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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1201-1205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754992
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 39, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777307

RESUMEN

There is an urgent need to properly understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the event of continuous rise in morbidity in both humans and animals as well as an increase in the mortality rate in man. Since the novel SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China with its global spread in over 200 countries, several studies have been published on the epidemiology of the virus in man with limited information on the roles of animals and the possibility of reverse zoonosis. We therefore collected published research literature on COVID-19 from public search engines for information on SARS-CoV-2 in animals and reverse zoonosis from man. A critical and thorough study appraisal/evaluation was performed to include recent quality publications that focus on the scope of this write-up including zoonosis and reverse zoonosis of SARS-CoV-2. We highlighted what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in animals, identify gaps for future research, summarized possible reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from man to animals and included the likely implications of our summary for Africa, despite the dearth of information in Africa on the key concepts of this study.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Zoonosis/transmisión , África , Animales , Humanos , Zoonosis/mortalidad , Zoonosis/virología
3.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/transmisión , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , /virología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Femenino , Inmunidad Humoral , Masculino , España , Zoonosis/virología
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539765

RESUMEN

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
5.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1007-1013, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547957

RESUMEN

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and they produce viral particles that are able to infect human cells and therefore pose a special risk for xenotransplantation. In contrast to other pig microorganisms that also pose a risk, such as porcine cytomegalovirus and hepatitis E virus, PERVs cannot be eliminated from pigs by vaccines, antiviral drugs, early weaning, or embryo transfer. Since PERVs are relevant for xenotransplantation, their biology and origin are of great interest. Recent studies have shown that PERVs are the result of a transspecies transmission of precursor retroviruses from different animals and further evolution in the pig genome. PERVs acquired different long terminal repeats (LTRs), and recombination took place. In parallel, it has been shown that the activity of the LTRs and recombination in the envelope are important for the transmissibility and pathogenesis of PERVs. Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is common, a well-known example being the transmission of precursor retroviruses from non-human primates to humans, resulting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, recent findings concerning the origin of PERVs, their LTRs, and recombination events that occurred during evolution are reviewed and compared with other findings regarding transspecies transmission of retroviruses.


Asunto(s)
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Evolución Molecular , Porcinos/virología , Animales , Retrovirus Endógenos/clasificación , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Prevalencia , Recombinación Genética , Retroviridae/clasificación , Retroviridae/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMEN

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Animales , /transmisión , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , /genética , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
7.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMEN

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , /veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/veterinaria , Visón/virología , Pandemias/veterinaria , /aislamiento & purificación , /transmisión , Animales , /virología , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Granjas , Genes Virales , Humanos , Incidencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salud Pública , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , /virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
8.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Gatos/virología , Animales , /virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Visón/virología , Prevalencia , /aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/virología
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMEN

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Metagenómica , Filogenia , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Saliva/virología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
10.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436435

RESUMEN

Despite being nearly 10 months into the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, the definitive animal host for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causal agent of COVID-19, remains unknown. Unfortunately, similar problems exist for other betacoronaviruses, and no vouchered specimens exist to corroborate host species identification for most of these pathogens. This most basic information is critical to the full understanding and mitigation of emerging zoonotic diseases. To overcome this hurdle, we recommend that host-pathogen researchers adopt vouchering practices and collaborate with natural history collections to permanently archive microbiological samples and host specimens. Vouchered specimens and associated samples provide both repeatability and extension to host-pathogen studies, and using them mobilizes a large workforce (i.e., biodiversity scientists) to assist in pandemic preparedness. We review several well-known examples that successfully integrate host-pathogen research with natural history collections (e.g., yellow fever, hantaviruses, helminths). However, vouchering remains an underutilized practice in such studies. Using an online survey, we assessed vouchering practices used by microbiologists (e.g., bacteriologists, parasitologists, virologists) in host-pathogen research. A much greater number of respondents permanently archive microbiological samples than archive host specimens, and less than half of respondents voucher host specimens from which microbiological samples were lethally collected. To foster collaborations between microbiologists and natural history collections, we provide recommendations for integrating vouchering techniques and archiving of microbiological samples into host-pathogen studies. This integrative approach exemplifies the premise underlying One Health initiatives, providing critical infrastructure for addressing related issues ranging from public health to global climate change and the biodiversity crisis.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/patología , Historia Natural/normas , Zoonosis/patología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , /virología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/parasitología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Museos/normas , /fisiología , Manejo de Especímenes , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/virología
11.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435494

RESUMEN

Understanding the ecology of rodent-borne hantaviruses is critical to assessing the risk of spillover to humans. Longitudinal surveys have suggested that hantaviral prevalence in a given host population is tightly linked to rodent ecology and correlates with changes in the species composition of a rodent community over time and/or habitat composition. We tested two hypotheses to identify whether resource addition and/or habitat composition may affect hantavirus prevalence among two sympatric reservoir hosts in a neotropical forest: (i) increased food resources will alter the rodent community and thus hantaviral prevalence; and (ii) host abundance and viral seroprevalence will be associated with habitat composition. We established a baseline of rodent-virus prevalence in three grid pairs of distinct habitat compositions and subjected one grid of each pair to resource augmentation. Increased rodent species diversity was observed on grids where food was added versus untreated control grids during the first post-treatment sampling session. Resource augmentation changed species community composition, yet it did not affect the prevalence of hantavirus in the host population over time, nor was there evidence of a dilution effect. Secondly, we show that the prevalence of the virus in the respective reservoir hosts was associated with habitat composition at two spatial levels, independent of resource addition, supporting previous findings that habitat composition is a primary driver of the prevalence of hantaviruses in the neotropics.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Ecosistema , Bosques , Infecciones por Hantavirus/veterinaria , Hantavirus/fisiología , Roedores/virología , Clima Tropical , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Florida , Humanos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
12.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468689

RESUMEN

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , /virología , Diarrea/virología , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Caballos , Humanos , Metagenómica , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , /aislamiento & purificación
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498685

RESUMEN

Nipah virus is a bat-borne paramyxovirus that produces yearly outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in Bangladesh. Understanding the ecological conditions that lead to spillover from bats to humans can assist in designing effective interventions. To investigate the current and historical processes that drive Nipah spillover in Bangladesh, we analyzed the relationship among spillover events and climatic conditions, the spatial distribution and size of Pteropus medius roosts, and patterns of land-use change in Bangladesh over the last 300 years. We found that 53% of annual variation in winter spillovers is explained by winter temperature, which may affect bat behavior, physiology, and human risk behaviors. We infer from changes in forest cover that a progressive shift in bat roosting behavior occurred over hundreds of years, producing the current system where a majority of P. medius populations are small (median of 150 bats), occupy roost sites for 10 years or more, live in areas of high human population density, and opportunistically feed on cultivated food resources-conditions that promote viral spillover. Without interventions, continuing anthropogenic pressure on bat populations similar to what has occurred in Bangladesh could result in more regular spillovers of other bat viruses, including Hendra and Ebola viruses.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Conducta Alimentaria , Infecciones por Henipavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Virus Nipah/genética , Animales , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Quirópteros/fisiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Bosques , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estaciones del Año , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/virología
14.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467206

RESUMEN

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Asunto(s)
Coevolución Biológica , MicroARNs/genética , /genética , Animales , /virología , Pollos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma/genética , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Mamíferos , MicroARNs/química , MicroARNs/metabolismo , /fisiología , Alineación de Secuencia , Distribución Tisular , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 7, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439354

RESUMEN

What should the best practices be for modeling zoonotic disease risks, e.g. to anticipate the next pandemic, when background assumptions are unsettled or evolving rapidly? This challenge runs deeper than one might expect, all the way into how we model the robustness of contemporary phylogenetic inference and taxonomic classifications. Different and legitimate taxonomic assumptions can destabilize the putative objectivity of zoonotic risk assessments, thus potentially supporting inconsistent and overconfident policy decisions.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Zoonosis , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/clasificación , Filogenia , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
16.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 50-60, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349165

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now affected over 72.5 million people worldwide, with nearly 1.6 million deaths reported globally as of December 17, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to have originated from bats and pangolins, and its intermediate animal hosts are being investigated. Crossing of the species barrier and exhibition of zoonosis have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 in farm (minks), domesticated (cats and dogs), and wild animals (tigers, puma, and lions). Recently, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink farms, which led to the death of a myriad minks. The clinical and pathological findings of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the rapid animal-to-animal transmission in minks are almost similar to the findings observed in patients with COVID-19. Additionally, the rapid virus transmission among minks and the associated mutations resulted in a new mink-associated variant that was identified in both minks and humans, thereby providing evidence of mink-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant with a possible reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies poses serious risks and is expected to have a direct effect on the diagnostic techniques, therapeutics, and vaccines that are currently under development. This article highlights the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, and provides an understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in minks and the associated zoonotic concerns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from minks to humans with an emphasis on appropriate mitigation measures and on the necessity of adopting the One Health approach during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Animales/virología , Visón/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/virología , /transmisión , /virología , Granjas , Humanos , Salud Única , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0009004, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370288

RESUMEN

A detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying the capacity of a virus to break the species barrier is crucial for pathogen surveillance and control. New World (NW) mammarenaviruses constitute a diverse group of rodent-borne pathogens that includes several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. The ability of the NW mammarenaviral attachment glycoprotein (GP) to utilize human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) as a primary entry receptor plays a key role in dictating zoonotic potential. The recent isolation of Tacaribe and lymphocytic choriominingitis mammarenaviruses from host-seeking ticks provided evidence for the presence of mammarenaviruses in arthropods, which are established vectors for numerous other viral pathogens. Here, using next generation sequencing to search for other mammarenaviruses in ticks, we identified a novel replication-competent strain of the NW mammarenavirus Tamiami (TAMV-FL), which we found capable of utilizing hTfR1 to enter mammalian cells. During isolation through serial passaging in mammalian immunocompetent cells, the quasispecies of TAMV-FL acquired and enriched mutations leading to the amino acid changes N151K and D156N, within GP. Cell entry studies revealed that both substitutions, N151K and D156N, increased dependence of the virus on hTfR1 and binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Moreover, we show that the substituted residues likely map to the sterically constrained trimeric axis of GP, and facilitate viral fusion at a lower pH, resulting in viral egress from later endosomal compartments. In summary, we identify and characterize a naturally occurring TAMV strain (TAMV-FL) within ticks that is able to utilize hTfR1. The TAMV-FL significantly diverged from previous TAMV isolates, demonstrating that TAMV quasispecies exhibit striking genetic plasticity that may facilitate zoonotic spillover and rapid adaptation to new hosts.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/transmisión , Arenaviridae/genética , Receptores de Transferrina/metabolismo , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos/genética , Animales , Arenaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Línea Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Insectos Vectores/virología , Alineación de Secuencia , Garrapatas/virología , Células Vero , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928572, 2020 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311429

RESUMEN

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third (following SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV) zoonotic coronavirus that has crossed the species barrier in the 21st century, resulting in the development of serious human infection. The punishing effect of the recent outbreak of pandemic disease termed COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 impelled us to gather the facts about the nature of coronaviruses. First, we introduce the basic information about coronavirus taxonomy, structure, and replication process to create the basis for more advanced consideration. In the following part of this review, we focused on interactions between the virus and the receptor on the host cell, as this stage is the critical process determining the species and tissue tropism, as well as clinical course of infection. We also illuminate the molecular basis of the strategy used by coronaviruses to cross the species barrier. We give special attention to the cellular receptor's interaction with S protein of different CoVs (dipeptidyl peptidase IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), as well as the cellular proteases involved in proteolysis of this protein. These factors determine the virus entry and replication; thus, even fine quantitative or qualitative differences in their expression may crucially affect outcomes of infection. Understanding virus biology and characterization of the host factors involved in coronavirus transmission and pathogenesis may offer novel options for development of efficient therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Asunto(s)
/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Dipeptidil Peptidasa 4/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/metabolismo , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Virus del SRAS/metabolismo , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , /patogenicidad , Especificidad de la Especie , Internalización del Virus , Replicación Viral , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/patología
19.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316899

RESUMEN

Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern to public health, as highlighted by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Such diseases are of particular danger during mass gathering and mass influx events, as large crowds of people in close proximity to each other creates optimal opportunities for disease transmission. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are two countries that have witnessed mass gatherings due to the arrival of Syrian refugees and the annual Hajj season. The mass migration of people not only brings exotic diseases to these regions but also brings new diseases back to their own countries, e.g., the outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Many emerging pathogens originate in bats, and more than 30 bat species have been identified in these two countries. Some of those bat species are known to carry viruses that cause deadly diseases in other parts of the world, such as the rabies virus and coronaviruses. However, little is known about bats and the pathogens they carry in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Here, the importance of enhanced surveillance of bat-borne infections in Jordan and Saudi Arabia is emphasized, promoting the awareness of bat-borne diseases among the general public and building up infrastructure and capability to fill the gaps in public health preparedness to prevent future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Salud Pública , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Jordania , Arabia Saudita , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 596944, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324602

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization defines a zoonosis as any infection naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. The pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been classified as a zoonotic disease, however, no animal reservoir has yet been found, so this classification is premature. We propose that COVID-19 should instead be classified an "emerging infectious disease (EID) of probable animal origin." To explore if COVID-19 infection fits our proposed re-categorization vs. the contemporary definitions of zoonoses, we reviewed current evidence of infection origin and transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 virus and described this in the context of known zoonoses, EIDs and "spill-over" events. Although the initial one hundred COVID-19 patients were presumably exposed to the virus at a seafood Market in China, and despite the fact that 33 of 585 swab samples collected from surfaces and cages in the market tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, no virus was isolated directly from animals and no animal reservoir was detected. Elsewhere, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in animals including domesticated cats, dogs, and ferrets, as well as captive-managed mink, lions, tigers, deer, and mice confirming zooanthroponosis. Other than circumstantial evidence of zoonotic cases in mink farms in the Netherlands, no cases of natural transmission from wild or domesticated animals have been confirmed. More than 40 million human COVID-19 infections reported appear to be exclusively through human-human transmission. SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 do not meet the WHO definition of zoonoses. We suggest SARS-CoV-2 should be re-classified as an EID of probable animal origin.


Asunto(s)
/clasificación , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Zoonosis , Animales , Animales Salvajes , China , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/clasificación , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/clasificación , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
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