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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668798

RESUMEN

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease found in both free-ranging and farmed cervids. Susceptibility of these animals to CWD is governed by various exogenous and endogenous factors. Past studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms within the prion protein (PrP) sequence itself affect an animal's susceptibility to CWD. PrP polymorphisms can modulate CWD pathogenesis in two ways: the ability of the endogenous prion protein (PrPC) to convert into infectious prions (PrPSc) or it can give rise to novel prion strains. In vivo studies in susceptible cervids, complemented by studies in transgenic mice expressing the corresponding cervid PrP sequence, show that each polymorphism has distinct effects on both PrPC and PrPSc. It is not entirely clear how these polymorphisms are responsible for these effects, but in vitro studies suggest they play a role in modifying PrP epitopes crucial for PrPC to PrPSc conversion and determining PrPC stability. PrP polymorphisms are unique to one or two cervid species and most confer a certain degree of reduced susceptibility to CWD. However, to date, there are no reports of polymorphic cervid PrP alleles providing absolute resistance to CWD. Studies on polymorphisms have focused on those found in CWD-endemic areas, with the hope that understanding the role of an animal's genetics in CWD can help to predict, contain, or prevent transmission of CWD.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Priónicas/genética , Enfermedad Debilitante Crónica/patología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Proteínas Priónicas/química , Zoonosis/patología , Zoonosis/transmisión
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1201-1205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754992
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 39, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777307

RESUMEN

There is an urgent need to properly understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the event of continuous rise in morbidity in both humans and animals as well as an increase in the mortality rate in man. Since the novel SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China with its global spread in over 200 countries, several studies have been published on the epidemiology of the virus in man with limited information on the roles of animals and the possibility of reverse zoonosis. We therefore collected published research literature on COVID-19 from public search engines for information on SARS-CoV-2 in animals and reverse zoonosis from man. A critical and thorough study appraisal/evaluation was performed to include recent quality publications that focus on the scope of this write-up including zoonosis and reverse zoonosis of SARS-CoV-2. We highlighted what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in animals, identify gaps for future research, summarized possible reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from man to animals and included the likely implications of our summary for Africa, despite the dearth of information in Africa on the key concepts of this study.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Zoonosis/transmisión , África , Animales , Humanos , Zoonosis/mortalidad , Zoonosis/virología
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750514

RESUMEN

Bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, earlier considered typically animal, currently have also been causing infections in humans. It is necessary to make clinicians aware of the emergence of new species that may cause the development of human diseases. There is an increasing frequency of isolation of streptococci such as S. suis, S. dysgalactiae, S. iniae and S. equi from people. Isolation of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex bacteria has also been reported. The streptococcal species described in this review are gaining new properties and virulence factors by which they can thrive in new environments. It shows the potential of these bacteria to changes in the genome and the settlement of new hosts. Information is presented on clinical cases that concern streptococcus species belonging to the groups Bovis, Pyogenic and Suis. We also present the antibiotic resistance profiles of these bacteria. The emerging resistance to ß-lactams has been reported. In this review, the classification, clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of groups and species of streptococci considered as animal pathogens are summarized.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus/fisiología , Streptococcus/patogenicidad , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/transmisión , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/efectos de los fármacos , Virulencia , Zoonosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Zoonosis/transmisión
5.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , /virología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Femenino , Inmunidad Humoral , Masculino , España , Zoonosis/virología
6.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic infectious disease of public concern in Nigeria. The infection dynamics of the disease is not well elucidated in Nigeria. This study was carried out to describe the pattern of infection, case fatality rate and spread of lassa virus (LASV) from 2017 to 2020. METHODS: Weekly epidemiological data on LF from December, 2016 to September, 2020 were obtained from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. The number of confirmed cases and deaths were computed according to months and states. Descriptive statistics was performed and case fatality rate was calculated. Distribution and spread maps of LF over the four years period was performed on ArcMap 10.7. RESULTS: A total of 2787 confirmed cases and 516 deaths were reported in Nigeria from December, 2016 to September, 2020. Increase in number of cases and deaths were observed with 298, 528, 796 and 1165 confirmed cases and 79, 125, 158 and 158 deaths in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. Over 60% of the cases were reported in two states, Edo and Ondo states. The LF cases spread from 19 states in 2017 to 32 states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in 2020. Ondo state (25.39%) had the highest of deaths rate from LF over the four years. Case fatality rate (CFR) of LF was highest in 2017 (26.5%) with CFR of 23.7, 19.6 and 13.4% in 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. The peak of infection was in the month of February for the four years. Infections increases at the onset of dry season in November and decline till April when the wet season sets-in. CONCLUSION: There is an annual increase in the number of LASV infection across the states in Nigeria. There is need to heighten control strategies through the use of integrated approach, ranging from vector control, health education and early diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre de Lassa/mortalidad , Fiebre de Lassa/transmisión , Animales , Geografía , Humanos , Fiebre de Lassa/epidemiología , Virus Lassa , Mortalidad/tendencias , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/mortalidad , Zoonosis/transmisión
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530012

RESUMEN

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Sus scrofa/virología , Porcinos/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539765

RESUMEN

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1007-1013, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547957

RESUMEN

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and they produce viral particles that are able to infect human cells and therefore pose a special risk for xenotransplantation. In contrast to other pig microorganisms that also pose a risk, such as porcine cytomegalovirus and hepatitis E virus, PERVs cannot be eliminated from pigs by vaccines, antiviral drugs, early weaning, or embryo transfer. Since PERVs are relevant for xenotransplantation, their biology and origin are of great interest. Recent studies have shown that PERVs are the result of a transspecies transmission of precursor retroviruses from different animals and further evolution in the pig genome. PERVs acquired different long terminal repeats (LTRs), and recombination took place. In parallel, it has been shown that the activity of the LTRs and recombination in the envelope are important for the transmissibility and pathogenesis of PERVs. Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is common, a well-known example being the transmission of precursor retroviruses from non-human primates to humans, resulting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, recent findings concerning the origin of PERVs, their LTRs, and recombination events that occurred during evolution are reviewed and compared with other findings regarding transspecies transmission of retroviruses.


Asunto(s)
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Evolución Molecular , Porcinos/virología , Animales , Retrovirus Endógenos/clasificación , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Prevalencia , Recombinación Genética , Retroviridae/clasificación , Retroviridae/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(3): 988-990, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622465

RESUMEN

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Visón/virología , /aislamiento & purificación , Animales , /epidemiología , /veterinaria , Granjas , Mamíferos/virología , /inmunología , Utah/epidemiología , Zoonosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
12.
J Microbiol ; 59(3): 332-340, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624270

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 was originated from zoonotic coronaviruses and confirmed as a novel beta-coronavirus, which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, COVID-19. In this review, we describe the genetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, including types of mutation, and molecular epidemiology, highlighting its key difference from animal coronaviruses. We further summarized the current knowledge on clinical, genetic, and pathological features of several animal coronaviruses and compared them with SARS-CoV-2, as well as recent evidences of interspecies transmission and recombination of animal coronaviruses to provide a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in One Health perspectives. We also discuss the potential wildlife hosts and zoonotic origin of this emerging virus in detail, that may help mitigate the spread and damages caused by the disease.


Asunto(s)
Mutación , Salud Única , /genética , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , Humanos , Recombinación Genética , Zoonosis/transmisión
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 181-184, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454218

RESUMEN

The illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is a criminal practice bringing several ecological and public health consequences, such as the spreading of zoonotic pathogens and/or the introduction of exotic species of animals into new geographical areas. Here, we discuss potential risks of IWT on the spreading and emergence of zoonotic pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Animales Exóticos , Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Comercio/ética , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos
14.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468689

RESUMEN

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /virología , Diarrea/virología , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Caballos , Humanos , Metagenómica , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , /aislamiento & purificación
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 7, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439354

RESUMEN

What should the best practices be for modeling zoonotic disease risks, e.g. to anticipate the next pandemic, when background assumptions are unsettled or evolving rapidly? This challenge runs deeper than one might expect, all the way into how we model the robustness of contemporary phylogenetic inference and taxonomic classifications. Different and legitimate taxonomic assumptions can destabilize the putative objectivity of zoonotic risk assessments, thus potentially supporting inconsistent and overconfident policy decisions.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Zoonosis , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/clasificación , Filogenia , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
16.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 144-152, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428296

RESUMEN

Q fever, a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic among cattle in Western France. However, studies assessing the risk of human infection in such areas are lacking to date, while they may provide information about key specific preventive actions which could be advised to the human populations living with or close to cattle. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in two departments of Western France during the 2017/18 winter in order to explore possible risk factors for seropositivity among two distinct populations, i) an occupational risk group, that is, the cattle farmers, and ii) the general adult population (approached by blood donors). Sera were collected in 176 cattle farmers and 347 blood donors respectively, and tested for phase I and II antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Each participant was asked to fill in a questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, occupational and non-occupational risk exposure. Identified risk factors were: in the general population, working in contact with ruminants, comparatively to any other activity (OR = 4.41; 95% CI: [1.59-6.55]); among farmers, managing an itself infected cattle herd (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: [1.59-6.55]). No other controllable risk factor (lifestyle, outdoor activities, proximity to pets and livestock animals, occupational practices) was here evidenced. In areas with endemically infected cattle, human exposure to Coxiella burnetii is to some extent unavoidable. This strengthens the need for physicians' awareness of the symptoms of Q fever and the appropriateness of general biosecurity measures, especially among at-risk groups living there.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Coxiella burnetii , Fiebre Q/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/transmisión , Enfermedades Endémicas , Agricultores , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional , Fiebre Q/transmisión , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/prevención & control
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(2): 131-143, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455089

RESUMEN

Salmonellosis is a major global public health issue; its most common infection, gastroenteritis, accounts for approximately 90 million illnesses and 150,000 mortalities per year. Eradicating salmonellosis requires surveillance, prevention and treatment, entailing large expenditures. However, it is difficult to control Salmonella transmission because it occurs via multiple routes; exotic reptiles are a reservoir of Salmonella and comprise one such route. As the popularity of exotic pets and animal exhibition has increased, human encounters with reptiles have also increased. As a result, reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) has been recognized as an emerging disease. The development of antimicrobial resistance in RAS-causing Salmonella sp. requires alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, bacteriophages have been established as an alternative to antibiotics because only target bacteria are lysed; thus, they are promising biocontrol agents. Here, bacteriophage pSal-SNUABM-02, which infects and lyses reptile Salmonella isolates, was isolated and characterized. The morphology, host range, growth traits and stability of the phage were investigated. The phage was assigned to Myoviridae and was stable in the following conditions: pH 5-9, 4-37°C, and ultravioletA/ultravioletB (UVA/UVB) exposure. Salmonella clearance efficacy was tested using planktonic cell lysis activity and biofilm degradation on polystyrene 96-well plates and reptile skin fragments. The phage exhibited vigorous lysis activity against planktonic cells. In in vitro biofilm degradation tests on reptile skin and polystyrene plates, both low- and high-concentration phage treatments lowered bacterial cell viability by approximately 2.5-3 log colony-forming units and also decreased biomass. Thus, bacteriophages are a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and eradication of RAS.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reptiles/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/prevención & control , Fagos de Salmonella/fisiología , Zoonosis/microbiología , Animales , Biopelículas , Humanos , Mascotas/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/transmisión , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467206

RESUMEN

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Asunto(s)
Coevolución Biológica , MicroARNs/genética , /genética , Animales , /virología , Pollos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma/genética , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Mamíferos , MicroARNs/química , MicroARNs/metabolismo , /fisiología , Alineación de Secuencia , Distribución Tisular , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
19.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 50-60, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349165

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now affected over 72.5 million people worldwide, with nearly 1.6 million deaths reported globally as of December 17, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to have originated from bats and pangolins, and its intermediate animal hosts are being investigated. Crossing of the species barrier and exhibition of zoonosis have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 in farm (minks), domesticated (cats and dogs), and wild animals (tigers, puma, and lions). Recently, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink farms, which led to the death of a myriad minks. The clinical and pathological findings of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the rapid animal-to-animal transmission in minks are almost similar to the findings observed in patients with COVID-19. Additionally, the rapid virus transmission among minks and the associated mutations resulted in a new mink-associated variant that was identified in both minks and humans, thereby providing evidence of mink-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant with a possible reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies poses serious risks and is expected to have a direct effect on the diagnostic techniques, therapeutics, and vaccines that are currently under development. This article highlights the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, and provides an understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in minks and the associated zoonotic concerns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from minks to humans with an emphasis on appropriate mitigation measures and on the necessity of adopting the One Health approach during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Animales/virología , Visón/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , /transmisión , /virología , Granjas , Humanos , Salud Única , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0009004, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370288

RESUMEN

A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the capacity of a virus to break the species barrier is crucial for pathogen surveillance and control. New World (NW) mammarenaviruses constitute a diverse group of rodent-borne pathogens that includes several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. The ability of the NW mammarenaviral attachment glycoprotein (GP) to utilize human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) as a primary entry receptor plays a key role in dictating zoonotic potential. The recent isolation of Tacaribe and lymphocytic choriominingitis mammarenaviruses from host-seeking ticks provided evidence for the presence of mammarenaviruses in arthropods, which are established vectors for numerous other viral pathogens. Here, using next generation sequencing to search for other mammarenaviruses in ticks, we identified a novel replication-competent strain of the NW mammarenavirus Tamiami (TAMV-FL), which we found capable of utilizing hTfR1 to enter mammalian cells. During isolation through serial passaging in mammalian immunocompetent cells, the quasispecies of TAMV-FL acquired and enriched mutations leading to the amino acid changes N151K and D156N, within GP. Cell entry studies revealed that both substitutions, N151K and D156N, increased dependence of the virus on hTfR1 and binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Moreover, we show that the substituted residues likely map to the sterically constrained trimeric axis of GP, and facilitate viral fusion at a lower pH, resulting in viral egress from later endosomal compartments. In summary, we identify and characterize a naturally occurring TAMV strain (TAMV-FL) within ticks that is able to utilize hTfR1. The TAMV-FL significantly diverged from previous TAMV isolates, demonstrating that TAMV quasispecies exhibit striking genetic plasticity that may facilitate zoonotic spillover and rapid adaptation to new hosts.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/transmisión , Arenaviridae/genética , Receptores de Transferrina/metabolismo , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos/genética , Animales , Arenaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Línea Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Insectos Vectores/virología , Alineación de Secuencia , Garrapatas/virología , Células Vero , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
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