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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

RESUMEN

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Suelo , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Muestras de Agua , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257144, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364506

RESUMEN

Pseudomonas fluorescens is one of the main causes of septicemic diseases among freshwater fish, causing severe economic losses and decreasing farm efficiency. Thus, this research was aimed to investigate the occurrence of P. fluorescens in Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) fish in Egypt, gene sequencing of 16SrDNA gene, and antimicrobial susceptibility. P. fluorescens strains were detected in 32% (128/400) of apparently healthy (9%; 36/400) and diseased (23%; 92/400) Nile tilapia fish. The highest prevalence was observed in gills of fish, 31.3% followed by intestine 26.9%, liver 24.2%, and kidneys 17.6%. The PCR results for the 16SrDNA gene of P. fluorescens showed 16SrDNA gene in 30% of examined isolates. Moreover, Homogeny and a strong relationship between strains of P. fluorescens was confirmed using 16SrDNA sequences. Beside the responsibility of 16SrDNA gene on the virulence of P. fluorescens. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that all strains were resistant to piperacillin (100%), followed by ceftazidime (29.7%), and cefepime (25.8%). The strains of P. fluorescence were highly sensitive to cefotaxime (74.2%), followed by ceftriaxone and levofloxacin (70.3% each). Interestingly, 29.7% of strains of P. fluorescens were multiple antimicrobial-resistant (MAR).


Pseudomonas fluorescens é uma das principais causas de doenças septicêmicas em peixes de água doce, causando graves perdas econômicas e diminuindo a eficiência da fazenda. Assim, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência de P. fluorescens em peixes de tilápia-do-nilo (O. niloticus) no Egito, sequenciamento do gene 16S rDNA e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana. Cepas de P. fluorescens foram detectadas em 32% (128/400) de peixes tilápia-do-nilo aparentemente saudáveis ​​(9%; 36/400) e doentes (23%; 92/400). A maior prevalência foi observada nas brânquias dos peixes, 31,3%, seguida pelo intestino 26,9%, fígado 24,2% e rins 17,6%. Os resultados da PCR para o gene 16SrDNA de P. fluorescens mostraram o gene 16SrDNA em 30% dos isolados examinados. Além disso, a homogeneidade e uma forte relação entre cepas de P. fluorescens foi confirmada usando sequências de 16SrDNA. Além da responsabilidade do gene 16SrDNA na virulência de P. fluorescens. Os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelaram que todas as cepas foram resistentes à piperacilina (100%), seguida pela ceftazidima (29,7%) e cefepima (25,8%). As cepas de P. fluorescens foram altamente sensíveis à cefotaxima (74,2%), seguida pela ceftriaxona e levofloxacina (70,3% cada). Curiosamente, 29,7% das cepas de P. fluorescens eram multirresistentes a antimicrobianos (MAR).


Asunto(s)
Animales , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Acuicultura , Peces , Agua Dulce
3.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 45-54, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045056

RESUMEN

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious pathogen causing various infections in humans. We evaluated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)13 in Korea and investigated the epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Methods: S. pneumoniae isolates causing IPD were collected from 16 hospitals in Korea between 2017 and 2019. Serotyping was performed using modified sequential multiplex PCR and the Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on MDR isolates for epidemiological investigations. Results: Among the 411 S. pneumoniae isolates analyzed, the most prevalent serotype was 3 (12.2%), followed by 10A (9.5%), 34 (7.3%), 19A (6.8%), 23A (6.3%), 22F (6.1%), 35B (5.8%), 11A (5.1%), and others (40.9%). The coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)23 were 7.8%, 7.8%, 28.7%, and 59.4%, respectively. Resistance rates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were 13.1%, 9.2%, 80.3%, and 4.1%, respectively. MDR isolates accounted for 23.4% of all isolates. Serotypes 23A, 11A, 19A, and 15B accounted for the highest proportions of total isolates at 18.8%, 16.7%, 14.6%, and 8.3%, respectively. Sequence type (ST)166 (43.8%) and ST320 (12.5%) were common among MDR isolates. Conclusions: Non-PCV13 serotypes are increasing among invasive S. pneumoniae strains causing IPD. Differences in antimicrobial resistance were found according to the specific serotype. Continuous monitoring of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is necessary for the appropriate management of S. pneumoniae infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Neumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Vacunas Neumococicas/farmacología , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Vacunas Conjugadas/farmacología
5.
Epilepsia ; 2022 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082520

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Existing gene panels were developed to understand the aetiology of epilepsy and while important, further benefits will arise from an effective pharmacogenomics panel for personalising therapy and achieving seizure control. Our study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a pharmacogenomics panel for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, compared with usual care. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was employed using a discrete event simulation model. The microsimulation model aggregated the costs and benefits of genetically-guided treatment versus usual care for 5000 simulated patients. The 10-year model combined data from various sources including; genomic databases on prevalence of variants, population-level pharmaceutical claims on antiseizure medications, published long-term therapy retention rates, patient-level cost data, and systematic reviews. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were computed. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to address uncertainty in model parameters. RESULTS: The mean cost of the genetically-guided treatment option was AU$98,199 compared with AU$95,386 for usual care. Corresponding mean QALYs were 4.67 compared with 4.28 for genetically-guided and usual care strategies, respectively. The incremental cost per QALY gained was AU$7,381. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost per QALY gained was AU$6,321 (95% Uncertainty interval: AU$3,604, AU$9,621) with a 100% likelihood of being cost-effective in the Australian healthcare system. The most influential drivers of the findings were the monthly healthcare costs associated with reduced seizures, costs when seizures continued, and the quality of life estimates under genetically-guided and usual care strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: This early economic evaluation of a pharmacogenomics panel to guide treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy could potentially be cost-effective in the Australian healthcare system. Clinical trial evidence is necessary to confirm these findings.

7.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 333, 2022 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Swine are considered a major source of foodborne salmonellosis, a public health issue further complicated by the circulation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains that threaten the safety of the food chain. The current study aimed to identify patterns that can help to understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella in pigs in Spain through the application of several multivariate statistical methods to data from the AMR national surveillance programs from 2001 to 2017. RESULTS: A total of 1,318 pig Salmonella isolates belonging to 63 different serotypes were isolated and their AMR profiles were determined. Tetracycline resistance across provinces in Spain was the highest among all antimicrobials and ranged from 66.7% to 95.8%, followed by sulfamethoxazole resistance (range: 42.5% - 77.8%), streptomycin resistance (range: 45.7% - 76.7%), ampicillin resistance (range: 24.3% - 66.7%, with a lower percentage of resistance in the South-East of Spain), and chloramphenicol resistance (range: 8.5% - 41.1%). A significant increase in the percentage of resistant isolates to chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and trimethoprim from 2013 to 2017 was observed. Bayesian network analysis showed the existence of dependencies between resistance to antimicrobials of the same but also different families, with chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole in the centre of the networks. In the networks, the conditional probability for an isolate susceptible to ciprofloxacin that was also susceptible to nalidixic acid was 0.999 but for an isolate resistant to ciprofloxacin that was also resistant to nalidixic acid was only 0.779. An isolate susceptible to florfenicol would be expected to be susceptible to chloramphenicol, whereas an isolate resistant to chloramphenicol had a conditional probability of being resistant to florfenicol at only 0.221. Hierarchical clustering further demonstrated the linkage between certain resistances (and serotypes). For example, a higher likelihood of multidrug-resistance in isolates belonging to 1,4,[5],12:i:- serotype was found, and in the cluster where all isolates were resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, 86.9% (n = 53) of the isolates were Typhimurium. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the power of multivariate statistical methods in discovering trends and patterns of AMR and found the existence of serotype-specific AMR patterns for serotypes of public health concern in Salmonella isolates in pigs in Spain.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Teorema de Bayes , Cloranfenicol , Ciprofloxacina , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Ácido Nalidíxico , Salmonella , España/epidemiología , Sulfametoxazol , Porcinos
9.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 5061-5068, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068834

RESUMEN

Biofilm-related multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) that increase patient morbidity and mortality rates and economic burdens such as high healthcare costs and prolonged hospital stay. This review focuses on the burden of bacterial biofilm in the hospital settings, their impact on the emergence of MDR in the HAIs, biofilm detection methods, recent approaches against biofilms, and future perspectives. The prevalence of biofilm-associated MDR among HAIs ranges from 17.9% to 100.0% worldwide. The predominant bacterial isolates causing HAIs in recently published studies were S. aureus, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa. In addition to the use of qualitative and quantitative methods to detect biofilm formation, advanced PCR-based techniques have been performed for detecting biofilm-associated genes. Although there are suggested therapeutic strategies against biofilms, further confirmation of their efficacy for in vivo application and antibiotics targeting biofilm-associated genes/proteins to minimize treatment failure is required for the future.

10.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 5043-5059, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068835

RESUMEN

Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia and worldwide. Alarming is the rapid global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria. Objective: To determine the microbial profile, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated risk factors for bloodstream infections in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2018 and March 2019. Blood collected twice from each septicemia suspected patient were processed following standard bacteriological procedures. AST was performed by using the disk diffusion test according to CLSI 2017 and 2018 guidelines. Data captured in Epidata were cleaned and analyzed by SPSS version 21 software. Results: The prevalence of BSI was 28.06% and a higher proportion of pathogene detected were gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (54.5%) and gram-positive bacteria (GPB) (45.43%). The most abundant bacterial species were Klebsiella pneumoniae 17.6%, CoNS 15.2%, and Acinetobacter spp 11.0%. Culture positivity was associated with age below 6 years, neonates AOR p=<0.001, infants AOR p=<0.001, Pre-school P=0.002, ICU admission COR p=<0.001, length of admission >5 days COR P=0.016, temperature greater than 38°C, AOR p=0.013, instrument usage during medical care AOR, p=<0.001, chronic illness AOR p=0.027, and neonatal incubation AOR p=0.013. GNB average drug resistance rate was 57.9% of the commonly used antibiotics and the most efficient and inefficient drugs were amikacin (10.8%) and ampicillin (94.6%). The gram-negative isolates showed a 95.3% rate of multi-drug resistance; and MDR, XDR, and PDR were observed at 55.8%, 32.2%, and 7.3%, of isolates respectively. This finding shows children especially neonates were highly affected by drug resistant BSI. Conclusion: Pediatric patients and ICU patients are more affected by BSI, and drug-resistant bacteria are a major problem. Therefore, appropriate intervention approaches need to be implemented.

11.
3 Biotech ; 12(10): 258, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068841

RESUMEN

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Shigella flexneri 2a, one of the leading bacterial agents of diarrhoeal mortality, has posed challenges in treatment strategies. The present study was conducted to identify potential therapeutic biomarkers using gene interaction network (GIN) in order to understand the cellular and molecular level interactions of both antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genes through topological and clustering metrics. Statistically significant differential gene expression (DGE), structural chemistry and dynamics were incorporated to elucidate biomarker for sustainable therapeutic regimen against MDR S. flexneri. Functional enrichments and topological metrics revealed evgS, ybjZ, tolC, gyrA, parC and their direct interactors to be associated with diverse AMR mechanisms. Histidine kinase EvgS was considered as the hub protein due to its highest prevalence in the molecular interactome profiles of both the AMR (71.6%) and virulence (45.8%) clusters interconnecting several genes concerning two-component system (TCS). DGE profiles of ΔPhoPQ (deleted regulatory PhoP and sensor PhoQ) led to the upregulation of TCS comprising EvgSA thereby validating EvgS as a promising therapeutic biomarker. Druggability and structural stability of EvgS was assessed through thermal shifts, backbone stability and coarse dynamics refinement. Structure-function relationship was established revealing the C-terminal extracellular domain as the drug-binding site which was further validated through molecular dynamics simulation. Structure elucidation of identified biomarker followed by secondary and tertiary structural validation would prove pivotal for future therapeutic interventions against subverting both AMR and virulence posed by this strain. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03325-w.

12.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(9)2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069773

RESUMEN

Introduction. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates is a global concern and has been attributed to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in humans and animals. Integrons are mobile gene elements closely related to bacterial drug resistance. Among them, class 1 integrons containing various resistance gene cassettes could play an important role in disseminating and maintaining antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates.Hypothesis. Salmonella class 1 integrons have a relationship with Salmonella drug resistance.Aim. This study aims to investigate the distribution of class 1 integrons and their variable regional molecular characteristics, as well as the diversity of the promoters and drug sensitivity among Salmonella strains.Methodology. A total of 111 Salmonella strains, collected between 2018 and 2020, underwent fully automated bacterial identification using the VITEK 2 Compact system and an antibiotic sensitivity test. PCR was employed to screen class 1 integrase genes (IntI1) and integron variable regions, while promoter type and variable region gene cassette characteristics were determined using sequencing analysis.Results. A total of 24 IntI1-positive strains were detected in 111 Salmonella strains. Moreover, IntI1-positive strains exhibited statistically significant resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and azithromycin compared to integron-negative strains (P<0.05). The multidrug resistance rate of IntI1-positive strains was significantly higher than that of negative strains. Variable regions were observed in 6 of the 24 IntI1-positive strains. Four gene cassettes were detected, namely dfrA17-aadA5, dfrA12-aadA2, aadA22 and aar-3-dfrA27. Finally, 3 types of class 1 integron variable region promoters were identified in 24 strains, including PcW, PcH1 and PcWTGN-10; they are all relatively weak promoters.Conclusion. The integron and the drug resistance genes carried by integron have a certain relationship with drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Integrones , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Integrones/genética , Salmonella/genética
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 5069-5083, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071818

RESUMEN

Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance poses new challenges in the management of community acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs). Therefore, surveillance on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of common respiratory pathogens is valuable and guides empirical therapeutic choices in management of CARTIs. Objective: The objective of the current study is to summarize the antimicrobial resistance trends in common respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with CARTIs in China, over a 10-year period (2009-2018). Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis strains were collected from multicenter, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed in the research central laboratory of each study period from 2009-2018. The pathogens that accounted for CARTIs in the adult population was considered and summarized. Results: From 2009-2018 a total of 3750 isolates were collected from 22 cities located across different regions of China. Among these the most common bacterial isolates include S. pneumoniae (53.7%) followed by H. influenza (32.4%), M. catarrhalis (13.9%). S. pneumoniae exhibited reduction in susceptibility and increase in resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone) during the surveillance period. Invasive and noninvasive S. pneumoniae showed similar resistance. In the case of H. influenzae susceptibility to ß-lactam and ß-lactamase inhibitors (ampicillin, amoxicillin and AMC), SXT, clarithromycin and cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefaclor, ceftazidime) was reduced over the past 10 years with an exception of ceftriaxone. Overall, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin have the highest susceptibility rates against S. pneumoniae (>95%) and H. influenza (>90%). M. catarrhalis exhibited susceptibility to almost all the tested antimicrobials. Conclusion: In China the 10-year trends showed a substantial increase in resistance to ß-lactam drugs and reduction in sensitivity. However, certain antimicrobial agents namely fluoroquinolones including moxifloxacin and levofloxacin maintained low resistance rates with better susceptibility. Further, with few exceptions decline in susceptibility rates to macrolides and cephalosporins was observed among the tested pathogens.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 895227, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071961

RESUMEN

In the latest HIV-1 global drug resistance report released by WHO, countries are advised to strengthen pre-treatment monitoring of drug resistance in AIDS patients. In this study, we established an NGS-based segmented amplification HIV-1 drug resistance mutation detection method. The pol region of HIV-1 was divided into three short fragments for NGS. The entire amplification and sequencing panel were more cost-effective and batched by using the barcode sequence corresponding to the sample. Each parameter was evaluated using samples with known resistance variants frequencies. The nucleotide sequence error rate, amino acid error rate, and noise value of the NGS-based segmented amplification method were both less than 1%. When the threshold was 2%, the consensus sequences of the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain were completely consistent with the Sanger sequences. This method can detect the minimum viral load of the sample at 102 copies/ml, and the input frequency and detection frequency of HIV-1 resistance mutations within the range of 1%-100% had good conformity (R2 = 0.9963; R2 = 0.9955). This method had no non-specific amplification for Hepatitis B and C. Under the 2% threshold, the incidence of surveillance drug resistance mutations in ART-naive HIV-infected patients was 20.69%, among which NRTIs class resistance mutations were mainly.

15.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 966533, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072389

RESUMEN

Mastitis is an economically important disease in the dairy industry, which is caused by various infectious pathogens. There is limited information known about the situation of drug resistance and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in mastitis bovine milk in Anhui. Therefore, a total of 125 fresh milk samples from clinically mastitis-positive bovine animals were collected. The bacteria pathogens were identified via bacterial culture, Gram staining, biochemical analysis, DNA extraction, 16s rRNA amplification, and phylogenetic analysis. Drug resistance analyses were performed through drug-resistant genes and virulence genes amplification. Results showed that a total of 24.8% (31/125) bacterial isolates were isolated and identified as S. aureus by Gram straining, biochemical reactions, and 16 s rRNA genes blasting. Multiple sequence alignment analysis found that the current isolates were highly similar (96.9-100.0%) to previous isolates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that S. aureus was similar with MK809241.1 isolated from food in China and wCP030426.1 isolated from a person in the United States. The bacterial isolates were detected resistant to 11 antibiotics, such as Penicillin G, SXT, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Polymyxin B, Levofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, and Spectinomycin. Drug-resistant genes of blaZ, ermC, rpoB, and ant (4')-la were successfully amplified. Virulence genes of hla, nuc, clfa, and eta were found in S. aureus bacteria. The current study isolated S. aureus from milk samples and revealed its drug-resistant situation, drug-resistant genes, and virulence genes. Hence, regular monitoring of S. aureus in milk samples from dairy cows may contribute to the prevention and treatment of public health concerns causing bacteria in this region.

16.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82 Suppl 3: 7-12, 2022 Aug 30.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054850

RESUMEN

The prevalence of true drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) in the general population is about 20%. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) working group defined DRE as the failure of seizure control by adequate trials of two well-tolerated and appropriately selected drugs, either in monotherapy or in combination. DREs can be divided into two broad categories: pseudo drug-resistant (DR) and true DR. Pseudo DRE correspond to those that are incorrectly treated due to patient error, healthcare deficiencies, or physician error or omission. Errors on the part of the patient are irregular compliance with the intake of antiseizure medications (ASMs) such as inadequate time distribution of the ASMs and an unhealthy lifestyle. Healthcare deficiencies are related, for example, to the poor quality of some drugs in patients who stop receiving original drugs and switch to generic drugs. Regarding omissions or errors by physicians, it is important to note that a significant group of patients referred to the clinic as having DRE may have non-epileptic paroxysmal disorders, including functional seizures, errors in the recognition of the type of seizures and epileptic syndromes as well as etiology, and inadequate management of the ASMs and other treatments We consider it essential to systematically study patients with DRE in a multidisciplinary team and we believe that a considerable number of patients will benefit from an early correct diagnosis and adequate comprehensive treatment.


La prevalencia de las verdaderas epilepsias farmacorresistentes (EFR) en la población general es el 20% aproximadamente. El grupo de trabajo perteneciente a la International League Against Epilepsy definió a las EFR como la falla en el control de las crisis al tratamiento con dos fármacos bien tolerados y adecuadamente seleccionados, en monoterapia o en combinación. Las EFR pueden dividirse en dos grandes categorías: las pseudo resistentes a los fármacos (RF) y las verdaderamente RF. Las epilepsias pseudo RF corresponden a aquellas que son incorrectamente tratadas debido a errores por parte del paciente, por deficiencias sanitarias y por error u omisión del médico. Los errores por parte del paciente son el cumplimiento irregular de la toma de los fármacos anticonvulsivos (FACs) como la distribución horaria inadecuada y una vida desordenada. Las deficiencias sanitarias corresponden por ejemplo a una mala calidad en algunos fármacos en pacientes que dejan de recibir medicamentos originales y pasan a ingerir drogas genéricas. En relación a una omisión o error de los médicos, es importante destacar que un grupo importante de pacientes remitidos a la consulta como portadores de EFR, pueden presentar trastornos paroxísticos no epilépticos incluidas crisis funcionales, errores en el reconocimiento del tipo de crisis y síndromes epilépticos como la etiología y un manejo inadecuado de los FACs y otros tratamientos. Consideramos imprescindible el estudio sistemático de los pacientes con EFR a través de un equipo multidisciplinario, por lo cual creemos que un número considerable de pacientes se beneficiarán si se realiza un diagnóstico correcto temprano y un tratamiento integral adecuado.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia Refractaria , Epilepsia , Niño , Epilepsia Refractaria/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Refractaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Convulsiones
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 960892, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061873

RESUMEN

Bacterial infections with the genus Enterobacter are notoriously difficult to treat and often associated with resistance to penicillin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins. Also, Enterobacter species have emerged as the third most common hosts for carbapenemases worldwide, forcing the use of colistin as a "last-resort" antibiotic for the treatment. Studies on the population structure of the genus Enterobacter repeatedly detect E. xiangfangensis as a common clinical species present worldwide. Here, we report on the characteristics of an extreme drug-resistant E. xiangfangensis isolate va18651 (ST88), obtained from a cervical swab of an expectant mother. The isolate was resistant to almost all the classes of antibiotics tested, including ß-lactams (viz., penicillins, carbapenems, cephalosporin, monobactams, and their combinations), quinolone, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamide/dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, and exhibited heteroresistance towards colistin. Analysis of its complete genome sequence revealed 37 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including mcr-9.1, blaKPC-2 , and blaOXA-48 , encoded on three of the four different plasmids (cumulative plasmidome size 604,632 bp). An unusually high number of plasmid-based heavy metal resistance gene (HRG) clusters towards silver, arsenate, cadmium, copper, mercury, and tellurite were also detected. Virulence genes (VGs) for the lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide structures, iron acquisition (iroBCDEN, ent/fep/fes, sitABCD, iut, and fur), and a type VI secretion system, together with motility genes and Type IV pili, were encoded chromosomally. Thus, a unique combination of chromosomally encoded VGs, together with plasmid-encoded ARGs and HRGs, converged to result in an extreme drug-resistant, pathogenic isolate with survival potential in environmental settings. The use of a disinfectant, octenidine, led to its eradication; however, the existence of a highly antibiotic-resistant isolate with significant virulence potential is a matter of concern in public health settings and warrants further surveillance for extreme drug-resistant Enterobacter isolates.


Asunto(s)
Colistina , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Aminoglicósidos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas , Colistina/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacter/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plásmidos/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 956171, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062095

RESUMEN

Setting: Controlling drug-resistant tuberculosis in Ningbo, China. Objective: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has not been employed to comprehensively study Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, especially rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, in Ningbo, China. Here, we aim to characterize genes involved in drug resistance in RR-TB and create a prognostic tool for successfully predicting drug resistance in patients with TB. Design: Drug resistance was predicted by WGS in a "TB-Profiler" web service after phenotypic drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) against nine anti-TB drugs among 59 clinical isolates. A comparison of consistency, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values between WGS and DST were carried out for each drug. Results: The sensitivities and specificities for WGS were 95.92 and 90% for isoniazid (INH), 100 and 64.1% for ethambutol (EMB), 97.37 and 100% for streptomycin (SM), 75 and 100% for amikacin (AM), 80 and 96.3%for capreomycin (CAP), 100 and 97.22% for levofloxacin (LFX), 93.33 and 90.91% for prothionamide (PTO), and 70 and 97.96% for para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). Around 53 (89.83%) and 6 (10.17%) of the isolates belonged to lineage two (East-Asian) and lineage four (Euro-American), respectively. Conclusion: Whole-genome sequencing is a reliable method for predicting resistance to INH, RIF, EMB, SM, AM, CAP, LFX, PTO, and PAS with high consistency, sensitivity, and specificity. There was no transmission that occurred among the patients with RR-TB in Ningbo, China.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Etambutol , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampin/farmacología , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos/microbiología
20.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(4): 636-642, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065697

RESUMEN

Objective To investigate the pathogen distribution,imaging characteristics,and risk factors of pulmonary infection with multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO) in patients with severe craniocerebral injury,and establish and verify the risk prediction model. Methods A total of 230 patients with severe craniocerebral injury complicated with pulmonary infection were collected retrospectively.According to the 7∶3 ratio,they were randomly assigned into a modeling group (161 patients) and a validation group (69 patients).The risk factors of MDRO pulmonary infection were predicted with the data of the modeling group for the establishment of the risk prediction model.The data of the validation group was used to validate the performance of the model. Results Among the 230 patients,68 patients developed MDRO pulmonary infection.The isolated drug-resistant bacteria mainly included multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae,multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa,and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,which accounted for 45.21%,23.29%,16.44%,and 15.07%,respectively.The imaging characteristics included pleural effusion,lung consolidation,and ground-glass shadow,which accounted for 72.06%,63.24%,and 45.59%,respectively.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for MDRO pulmonary infection included age ≥60 years (P=0.003),history of diabetes (P=0.021),history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.038),mechanical ventilation ≥7 d (P=0.001),transfer from other hospitals (P=0.008),and coma (P=0.002).A risk scoring model was established with the ß value (rounded to the nearest integer) corresponding to each index in the regression equation.Specifically,the ß values of age ≥60 years,history of diabetes,history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,mechanical ventilation ≥7 d,transfer from other hospitals,and coma were 1,1,1,2,2,and 1,respectively (value ≥4 indicated a high-risk population).The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling group and validation group were 0.845 and 0.809,respectively. Conclusions Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common pathogen of MDRO pulmonary infection in patients with severe craniocerebral injury.Pleural effusion,lung consolidation,and ground-glass shadow were the most common imaging characteristics.The established risk model has high discriminant validity in both the modeling group and the validation group.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Craneocerebrales , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Derrame Pleural , Neumonía , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Coma , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
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