zimbabwe has experienced a diaspora in recent years. Although Zimbabweans are now the largest immigrant group in most sub-Saharan countries, Zimbabwean immigrants are a mostly illegal and socioeconomically marginalized population. This study explores the lives of Zimbabwean workers in Botswana from a health communication perspective and provides suggestions for accelerating the diffusion of HIV/AIDS prevention information and practices among the target population. In particular, this ethnographic report portrays how the Zimbabwean workers in Botswana make sense of their surroundings and perceive information on HIV/AIDS prevention and other public health risks. Field data analysis highlights several communication features among the immigrants, including reliance on interpersonal communication, high rate of mobile phone adoption, inaccurate public awareness on HIV/AIDS and prevention messages, and stagnated communication with health care services. By connecting Dervin's sensemaking theory to Roger's diffusion of innovations theory, the suggestions from this study can be applied to design HIV/AIDS prevention interventions for the immigrants and socioeconomically marginalized groups.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Comunicación en Salud , Salud Laboral , Botswana , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Masculino , Teoría Psicológica , Investigación Cualitativa , Zimbabwe/etnología
20.
Body Image ; 9(4): 559-62, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22717762

RESUMEN

Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Peso Corporal/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Identidad de Género , Aculturación , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Tamaño Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal/etnología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Valores Sociales/etnología , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/etnología
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