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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112685, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113383

RESUMEN

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus in the ongoing global pandemic has led to infections of millions of people and losses of many lives. The rapid, accurate and convenient SARS-CoV-2 virus detection is crucial for controlling and stopping the pandemic. Diagnosis of patients in the early stage infection are so far limited to viral nucleic acid or antigen detection in human nasopharyngeal swab or saliva samples. Here we developed a method for rapid and direct optical measurement of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles in one step nearly without any sample preparation using a spike protein specific nanoplasmonic resonance sensor. As low as 370 vp/mL were detected in one step within 15 min and the virus concentration can be quantified linearly in the range of 0 to 107 vp/mL. Measurements shown on both generic microplate reader and a handheld smartphone connected device suggest that our low-cost and rapid detection method may be adopted quickly under both regular clinical environment and resource-limited settings.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Virión/aislamiento & purificación , Anticuerpos Inmovilizados/química , Técnicas Biosensibles/economía , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153378, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In our previous study, we demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of Herpetospermum pedunculosum in cholestatic rats. A bioassay-guided study also led to the identification and isolation of a lignan, dihydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DA) from the seeds of H. pedunculosum. PURPOSE: To investigate whether DA could alleviate cholestasis and determine the mechanisms underlying such action. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered with DA (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) intragastrically once daily for 7 days prior to treatment with α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) (60 mg/kg). We then evaluated the levels of a range of serum indicators, determined bile flow, and carried out histopathological analyses. Western blotting was then used to investigate the levels of inflammatory mediators and the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), proteins involved in the downstream biosynthesis of bile acids, and a range of transport proteins. Molecular docking was used to simulate the interaction between DA and FXR. Cell viability of human hepatocytes (L-02) cells was determined by MTT. Then, we treated guggulsterone-inhibited L-02 cells, Si-FXR L-02 cells, and FXR-overexpression cells with the FXR agonist GW4064 (6 µM) or DA (25, 50 and 100 µM) for 24 h before detecting gene and protein expression by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: DA significantly attenuated ANIT-induced cholestasis in SD rats by reducing liver function indicators in the serum, increasing bile flow, improving the recovery of histopathological injuries in the liver, and by alleviating pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver. DA also increased the expression levels of FXR and altered the levels of downstream proteins in the liver tissues, thus indicating that DA might alleviate cholestasis by regulating the FXR. Molecular docking simulations predicted that DA was as an agonist of FXR. In vitro mechanical studies further showed that DA increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of FXR, Small Heterodimer Partner 1/2, Bile Salt Export Pump, Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 2, and Na+/taurocholate Co-transporting Polypeptide, in both guggulsterone-inhibited and Si-FXR L-02 cells. Moreover, DA enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of FXR, and its downstream genes and proteins, in L-02 cells containing an FXR-overexpression plasmid. CONCLUSION: DA may represent an effective agonist for FXR has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury.

3.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153386, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of polycomb protein contributes to epigenetic repression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ensuing in poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype. Several plant-based compounds could help prevent epigenome alteration and cancer progression, but their low bioavailability limits their therapeutic activity. HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we have synthesized genistein nanoformulation (GLNPs) and evaluated its epigenetic regulation mechanism for selective apoptosis induction in OSCC. METHODS: Lactalbumin was used to prepare nanoformulation of Genistein. The mechanism of epigenetic regulation and selective apoptosis by Genistein loaded nanoparticles was studied in OSCC cell line JHU011 and fibroblast cell line L929 using immunofluorescence, Western blotting and ChIP-qPCR assay. RESULTS: We have found that GLNPs treatment selectively induced apoptosis in OSCC compared to the normal fibroblast cells. This selective effect in OSCC is achieved through enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by Bax mitochondrial translocation and caspase 3 activation. Further, GLNPs induced withdrawal of epigenetic transcription repression through concurrent downregulation of the polycomb group proteins (PcG) Bmi 1 and EZH2 along with their successive targets, UbH2AK119 and H3K27me3, which have immense therapeutic implications in the treatment of OSCC. Last, we have established that GLNPs regulate EZH2expression through proteasomal mediated degradation and 3PK inhibition; 3PK protein was found physically linked with EZH2 protein and its promoter region (-1107 to -1002). This event indicates that 3PK might play some crucial role in EZH2 expression and epigenetic control of OSCC. Moreover, the formulation showed improved biodistribution, aqueous dispersibility and enhanced biocompatibility In-vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that GLNPs may withdraw epigenetic transcriptional repression and selectively induce apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153388, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113501

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) and lipotoxicity were evidenced as the major nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) initiators. However, absence of the effective treatment against NASH progression raised our aim to discover a new promising insulin modulator and NSH preventer. PURPOSE: Our study aimed to extract and prepare a nitriles rich fraction (NRF) from Diceratella elliptica (DC.) Jonsell, investigate its insulin-sensitizing & anti-NASH potentialities and address its molecular targets in IR-NASH pathogenesis. STUDY DESIGN: NRF was prepared using natural autolysis method and compounds were identified. Then, seventy male Wistar rats were feed high fat diet (HFD) or normal pellets for 35 days. In day 14th, HFD rats were injected by Streptozotocin (STZ) once and treatment was started in day 21st with either NRF (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg; orally) or pioglitazone (PioG) (10 mg/kg; i.p) beside HFD. While, NRF-alone rats were treated with NRF (120 mg/kg; orally) beside the normal pellets. Body weight, glucose homeostasis, hepatopathological examinations were performed. METHODS: Gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GLC/MS) was used for compounds' identification while spectrophotometer was used for total glucosinolates (GLS) quantification. Also, the biochemical and molecular investigations concerned with liver lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin signaling pathway were investigated and confirmed with the computational prediction of the major compounds' targets. RESULTS: Butenyl and benzyl GLS were the major along with other volatile compounds. NRF had significantly increased the insulin sensitivity and improved NASH-hisptopathology showing hepatoprotective effect. While, the fraction's anti-NASH potentiality was evidenced in the normalized hepatic steatosis markers, inflammation and oxidative stress key transcriptional factors resulting in induction of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) phosphorylation and its downstream effectors. CONCLUSION: NRF has reversed IR, stimulated leptin secretion and prevented NASH initiation showing promising anti-NASH and anti-fibrotic effects.

5.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153391, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113502

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pseudo-allergic reactions are potentially fatal hypersensitivity responses caused by mast cell activation. α-linolenic acid (ALA) is known for its anti-allergic properties. However, its potential anti-pseudo-allergic effects were not much investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate the inhibitory effects of ALA on IgE-independent allergy in vitro, and in vivo, as well as the mechanism underlying its effects. METHODS/STUDY DESIGNS: The anti-anaphylactoid activity of ALA was evaluated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction (PCA) and systemic anaphylaxis models. Calcium imaging was used to assess intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. The release of cytokines and chemokines was measured using enzyme immunoassay kits. Western blot analysis was conducted to investigate the molecules of Lyn-PLCγ-IP3R-Ca2+ and Lyn-p38/NF-κB signaling pathway. RESULTS: ALA (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced serum histamine, chemokine release, vasodilation, eosinophil infiltration, and the percentage of degranulated mast cells in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ALA (0, 50, 100, and 200 µM) reduced Compound 48/80 (C48/80) (30 µg/ml)-or Substance P (SP) (4 µg/ml)-induced calcium influx, mast cell degranulation and cytokines and chemokine release in Laboratory of Allergic Disease 2 (LAD2) cells via Lyn-PLCγ-IP3R-Ca2+ and Lyn-p38/NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, ALA (0, 50, 100, and 200 µM) inhibited C48/80 (30 µg/ml)- and SP (4 µg/ml)-induced calcium influx in Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member X2 (MrgX2)-HEK293 cells and in vitro kinase assays confirmed that ALA inhibited the activity of Lyn kinase. In response to 200 µM of ALA, the activity of Lyn kinase by (7.296 ± 0.03751) × 10-5 units/µl and decreased compared with C48/80 (30 µg/ml) by (8.572 ± 0.1365) ×10-5 units/µl. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ALA might be a potential Lyn kinase inhibitor, which could be used to treat pseudo-allergic reaction-related diseases such as urticaria.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153392, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113503

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acacetin 7-O-ß-D-glucoside (tilianin) is a major constituent of Agastache rugosa, a traditional medicine that has long been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Tilianin has a wide variety of pharmacological properties such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and anti-atherogenic activities. We recently discovered that tilianin has the ability to suppress MUC5AC expression in vitro. In addition, we have established an in vivo model of allergic asthma using house dust mite (HDM) that can be applied to tilianin. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of tilianin on airway inflammation in a HDM-induced asthma mouse model and associated mechanisms. METHODS: Tilianin was treated in splenocytes cultured in Th0 condition and HDM-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), and their mRNA expression and cytokines production were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. To evaluate the effects of tilianin in an allergic asthma model, mice were sensitized and challenged with HDM. Tilianin was administered prior to challenge by oral gavage and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) to methacholine, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine levels, and airway remodeling were assessed. RESULTS: Tilianin inhibited the production of Th2-related cytokines in splenocytes, which play pivotal roles in allergic airway inflammation. When treated in HDM-stimulated BMDCs, tilianin decreased Th2-skewing cytokine IL-33 and transcription factor IRF4. On the contrary, tilianin increased Th1-skewing regulators, IL-12 and IRF1. In an HDM-induced asthmatic mouse model, tilianin attenuated AHR and airway inflammation. Tilianin suppressed the expression of Th2-related cytokines, IL-13 and IL-33 in lung tissues. As seen in HDM-stimulated BMDCs, tilianin also downregulated the expression of the transcription factor IRF4 but not IRF1. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that tilianin attenuates HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2-mediated inflammation through the selective inhibition of the IRF4-IL-33 axis in dendritic cells.

7.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153370, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (DDP) is the first-in-class drug for advanced and non-targetable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent study indicated that DDP could slightly induce non-apoptotic cell death ferroptosis, and the cytotoxicity was promoted by ferroptosis inducer. The agents enhancing the ferroptosis may therefore increase the anticancer effect of DDP. Several lines of evidence supporting the use of phytochemicals in NSCLC therapy. Ginkgetin, a bioflavonoid derived from Ginkgo biloba leaves, showed anticancer effects on NSCLC by triggering autophagy. Ferroptosis can be triggered by autophagy, which regulates redox homeostasis. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the possible role of ferroptosis involved in the synergistic effect of ginkgetin and DDP in cancer therapy. METHODS: The promotion of DDP-induced anticancer effects by ginkgetin was examined via a cytotoxicity assay and western blot. Ferroptosis triggered by ginkgetin in DDP-treated NSCLC was observed via a lipid peroxidation assay, a labile iron pool assay, western blot, and qPCR. With ferroptosis blocking, the contribution of ferroptosis to ginkgetin + DDP-induced cytotoxicity, the Nrf2/HO-1 axis, and apoptosis were determined via a luciferase assay, immunostaining, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP), and flow cytometry. The role of ferroptosis in ginkgetin + DDP-treated NSCLC cells was illustrated by the application of ferroptosis inhibitors, which was further demonstrated in a xenograft nude mouse model. RESULTS: Ginkgetin synergized with DDP to increase cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells, which was concomitant with increased labile iron pool and lipid peroxidation. Both these processes were key characteristics of ferroptosis. The induction of ferroptosis mediated by ginkgetin was further confirmed by the decreased expression of SLC7A11 and GPX4, and a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. Simultaneously, ginkgetin disrupted redox hemostasis in DDP-treated cells, as demonstrated by the enhanced ROS formation and inactivation of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis. Ginkgetin also enhanced DDP-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and apoptosis in cultured NSCLC cells. Furthermore, blocking ferroptosis reversed the ginkgetin-induced inactivation of Nrf2/HO-1 as well as the elevation of ROS formation, MMP loss, and apoptosis in DDP-treated NSCLC cells. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report that ginkgetin derived from Ginkgo biloba leaves promotes DDP-induced anticancer effects, which can be due to the induction of ferroptosis.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153372, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Feiyangchangweiyan capsule (FYC) is a traditional Chinese medicine formulation used in the clinical treatment of acute and chronic gastroenteritis and bacterial dysentery. However, the effect of FYC on ulcerative colitis (UC) and the mechanism thereof remains unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of FYC on UC mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium and illustrate the potential mechanism of this effect. METHODS: Here, we established a model of UC mice by dextran sulfate sodium and administered with FYC. The disease activity index (DAI), colon length, myeloperoxidase (MPO) content in serum, pathological structure and ultrastructural changes, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon tissue were evaluated. Transcriptome and 16S rDNA sequencing were employed to illuminate the mechanism of FYC in the protection of UC mice. RESULTS: FYC significantly alleviates the pathological damage and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in colon tissue of dextran sulfate sodium induced UC mice, rescues shortened colon length, reduces DAI score, MPO content in serum, and pro-inflammatory factors including IL-1ß, IL-6, CCL11, MCP-1 and MIP-2, and increases anti-inflammatory factors such as IL-10. Transcriptomics revealed that Oncostatin M (OSM) and its receptor (OSMR) are the critical pathway for UC treatment by FYC. OSM and OSMR increased in UC mice compared to control mice, and decreased with FYC, which was verified via measurement of OSM and OSMR mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we observed that FYC modulates intestinal microbiome composition (e.g., the proportion of Barnesiella/Proteobacteria) by affecting the inflammatory factors. CONCLUSION: FYC exerts an effect on UC by inhibiting the OSM/OSMR pathway and regulating inflammatory factors to improve the intestinal flora.

9.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153382, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although gastroprotective drugs have been used for peptic ulcer disease prevention and treatment, side effects have been observed. Finding a safe and effective treatment strategy is important. PURPOSE: Edible Trichodesma khasianum (T. khasianum) Clarke leaves are considered to protect against peptic ulcers. However, scientific evidence of this effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves remains limited. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves on ethanol-induced gastric injury and gut microbiota using RAW 264.7 cells, RGM-1 cells, and BALB/c mice, respectively. RESULT: The rosmarinic acid was identified as the major component of T. khasianum Clarke leaves extracted by 80% ethanol (80EETC). The results showed that 80EETC suppressed inflammatory mediator protein levels in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, heat shock protein expression, antiapoptotic ability, and wound healing migration capability were increased by 80EETC pretreatment in RGM-1 cells with the ethanol-induced injury. Remarkably, pretreatment with 80EETC (150 mg/kg b.w.) promoted gastric mucosal healing by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammatory response, proapoptotic protein expression, and gastric mucosa damage in ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Crucially, no liver or kidney toxicities were observed by 80EETC oral gavage. Moreover, 80EETC increased gut microbiota diversity and short-chain fatty acid production. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrated the remarkable gastroprotective effect by 80EETC treatment in vitro and in vivo. These findings are the first to demonstrate the powerful protective effect of T. khasianum Clarke leaves against gastric mucosal injury development.

10.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153384, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113507

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) and GMI are two fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) with a similar structure and amino acid sequence and are respectively obtained from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma microsporum. They present the anti-cancer progression and metastasis. We previously demonstrated that LZ-8 reduces the tumor progression in lung cancer LLC1 cell-bearing mouse. However, it is unclear whether these FIPs induce changes in the protein expression profile in cancer cells and the mechanism for such a process is not defined. PURPOSE: This study determines the changes in the proteomic profile for tumor lesions of LLC1 cell-bearing mouse received with LZ-8 and the potential mechanism for FIPs in anti-lung cancer cells. METHODS: The proteomic profile of tumor lesions was determined using two-dimensional electrophoresis and a LTQ-OrbitrapXL mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The biological processes and the signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The differentially expressed proteins were verified by Western blot. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell morphology was characterized using electron microscopy. Migration was detected using the Transwell assay. The apoptotic response was determined using Western blot and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Obtained results showed that 21 proteins in the tumor lesions exhibited differential (2-fold change, p < 0.05) expression between PBS and LZ-8 treatment groups. LZ-8-induced changes in the proteomic profile that may relate to protein degradation pathways. Specifically, three heat shock proteins (HSPs), HSP60, 70 and 90, were significantly downregulated in tumor lesions of LLC1-bearing mouse received with LZ-8. Both LZ-8 and GMI reduced the protein levels for these HSPs in lung cancer cells. Functional studies showed that they inhibited cell migration but effectively induced apoptotic response in LLC1 cells in vitro. In addition, the inhibitors of HSP60 and HSP70 effectively inhibited cell migration and decreased cell viability of LLC1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: LZ-8 induced changes in the proteomic profile of tumor lesions which may regulate the HSPs-related cell viability. Moreover, inhibition of HSPs may be related to the anti-lung cancer activity.

11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120235

RESUMEN

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Cobre/química , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Oro/química , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Diseño de Equipo , Escherichia coli O157/aislamiento & purificación , Proteína p24 del Núcleo del VIH/análisis , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Oxidación-Reducción , Pandemias , Polietileneimina/química , Tiras Reactivas/análisis
12.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153393, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia progresses in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is positively correlated with mortality in end-stage kidney disease patients. Circulating irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, gradually decreases during CKD stage progression. Irisin inhibits the progression of kidney fibrosis, which is the final common outcome of CKD. Our preliminary study with C2C12 cells showed that Dojuksan, a herbal decoction, increases the expression of PGC1α (a regulator of irisin) and FNDC5 (a precursor of irisin). HYPOTHESIS: Dojuksan may increase circulating irisin and prevent the progression of kidney fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed on seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice to induce kidney tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Dojuksan (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) or losartan (1.5 mg/kg/day), a standard clinical treatment for CKD, was administered orally one day prior to surgery and continued for seven days thereafter. To determine the role of irisin released from muscles, TGFß-stimulated murine proximal tubular epithelial cells (mProx24 cells) were treated with conditioned media (CM) from Dojuksan-treated C2C12 muscle cells transfected with FNDC5 siRNA. RESULTS: UUO mice exhibited muscle wasting along with progressive kidney injury. Similar to losartan, Dojuksan ameliorated kidney inflammation and fibrosis in UUO mice. Dojuksan, but not losartan, increased plasma irisin concentration in UUO mice. Dojuksan significantly increased basal FNDC5 expression and inhibited TNFα-induced and indoxyl sulfate-induced FNDC5 down-regulation in C2C12 cells. The TGFß-induced collagen I (COL1) up-regulation in mProx24 cells was effectively inhibited by CM from C2C12 cells after Dojuksan treatment. Moreover, irisin inhibited TGFß-induced COL1 in mProx24 cells, which was not affected by CM from C2C12 cells transfected with FNDC5 siRNA. CONCLUSION: Dojuksan ameliorates kidney fibrosis through irisin-mediated muscle-kidney crosstalk, suggesting that Dojuksan may be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against CKD.

13.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153377, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126167

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a threat to aged people who have excessive osteoclast activation and bone resorption, subsequently causing fracture and even disability. Inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and absorptive functions has become an efficient approach to treat osteoporosis, but osteoclast-targeting inhibitors available clinically remain rare. Kirenol (Kir), a bioactive diterpenoid derived from an antirheumatic Chinese herbal medicine Herba Siegesbeckiae, can treat collagen-induced arthritis in vivo and promote osteoblast differentiation in vitro, while the effects of Kir on osteoclasts are still unclear. PURPOSE: We explore the role of Kir on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone loss in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro effects of Kir on osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). In vivo experiments were performed using an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. RESULTS: We found that Kir remarkably inhibited osteoclast generation and bone resorption in vitro. Mechanistically, Kir significantly inhibited F-actinring formation and repressed RANKL-induced NF-κB p65 activation and p-p38, p-ERK and c-Fos expression. Moreover, Kir inhibited both the expression and nuclear translocation of NFATc1. Ca2+ oscillation and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) were also reduced by Kir during osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Consistent with these findings, 2-10 mg/kg Kir attenuated OVX-induced osteoporosis in vivo as evidenced by decreased osteoclast numbers and downregulated Cav-1 and NFATc1 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Kir suppresses osteoclastogenesis and the Cav-1/NFATc1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo and protects against OVX-induced osteoporosis. Our findings reveal Kir as a potential safe oral treatment for osteoporosis.

14.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153365, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126168

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medical adherence is often higher in clinical trials than in real world practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on medical adherence to hormonal therapy (HT) and survival outcome in ER (+) breast cancer patients in Taiwan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a nationwide longitudinal population-based database, we enrolled patients with newly diagnosed ER-positive breast cancer who had received HT, and followed for up to 5 years (N = 872). Medication adherence in terms of medication possession ratios (MPR) and patient outcome were evaluated with or without TCM exposure. We applied logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) analysis to identify factors, including TCM exposure, associated with adherence to HT and mortality. RESULTS: MPR to HT in general decreased over the 5-year period post breast cancer diagnosis. Both TCM and MPR to HT ≥ 80% were significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-associated mortality. Subgroup analysis revealed that TCM annual visits ≥ 3 times with CHP prescription 1~90 days per year affected mortality reduction most significantly (HR: 0.26; 95% CI = 0.08-0.83; p < 0.05) compared to other TCM use. In contrast, using TCM (either short-term or long-term) was not associated with MPR in HT. CONCLUSIONS: Our results supported the potential advantage of TCM on breast cancer-associated mortality, whereas TCM use does not compromise medical adherence to HT. This study offers important insights in integrative therapy for HT in patients with estrogen receptor (+) breast cancer.

15.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 70: 105305, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126185

RESUMEN

The binary nanomaterials and graphitic carbon based hybrid has been developed as an important porous nanomaterial for fabricating electrode with applications in non-enzymatic (bio) sensors. We report a fast synthesis of bimetal oxide particles of nano-sized manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) decorated on graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) via a high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation method for C (30 kHz and 70 W/cm2). The nanocomposites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, XPS, EDS, TEM to ascertain the effects of synthesis parameters on structure, and morphology. The MnFe2O4/GCN modified electrode demonstrated superior electrocatalytic activity toward the neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine) detection with a high peak intensity at +0.21 V. The appealing application of the MnFe2O4/GCN/GCE as neurotransmitter sensors is presented and a possible sensing mechanism is analyzed. The constructed electrochemical sensor for the detection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (STN) showed a wide working range (0.1-522.6 µM), high sensitivity (19.377 µA µM-1 cm-2), and nano-molar detection limit (3.1 nM). Moreover, it is worth noting that the MnFe2O4/GCN not only enhanced activity and also promoted the electron transfer rate towards STN detection. The proposed sensor was analyzed for its real-time applications to the detection of STN in rat brain serum, and human blood serum in good satisfactory results was obtained. The results showed promising reproducibility, repeatability, and high stability for neurotransmitter detection in biological samples.

16.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153340, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oleanolic acid (OA) is an active compound found in a variety of medicinal herbs and plants. Though OA has been widely attributed with a variety of biological activities, studies focused on its anti-allergic inflammation properties are insufficient. PURPOSE: Given the rapid increase in allergic diseases and the lack of fundamental treatment options, this study aimed to find a safe and effective therapy for allergic disorders. METHODS: We evaluated the inhibitory effect of OA on allergic inflammatory response and the possible mechanisms underlying the effect using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell (HMC)-1, and a mouse model of compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock. RESULTS: OA suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions in PMACI-induced HMC-1 cells by inhibiting activation of the Akt, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 signaling pathways. Moreover, OA showed a protective effect against compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock through inhibition of histamine release and immunoglobulin E level via regulation of NF-κB and STAT1 activation. CONCLUSION: The results showed that OA suppressed mast cell-mediated allergic response by transcriptional regulation. We suggest that OA has potential effect against allergic inflammatory disorders, including anaphylaxis, and might be a useful therapeutic agent for allergic disease.

17.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153394, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130472

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which can be induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the tumor microenvironment, is a critical immune checkpoint in cancer immunotherapy. Natural products which reduce IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 might be exert immunotherapy effect. Licochalcone A (LCA), a natural compound derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin. (Fabaceae), was found to interfere IFN-γ-induced PD-L1. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to further clarify the effect and the mechanism of LCA on inhibiting IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 in lung cancer cells. METHODS: The expression levels of PD-L1 were evaluated by flow cytometry, western blot and qRT-PCR. Click-iT protein synthesis assay and luciferase assay were used to identify the effect of LCA on protein synthesis. Jurkat T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the co-culture system were detected by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was also applied to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. RESULTS: LCA downregulated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 protein expression and membrane localization in human lung cancer cells, regardless of inhibiting PD-L1 mRNA level or promoting its protein degradation. LCA decreased apoptosis and proliferative inhibition of Jurkat T cells caused by IFN-γ-induced PD-L1-expressing in A549 cells in the co-culture system. Strikingly, LCA was verified as a protein synthesis inhibitor, which reduced both cap-dependent and -independent translation. LCA inhibited PD-L1 translation, likely due to inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α pathway. Furthermore, LCA induced ROS generation in a time-dependent manner in lung cancer cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) not only revered ROS generation triggered by LCA but also restored IFN-γ-induced expression of PD-L1. Both the inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α axis triggered by LCA was restored by co-treatment with NAC. CONCLUSION: LCA abrogated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression via ROS generation to abolish the protein translation, indicating that LCA has the potential to be applied in cancer immunotherapy.

18.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153387, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis of OA is closely related to inflammatory responses and apoptosis of chondrocytes. Hyperoside (Hyp), a natural flavonoid compound, exerts multiple bioactivities in various diseases. PURPOSE: Our study aims to investigate the anti-arthritic effects of Hyp and delineate the potential mechanism at the cellular level. METHODS: Murine chondrocytes were stimulated with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) with or without Hyp treatment. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Hyp. DCFH-DA was used to detect intracellular ROS. Annexin V-FITC/PI method was applied to examine apoptosis of chondrocytes. The anti-arthritic effects of Hyp and related mechanisms were investigated by examining and analyzing relative markers through quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining. C57BL/6 mice were performed the destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery to establish OA model and then injected intraperitoneally with Hyp (20 mg/kg)) for 4 or 8 weeks. Finally, mice were sacrificed and knee joints were collected for histological observation and analysis. RESULTS: Hyp inhibited IL-1ß-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, Hyp attenuated IL-1ß-induced destruction of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by downregulating the expression of MMPs and ADAMTS5, and meanwhile upregulating the expression of collagen II, aggrecan, and SOX9. Also, Hyp pretreatment reduced IL-1ß-induced overproduction of ROS and apoptosis of chondrocytes. Mechanistically, Hypexerted anti-inflammatory effects by partly suppressing the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and the MAPK signaling pathways, enhancing the Nrf2/HO-1 to limit the activation of NF-κB. Moreover, Hyp played an anti-apoptotic effect via the Nrf2/ROS/BAX/Bcl-xlaxis. In vivo, cartilage degradation was attenuated with a lower OARSI score in Hyp-treated group compared to the DMM group. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that anti-arthritic effects of Hyp in vitro and in vivo, indicating Hyp might serve as a potential agent for the treatment of OA.

19.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153398, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid quinonemethide isolated from several spp. of Celastraceae family, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in a variety of diseases including arthritis. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome is engaged in the anti-inflammatory activities of celastrol and delineate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The influence of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was firstly studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-primed THP-1 cells treated with nigericin. Reconstituted inflammasome was also established by co-transfecting NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in HEK293T cells. The changes of inflammasome components including NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1/caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß/IL-1ß were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)/LPS-induced liver injury and monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in mice were employed in vivo to validate the inhibitory effect of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome. RESULTS: Celastrol significantly suppressed the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß, while not affecting the protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in THP-1 cells, BMDMs and HEK293T cells. Celastrol suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and alleviated P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis. Mechanism study revealed that celastrol could interdict K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which may concern interaction of celastrol and BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3), and thereby prohibited the formation of NLRP3, ASC and pro-caspase-1 complex to block the generation of mature IL-1ß. CONCLUSION: Celastrol suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation in P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis via inhibiting K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which presents a novel insight into inhibition of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome and provides more evidences for its application in the therapy of inflammation-related diseases.

20.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153397, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130475

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The fruit of Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) is an herbal medicine as well as a spice agent in Asia to treat carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic and degenerative diseases. Z. piperitum was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic and osteosarcoma proliferation-control effects. PURPOSE AND STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted to determine the anti-osteoporotic effects and mechanisms of action of ZP. METHODS: Female ICR mice underwent ovariectomies (OVX) and were orally administered ZP at 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg for 6 weeks. The femoral and tibial bones were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histology to analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) and the number of osteoclasts. Raw 264.7 cells were stimulated by 100 ng/ml receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) for 7 days in the presence of ZP. RANKL-induced signaling molecules were analyzed in osteoclasts. RESULTS: The levels of femoral and tibial BMD were significantly increased by ZP administration. Serum biomarkers such as osteocalcin, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentrations were markedly recovered to normal levels in ZP-treated osteoporotic mice. In addition, the number of osteoclasts in the head, trochanter and body of the femur was obviously decreased in the ZP treatment groups. Moreover, ZP treated-cells showed a reduction in the number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in RANKL-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. ZP decreased the RANKL-activated NFATc1 and c-fos, transcription factors of osteoclast formation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and phosphorylation of ERK42/44 were inhibited by the ZP treatment in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. CONCLUSION: Collectively, ZP exerts its inhibitory effect against bone resorption by regulating RANKL-mediated c-fos/NFATc1/NF-κB in osteoclast. ZP may prove to be a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis.

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