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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 39, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777307

RESUMEN

There is an urgent need to properly understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the event of continuous rise in morbidity in both humans and animals as well as an increase in the mortality rate in man. Since the novel SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China with its global spread in over 200 countries, several studies have been published on the epidemiology of the virus in man with limited information on the roles of animals and the possibility of reverse zoonosis. We therefore collected published research literature on COVID-19 from public search engines for information on SARS-CoV-2 in animals and reverse zoonosis from man. A critical and thorough study appraisal/evaluation was performed to include recent quality publications that focus on the scope of this write-up including zoonosis and reverse zoonosis of SARS-CoV-2. We highlighted what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in animals, identify gaps for future research, summarized possible reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from man to animals and included the likely implications of our summary for Africa, despite the dearth of information in Africa on the key concepts of this study.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Zoonosis/transmisión , África , Animales , Humanos , Zoonosis/mortalidad , Zoonosis/virología
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1015-1022, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770472

RESUMEN

The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease has once again demonstrated the role of the family Coronaviridae in causing human disease outbreaks. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical manifestations in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses might be useful for informing scientific inquiry, risk assessment, and decision-making. We reviewed endemic and emerging infections of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals and provide information on the receptor use, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses detected in humans and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.


Asunto(s)
Coronaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Zoonosis/virología , Alphacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Pandemias , Zoonosis/epidemiología
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750514

RESUMEN

Bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, earlier considered typically animal, currently have also been causing infections in humans. It is necessary to make clinicians aware of the emergence of new species that may cause the development of human diseases. There is an increasing frequency of isolation of streptococci such as S. suis, S. dysgalactiae, S. iniae and S. equi from people. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex bacteria has also been reported. The streptococcal species described in this review are gaining new properties and virulence factors by which they can thrive in new environments. It shows the potential of these bacteria to changes in the genome and the settlement of new hosts. Information is presented on clinical cases that concern streptococcus species belonging to the groups Bovis, Pyogenic and Suis. We also present the antibiotic resistance profiles of these bacteria. The emerging resistance to ß-lactams has been reported. In this review, the classification, clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of groups and species of streptococci considered as animal pathogens are summarized.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/fisiología , Streptococcus/patogenicidad , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/transmisión , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Virulencia , Zoonosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Zoonosis/transmisión
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1201-1205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754992
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e022720, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533798

RESUMEN

Slaughter condemnations are important sources of information on cattle health. The incidence of bovine parasitic diseases is still very high in Brazil. These diseases, in addition to causing harm to the animals health, are neglected zoonotic diseases in several parts of world. The study analysed not only the Carcass losses, but also the economic damage resulting from slaughter condemnations due to parasitic causes. Cattle slaughter data from the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA), over the period of 2012 to 2015 and data from the Secretary of Livestock and Irrigation of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (SEAPI-RS) were analyzed between 2014 and 2018.The number of organs and carcasses condemned was multiplied by the respective values (in Brazilian Real) obtained from slaughterhouses and subsequently converted into dollars. Brazilian analysis in SIF (Federal Inspection System) establishments showed that more than 1.2 million organs (3,884,505 kg) and 20,000 carcasses (4,547,718 kg) were condemned only due to parasitic causes during post-mortem inspection. In Rio Grande do Sul, in state inspection establishments, more than 1.7 million organs (8,210,559 kg) and 5,000 carcasses (1,243,200 kg) were condemned. These data are alarming and support the need for public policies to control these parasitic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Mataderos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales , Mataderos/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/economía , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/complicaciones , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Zoonosis/economía , Zoonosis/epidemiología
6.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
7.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R168-R172, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621498

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.


Asunto(s)
Legislación Alimentaria , Carne , Animales , Animales Salvajes , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Cuarentena , Zoonosis
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009109, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600424

RESUMEN

Public health institutions with sectorized structure and low integration among field teams, old-fashioned practices such as paper-based storage system, and poorly qualified health agents have limited ability to conduct accurate surveillance and design effective timely interventions. Herein, we describe the steps taken by the Zoonosis Control Center of Foz do Iguaçu (CCZ-Foz) in the last 23 years to move from an archaic and sectorized structure to a modern and timely surveillance program embracing zoonotic diseases, venomous animal injuries, and vector-borne diseases epidemiology under the One Health approach. The full implementation of the One Health approach was based on 5 axes: (1) merging sectorized field teams; (2) adoption of digital solutions; (3) health agents empowerment and permanent capacitation; (4) social mobilization; and (5) active surveys. By doing so, notifications related to zoonotic diseases and venomous animals increased 10 and 21 times, respectively, with no impairment on arbovirus surveillance (major concern in the city). Open sources database (PostgreSQL) and software (QGis) are daily updated and create real-time maps to support timely decisions. The adoption of One Health approach increased preparedness for endemic diseases and reemerging and emerging threats such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Única , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Brasil , Bases de Datos Factuales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Organizaciones/organización & administración
9.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , /virología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Femenino , Inmunidad Humoral , Masculino , España , Zoonosis/virología
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 51, 2021 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The detection of pathogens in clinical and environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is often hampered by large amounts of background information, which is especially true for viruses with small genomes. Enormous sequencing depth can be necessary to compile sufficient information for identification of a certain pathogen. Generic HTS combining with in-solution capture enrichment can markedly increase the sensitivity for virus detection in complex diagnostic samples. METHODS: A virus panel based on the principle of biotinylated RNA baits was developed for specific capture enrichment of epizootic and zoonotic viruses (VirBaits). The VirBaits set was supplemented by a SARS-CoV-2 predesigned bait set for testing recent SARS-CoV-2-positive samples. Libraries generated from complex samples were sequenced via generic HTS (without enrichment) and afterwards enriched with the VirBaits set. For validation, an internal proficiency test for emerging epizootic and zoonotic viruses (African swine fever virus, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, Nipah henipavirus, Rift Valley fever virus) was conducted. RESULTS: The VirBaits set consists of 177,471 RNA baits (80-mer) based on about 18,800 complete viral genomes targeting 35 epizootic and zoonotic viruses. In all tested samples, viruses with both DNA and RNA genomes were clearly enriched ranging from about 10-fold to 10,000-fold for viruses including distantly related viruses with at least 72% overall identity to viruses represented in the bait set. Viruses showing a lower overall identity (38% and 46%) to them were not enriched but could nonetheless be detected based on capturing conserved genome regions. The internal proficiency test supports the improved virus detection using the combination of HTS plus targeted enrichment but also points to the risk of cross-contamination between samples. CONCLUSIONS: The VirBaits approach showed a high diagnostic performance, also for distantly related viruses. The bait set is modular and expandable according to the favored diagnostics, health sector, or research question. The risk of cross-contamination needs to be taken into consideration. The application of the RNA-baits principle turned out to be user friendly, and even non-experts can easily use the VirBaits workflow. The rapid extension of the established VirBaits set adapted to actual outbreak events is possible as shown for SARS-CoV-2. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
/aislamiento & purificación , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Animales , ADN Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Humanos , ARN Viral/genética , Virus/clasificación
11.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMEN

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Metagenómica , Filogenia , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Saliva/virología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
12.
Animal ; 15(2): 100123, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573940

RESUMEN

Major shifts in how animals are bred, raised and slaughtered are involved in the intensification of livestock systems. Globally, these changes have produced major increases in access to protein-rich foods with high levels of micronutrients. Yet the intensification of livestock systems generates numerous externalities including environmental degradation, zoonotic disease transmission and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Where the process of intensification is most advanced, the expertise, institutions and regulations required to manage these externalities have developed over time, often in response to hard lessons, crises and challenges to public health. By exploring the drivers of intensification, the foci of future intensification can be identified. Low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries are likely to experience significant intensification in livestock production in the near future; however, the lessons learned elsewhere are not being transferred rapidly enough to develop risk mitigation capacity in these settings. At present, fragmentary approaches to address these problems present an incomplete picture of livestock populations, antimicrobial use, and disease risks in LMIC settings. A worldwide improvement in evidence-based zoonotic disease and AMR management within intensifying livestock production systems demands better information on the burden of livestock-associated disease, antimicrobial use and resistance and resources allocated to mitigation.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Ganado , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Zoonosis
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1007-1013, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547957

RESUMEN

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and they produce viral particles that are able to infect human cells and therefore pose a special risk for xenotransplantation. In contrast to other pig microorganisms that also pose a risk, such as porcine cytomegalovirus and hepatitis E virus, PERVs cannot be eliminated from pigs by vaccines, antiviral drugs, early weaning, or embryo transfer. Since PERVs are relevant for xenotransplantation, their biology and origin are of great interest. Recent studies have shown that PERVs are the result of a transspecies transmission of precursor retroviruses from different animals and further evolution in the pig genome. PERVs acquired different long terminal repeats (LTRs), and recombination took place. In parallel, it has been shown that the activity of the LTRs and recombination in the envelope are important for the transmissibility and pathogenesis of PERVs. Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is common, a well-known example being the transmission of precursor retroviruses from non-human primates to humans, resulting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, recent findings concerning the origin of PERVs, their LTRs, and recombination events that occurred during evolution are reviewed and compared with other findings regarding transspecies transmission of retroviruses.


Asunto(s)
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Evolución Molecular , Porcinos/virología , Animales , Retrovirus Endógenos/clasificación , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Prevalencia , Recombinación Genética , Retroviridae/clasificación , Retroviridae/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
14.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMEN

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Animales , /transmisión , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , /genética , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMEN

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virología , Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión
16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Gatos/virología , Animales , /virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Visón/virología , Prevalencia , /aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539765

RESUMEN

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 988-990, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622465

RESUMEN

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Visón/virología , /aislamiento & purificación , Animales , /epidemiología , /veterinaria , Granjas , Mamíferos/virología , /inmunología , Utah/epidemiología , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632091

RESUMEN

Abstract: The implementation of public health measures to control the current COVID-19 pandemic (such as wider lockdowns, overseas travel restrictions and physical distancing) is likely to have affected the spread of other notifiable diseases. This is a descriptive report of communicable disease surveillance in Central Queensland (CQ) for six months (1 April to 30 September 2020) after the introduction of physical distancing and wider lockdown measures in Queensland. The counts of notifiable communicable diseases in CQ in the six months were observed and compared with the average for the same months during the years 2015 to 2019. During the study's six months, there were notable decreases in notifications of most vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza, pertussis and rotavirus. Conversely, notifications increased for disease groups such as blood-borne viruses, sexually transmitted infections and vector-borne diseases. There were no reported notifications for dengue fever and malaria which are mostly overseas acquired. The notifications of some communicable diseases in CQ were variably affected and the changes correlated with the implementation of the COVID-19 public health measures. Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to some significant changes to local, regional and national public health practices including social distancing and wider lockdown. These measures have been previously reported to be associated with reductions in the incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases as well as of other airborne transmitted agents.1,2 A preliminary analysis was conducted assessing the impact of these measures on nationally notifiable diseases across Australia;3 however, the impact of these measures on communicable diseases within regional Australia is not well established. Like most regional areas, Central Queensland (CQ) has a lower population density and considerable distance from major cities; it will be informative to understand how these measures impact on notifiable conditions in this regional setting. We aimed to identify the patterns of change in reported notifiable conditions to the Central Queensland Public Health Unit (CQPHU), during a six-month period (1 April to 30 September 2020) following the implementation of COVID-19 measures. Here, we compare these notifications to the surveillance data for the same six-month period for the previous five years (2015 to 2019). Methods: The study encompasses all notifiable conditions reported from CQ, which covers approximately 226,000 population and is spread over 117,588 square kilometres. Communicable diseases data were retrieved from the Queensland Notifiable Conditions System (NoCS), an online epidemiological database, from 1 January 2015 to 30 September 2020. The data were collected under the Public Health Act 2005, a legislative authority that provides permission to access health information. Permission to publish was given by the Communicable Diseases Branch of Queensland. Data were extracted on selected notifiable diseases in Queensland: blood-borne viruses (BBV), gastrointestinal diseases, sexually transmissible infections (STIs), vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), vector-borne diseases, zoonotic diseases and other diseases. For each disease, the count for six months following the implementation of COVID-19 public health measures (1 April to 30 September 2020) was compared with the average for the same six-month period during the years 2015 to 2019. Results: From 1 April to 30 September 2020, after the implementation of Queensland's COVID-19 preventive measures, there was a decrease seen in several diseases notifications reported to the CQPHU, mostly VPDs, when compared with the same months for each of 2015 to 2019 and for the 5-year average (2015-2019) for those months (Table 1). However, increases in notifications for April-September 2020 were observed in a greater number of other notifiable disease groups.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Salud Pública/métodos , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Notificación de Enfermedades , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Vigilancia de la Población , Queensland/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(1): 238-241, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635981

RESUMEN

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the role of bats in zoonotic spillover have renewed interest in the flight-as-fever hypothesis, which posits that high body temperatures experienced by bats during flight contribute to their high viral tolerance. We argue that flight-as-fever is unlikely to explain why bats harbor more viruses than other mammals on the basis of two lines of reasoning. First, flight temperatures reported in the literature overestimate true flight temperatures because of methodologic limitations. Second, body temperatures in bats are only high relative to humans, and not relative to many other mammals. We provide examples of mammals from diverse habitats to show that temperatures in excess of 40 C during activity are quite common in species with lower viral diversity than bats. We caution scientists against stating the flight-as-fever hypothesis as unquestioned truth, as has repeatedly occurred in the popular media in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Temperatura Corporal/fisiología , Quirópteros/fisiología , Quirópteros/virología , /fisiología , Animales , Portador Sano/veterinaria , Portador Sano/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Vuelo Animal/fisiología , Zoonosis
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