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1.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 52(2): 48-50, mar. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article En | IBECS | ID: ibc-231091

This report is a case of anaphylaxis in an adolescent due to allergy to gibberellin-regulated proteins mediated by cofactors, in probable relation to a pollen/food allergy syndrome. It should also emphasizes the importance of obtaining a faithful clinical history, especially when it comes to adolescent patients as they tend to initiate toxic habits.(AU)


Humans , Male , Adolescent , Food Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Gibberellins , Citrus sinensis/toxicity , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Inpatients , Physical Examination , Hypersensitivity , Allergy and Immunology
2.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 52(2): 48-50, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459890

This report is a case of anaphylaxis in an adolescent due to allergy to gibberellin-regulated proteins mediated by cofactors, in probable relation to a pollen/food allergy syndrome. It should also emphasizes the importance of obtaining a faithful clinical history, especially when it comes to adolescent patients as they tend to initiate toxic habits.


Anaphylaxis , Citrus sinensis , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Adolescent , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Gibberellins/adverse effects , Allergens , Antigens, Plant , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 12(1): 195-200, 2024 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37716523

BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is an inflammatory skin disease with a complex physiopathology. Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase reactant, has been proposed as a potential biomarker in urticaria but has yet to be studied in a population with CSU or correlated with disease activity as indicated by the Urticaria Activity Score summed over 7 days (UAS7). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine SAA-1 levels in patients with CSU and correlate them with its activity and control, as well as with clinical features of CSU and other potential blood biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 67 patients with CSU, from whom we obtained demographic and clinical data, UAS7 as an indicator of CSU activity, and blood and serum markers. RESULTS: SAA-1 levels positively correlated with UAS7 (rs = 0.47, P < .001). SAA-1 levels were higher in patients with noncontrolled (UAS7 > 6) CSU than in those with controlled (UAS ≤ 6) CSU (P < .001) and were also higher in patients with concomitant angioedema (P = .003) or delayed pressure urticaria (P = .003). CONCLUSION: We propose SAA-1 as a potential biomarker for activity in CSU. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential role as a biomarker for other CSU outcomes, such as response to treatment.


Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Humans , Serum Amyloid A Protein/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Urticaria/diagnosis , Biomarkers
4.
Allergy ; 79(1): 93-103, 2024 Jan.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597162

BACKGROUND: Non-sedating H1 -antihistamines (nsAH) are the most commonly used treatment for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Many patients use them as on-demand (OD) therapy rather than a maintenance treatment. Here, we compared OD versus daily maintenance treatment with the nsAH rupatadine, assessed the efficacy of rupatadine updosing, and investigated potential long-term disease-modifying effects. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized study consisted of 2 weeks of screening, 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, and 6 weeks of treatment-free follow-up (OD allowed). Adult patients were randomized to 10 mg rupatadine OD or 10 mg rupatadine daily. At Week 4, if patients did not have a complete response, they switched from 10 to 20 mg rupatadine daily or underwent sham updosing (patients on 10 mg rupatadine OD). The primary aim was to compare CSU disease activity at the end of follow-up between daily versus OD. Additionally, we assessed the efficacy of rupatadine updosing. Major outcomes were disease activity, CSU-related quality of life (QoL), and disease control. RESULTS: At Week 4, disease activity and QoL significantly improved in daily versus OD-treated patients. Updosing of rupatadine did not improve the mean disease activity, but the number of complete responders increased during updosing from 5% to 22%. At the end of follow-up, the disease activity of patients treated OD versus daily was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Daily rupatadine treatment significantly improved CSU disease activity and QoL during treatment versus OD treatment but not after discontinuation of rupatadine, indicating the benefits of a daily maintenance nsAH schedule.


Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Adult , Humans , Urticaria/drug therapy , Urticaria/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome
5.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 13(5): e12246, 2023 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37227418

BACKGROUND: Recognition of specific allergens triggering immune response is key for the appropriate prescription of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). This study aimed at evaluating the impact of using the commercially available microarray ImmunoCAPTM ISAC 112 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) on the etiological diagnosis and SIT prescription compared to the conventional diagnostic methods in patients with allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma. METHODS: 300 patients with respiratory allergic disease, sensitized to three or more pollen aeroallergens from different species, as assessed by a skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE assays (sIgE), were included in this multicentric, prospective observational study. SPT and a blood test were performed to all patients. Total serum IgE and sIgE (ImmunoCAPTM) for allergens found positive in the SPT and sIgE allergen components (ImmunoCAPTM ISAC 112) were measured. RESULTS: According to SPT results, the most prevalent pollen sensitizers in our population were Olea europaea followed by grass, Platanus acerifolia and Parietaria judaica. The molecular diagnosis (MD) revealed Ole e 1 as the most prevalent pollen sensitizer, followed by Cup a 1, Phl p 1, Cyn d 1, Par j 2, Pla a 1, 2, and 3 and Phl p 5. Immunotherapy prescription changed, due to MD testing, in 51% of the cases, with an increase of prescription of SIT from 39% to 65%. CONCLUSION: The identification of the allergen eliciting the respiratory disease is essential for a correct immunotherapy prescription. The advances in allergen characterization using methods, such as the commercial microarray ImmunoCAPTM ISAC 112, can help clinicians to improve SIT prescription.

6.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 159(3): 116-123, 2022 Aug 12.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999826

Background: It is crucial to assess the levels of protection generated by natural infection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, mainly in individuals professionally exposed and in vulnerable groups. Measuring T-cell responses may complement antibody tests currently in use as correlates of protection. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a validated assay of T-cell responses. Methods: Twenty health-care-workers (HCW) were included. Antibody test to SARS-CoV-2 N and S-proteins in parallel with a commercially available whole-blood-interferon-gamma-release-assay (IGRA) to S-peptides and two detection methods, CLIA and ELISA were determined. Results: IGRA test detected T-cell responses in naturally exposed and vaccinated HCW already after first vaccination dose. The correlation by the two detection methods was very high (R > 0.8) and sensitivity and specificity ranged between 100 and 86% and 100-73% respectively. Even though there was a very high concordance between specific antibody levels and the IGRA assay in the ability to detect immune response to SARS-CoV-2, there was a relatively low quantitative correlation. In the small group primed by natural infection, one vaccine dose was sufficient to reach immune response plateau. IGRA was positive in one, with Ig(S) antibody negative vaccinated immunosuppressed HCW illustrating another advantage of the IGRA-test. Conclusion: Whole-blood-IGRA-tests amenable to automation and constitutes a promising additional tool for measuring the state of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2; they are applicable to large number of samples and may become a valuable correlate of protection to COVID-19, particularly for vulnerable groups at risk of being re-exposed to infection, as are health-care-workers.


Introducción: Es fundamental evaluar los niveles de protección inmune en infectados o tras la vacunación frente a SARS-CoV-2. La cuantificación de la respuesta inmune celular T puede complementar la determinación de anticuerpos. Evaluamos la viabilidad de un ensayo comercial validado de respuesta celular T específica frente a SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Se incluyeron veinte trabajadores sanitarios (TS). Medimos anticuerpos contra las proteínas N y S de SARS-CoV-2 y realizamos el ensayo de liberación de interferón-gamma (IFNγ) en sangre completa (IGRA) frente a péptidos de la proteína S. IFNγ se determinó mediante dos métodos de detección: CLIA y ELISA. Resultados: IGRA detectó respuesta celular T en TS tanto infectados como vacunados. La correlación de los dos métodos de detección de IFNγ fue muy alta (R >0,8) y la sensibilidad y la especificidad variaron entre 100 y 86% y 100-73% respectivamente. Hubo una concordancia muy alta entre los niveles de anticuerpos específicos y el ensayo IGRA aunque la correlación cuantitativa fue relativamente baja. En el grupo de infectados, una dosis de vacuna fue suficiente para alcanzar el «plateau¼ de respuesta inmune. IGRA fue claramente positivo en un profesional vacunado inmunosuprimido que presentaba anticuerpos contra la proteína S negativos. Conclusiones: IGRA frente a péptidos de la proteína-S es susceptible de automatización y constituye una herramienta prometedora para medir la respuesta inmune celular frente a SARS-CoV-2; es aplicable a un gran número de muestras y puede servir para valorar la protección, particularmente en los grupos vulnerables en riesgo de volver a exponerse a la infección, como los TS.

8.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 159(3): 116-123, agosto 2022. graf
Article En | IBECS | ID: ibc-206639

BackgroundIt is crucial to assess the levels of protection generated by natural infection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, mainly in individuals professionally exposed and in vulnerable groups. Measuring T-cell responses may complement antibody tests currently in use as correlates of protection. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a validated assay of T-cell responses.MethodsTwenty health-care-workers (HCW) were included. Antibody test to SARS-CoV-2 N and S-proteins in parallel with a commercially available whole-blood-interferon-gamma-release-assay (IGRA) to S-peptides and two detection methods, CLIA and ELISA were determined.ResultsIGRA test detected T-cell responses in naturally exposed and vaccinated HCW already after first vaccination dose. The correlation by the two detection methods was very high (R>0.8) and sensitivity and specificity ranged between 100 and 86% and 100-73% respectively. Even though there was a very high concordance between specific antibody levels and the IGRA assay in the ability to detect immune response to SARS-CoV-2, there was a relatively low quantitative correlation. In the small group primed by natural infection, one vaccine dose was sufficient to reach immune response plateau. IGRA was positive in one, with Ig(S) antibody negative vaccinated immunosuppressed HCW illustrating another advantage of the IGRA-test.ConclusionWhole-blood-IGRA-tests amenable to automation and constitutes a promising additional tool for measuring the state of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2; they are applicable to large number of samples and may become a valuable correlate of protection to COVID-19, particularly for vulnerable groups at risk of being re-exposed to infection, as are health-care-workers. (AU)


IntroducciónEs fundamental evaluar los niveles de protección inmune en infectados o tras la vacunación frente a SARS-CoV-2. La cuantificación de la respuesta inmune celular T puede complementar la determinación de anticuerpos. Evaluamos la viabilidad de un ensayo comercial validado de respuesta celular T específica frente a SARS-CoV-2.MétodosSe incluyeron veinte trabajadores sanitarios (TS). Medimos anticuerpos contra las proteínas N y S de SARS-CoV-2 y realizamos el ensayo de liberación de interferón-gamma (IFNγ) en sangre completa (IGRA) frente a péptidos de la proteína S. IFNγ se determinó mediante dos métodos de detección: CLIA y ELISA.ResultadosIGRA detectó respuesta celular T en TS tanto infectados como vacunados. La correlación de los dos métodos de detección de IFNγ fue muy alta (R>0,8) y la sensibilidad y la especificidad variaron entre 100 y 86% y 100-73% respectivamente. Hubo una concordancia muy alta entre los niveles de anticuerpos específicos y el ensayo IGRA aunque la correlación cuantitativa fue relativamente baja. En el grupo de infectados, una dosis de vacuna fue suficiente para alcanzar el «plateau» de respuesta inmune. IGRA fue claramente positivo en un profesional vacunado inmunosuprimido que presentaba anticuerpos contra la proteína S negativos.ConclusionesIGRA frente a péptidos de la proteína-S es susceptible de automatización y constituye una herramienta prometedora para medir la respuesta inmune celular frente a SARS-CoV-2; es aplicable a un gran número de muestras y puede servir para valorar la protección, particularmente en los grupos vulnerables en riesgo de volver a exponerse a la infección, como los TS. (AU)


Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccines , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Health Personnel , T-Lymphocytes , Peptides
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873019, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432370

Anti-αGal IgE antibodies mediate a spreading allergic condition known as αGal-syndrome (AGS). People exposed to hard tick bites are sensitized to αGal, producing elevated levels of anti-αGal IgE, which are responsible for AGS. This work presents an immunotherapy based on polymeric αGal-glycoconjugates for potentially treating allergic disorders by selectively inhibiting anti-αGal IgE antibodies. We synthesized a set of αGal-glycoconjugates, based on poly-L-lysine of different degrees of polymerization (DP1000, DP600, and DP100), to specifically inhibit in vitro the anti-αGal IgE antibodies in the serum of αGal-sensitized patients (n=13). Moreover, an animal model for αGal sensitization in GalT-KO mice was developed by intradermal administration of hard tick' salivary gland extract, mimicking the sensitization mechanism postulated in humans. The in vitro exposure to all polymeric glycoconjugates (5-10-20-50-100 µg/mL) mainly inhibited anti-αGal IgE and IgM isotypes, with a lower inhibition effect on the IgA and IgG, respectively. We demonstrated a differential anti-αGal isotype inhibition as a function of the length of the poly-L-lysine and the number of αGal residues exposed in the glycoconjugates. These results defined a minimum of 27 αGal residues to inhibit most of the induced anti-αGal IgE in vitro. Furthermore, the αGal-glycoconjugate DP1000-RA0118 (10 mg/kg sc.) showed a high capacity to remove the anti-αGal IgE antibodies (≥75% on average) induced in GalT-KO mice, together with similar inhibition for circulating anti-αGal IgG and IgM. Our study suggests the potential clinical use of poly-L-lysine-based αGal-glycoconjugates for treating allergic disorders mediated by anti-αGal IgE antibodies.


Glycoconjugates , Polylysine , Animals , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Mice
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 881206, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464398

SASH3 is a lymphoid-specific adaptor protein. In a recent study, SASH3 deficiency was described as a novel X-linked combined immunodeficiency with immune dysregulation, associated with impaired TCR signaling and thymocyte survival in humans. The small number of patients reported to date showed recurrent sinopulmonary, cutaneous and mucosal infections, and autoimmune cytopenia. Here we describe an adult patient previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) due to low IgG and IgM levels and recurrent upper tract infections. Two separate, severe viral infections drew our attention and pointed to an underlying T cell defect: severe varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection at the age of 4 years and bilateral pneumonia due type A influenza infection at the age of 38. Genetic testing using an NGS-based custom-targeted gene panel revealed a novel hemizygous loss-of-function variant in the SASH3 gene (c.505C>T/p.Gln169*). The patient's immunological phenotype included marked B cell lymphopenia with reduced pre-switch and switch memory B cells, decreased CD4+ and CD8+ naïve T cells, elevated CD4+ and CD8+ TEMRA cells, and abnormal T cell activation and proliferation. The patient showed a suboptimal response to Streptococcus pneumoniae (polysaccharide) vaccine, and a normal response to Haemophilus influenzae type B (conjugate) vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 (RNA) vaccine. In summary, our patient has a combined immunodeficiency, although he presented with a phenotype resembling CVID. Two severe episodes of viral infection alerted us to a possible T-cell defect, and genetic testing led to SASH3 deficiency. Our patient displays a milder phenotype than has been reported previously in these patients, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of this recently identified inborn error of immunity.


COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Vaccines , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 129, 2022 03 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351135

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection portends a broad range of outcomes, from a majority of asymptomatic cases to a lethal disease. Robust correlates of severe COVID-19 include old age, male sex, poverty, and co-morbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A precise knowledge of the molecular and biological mechanisms that may explain the association of severe disease with male sex is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the relationship of serum testosterone levels and the immune cell skewing with disease severity in male COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Biochemical and hematological parameters of admission samples in 497 hospitalized male and female COVID-19 patients, analyzed for associations with outcome and sex. Longitudinal (in-hospital course) analyses of a subcohort of 114 male patients were analyzed for associations with outcome. Longitudinal analyses of immune populations by flow cytometry in 24 male patients were studied for associations with outcome. RESULTS: We have found quantitative differences in biochemical predictors of disease outcome in male vs. female patients. Longitudinal analyses in a subcohort of male COVID-19 patients identified serum testosterone trajectories as the strongest predictor of survival (AUC of ROC = 92.8%, p < 0.0001) in these patients among all biochemical parameters studied, including single-point admission serum testosterone values. In lethal cases, longitudinal determinations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and androstenedione levels did not follow physiological feedback patterns. Failure to reinstate physiological testosterone levels was associated with evidence of impaired T helper differentiation and augmented circulating classical monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery or failure to reinstate testosterone levels is strongly associated with survival or death, respectively, from COVID-19 in male patients. Our data suggest an early inhibition of the central LH-androgen biosynthesis axis in a majority of patients, followed by full recovery in survivors or a peripheral failure in lethal cases. These observations are suggestive of a significant role of testosterone status in the immune responses to COVID-19 and warrant future experimental explorations of mechanistic relationships between testosterone status and SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes, with potential prophylactic or therapeutic implications.


COVID-19 , Androgens , Female , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Testosterone
12.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 159(3): 116-123, 2022 08 12.
Article En, Es | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666900

BACKGROUND: It is crucial to assess the levels of protection generated by natural infection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, mainly in individuals professionally exposed and in vulnerable groups. Measuring T-cell responses may complement antibody tests currently in use as correlates of protection. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of a validated assay of T-cell responses. METHODS: Twenty health-care-workers (HCW) were included. Antibody test to SARS-CoV-2 N and S-proteins in parallel with a commercially available whole-blood-interferon-gamma-release-assay (IGRA) to S-peptides and two detection methods, CLIA and ELISA were determined. RESULTS: IGRA test detected T-cell responses in naturally exposed and vaccinated HCW already after first vaccination dose. The correlation by the two detection methods was very high (R>0.8) and sensitivity and specificity ranged between 100 and 86% and 100-73% respectively. Even though there was a very high concordance between specific antibody levels and the IGRA assay in the ability to detect immune response to SARS-CoV-2, there was a relatively low quantitative correlation. In the small group primed by natural infection, one vaccine dose was sufficient to reach immune response plateau. IGRA was positive in one, with Ig(S) antibody negative vaccinated immunosuppressed HCW illustrating another advantage of the IGRA-test. CONCLUSION: Whole-blood-IGRA-tests amenable to automation and constitutes a promising additional tool for measuring the state of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2; they are applicable to large number of samples and may become a valuable correlate of protection to COVID-19, particularly for vulnerable groups at risk of being re-exposed to infection, as are health-care-workers.


COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Peptides , Pilot Projects , T-Lymphocytes
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(11): 4045-4054, 2021 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214705

BACKGROUND: Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) becomes a crucial procedure to allow treatment continuation in patients who suffer drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to chemotherapeutic (CMT) and biological agents (BA). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a one-bag dilution protocol (1DP) with a conventional three-bag dilution protocol (3DP) for desensitization of patients with CMT or BA hypersensitivity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with immediate DHRs to CMT or BA who underwent at least 1 RDD procedure in our department between 2014 and 2019 was performed. Demographical data, clinical history, skin tests, tryptase levels, and risk assessment were registered. The safety, tolerability, occurrence, and severity of breakthrough reactions (BTR) with 3DP and 1DP were compared. RESULTS: After the allergy workup, 157 patients fulfilled criteria to undergo RDD (137 females, mean age: 60.44 ± 12.6 years). A total of 639 RDDs (543 CMT and 96 BA) were performed using 3DP in 205 (48 patients) and 1DP in 434 (109 patients). Almost all procedures (636) were completed successfully. No BTR occurred in the first RDD in 52% and 51% of the 3DP and 1DP, respectively. Most BTR were mild. Moderate-severe BTR occurred in 17% with 3DP and 9% with 1DP. There were no statistical differences between protocols regarding the rate and severity of BTR. CONCLUSIONS: RDD with 1DP to CMT and BA has equivalent outcomes to a 3DP desensitization in a selected population of patients in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and safety. Moreover, 1DP reduces the time required for RDD and simplifies the logistics.


Antineoplastic Agents , Drug Hypersensitivity , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Desensitization, Immunologic , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Drug Hypersensitivity/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
14.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(2): 203-207, abr.jun.2021. ilus
Article En | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398933

Allergy to persimmon (Diospyros kaki ) has been only rarely reported. The antigenic composition of the fruit is not entirely known. Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) have been described as allergens in pollens and various fruits, such as kiwi and banana, but not in persimmon. We report the case of a 22-year-old man, with persistent moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis, sensitized to house dust mites. The patient describes an episode of oral mucosa and ear canal pruritus, followed by diffuse urticaria, which rapidly evolved to dysphonia, dyspnea, and dizziness, after eating raw persimmon. A few months later he developed similar cutaneous symptoms accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal colic, and hypotension immediately after the intake of banana. The prick-prick test with raw persimmon and banana were positive, as well as the serum specific IgE to the extract of these fruits. The ImmunoCAP ISAC_112i test demonstrated a positive specific IgE against Act d 2 (kiwi thaumatin), which is homologous to banana TLP (Mus a 4). Serum IgE inhibition test with "sponge" of Diospyros kaki ImmunoCAP (f301) showed partial inhibition (40%) of IgE to Act d 2. This raises the suspicion that a TLP is at least partially responsible for the referred sensitization. This patient is sensitized to Diospyros kaki and Musa acuminata. An anaphylactic reaction to consumed persimmon, presumably as a result from cross-allergy with banana thaumatin was diagnosed in our patient. Thaumatin has not been previously described as an allergen of persimmon with cross-reactivity with banana, and in vitro with Act d 2 (kiwi TLP).


A alergia ao caqui (Diospyros kaki ) tem sido raramente documentada, não sendo a composição antigênica da fruta totalmente conhecida. Proteínas semelhantes à taumatina (TLPs) foram descritas como alergênicos em pólens e várias frutas, como no kiwi e banana, mas não no caqui. Apresenta-se o caso de um doente de 22 anos, com rinite alérgica persistente moderadagrave, sensibilizado a ácaros do pó doméstico. O doente refere episódio de prurido na mucosa oral e canal auditivo, seguido de urticária generalizada, que rapidamente evoluiu para disfonia, dispneia e tontura, após ingestão de caqui. Poucos meses depois, desenvolveu sintomas cutâneos semelhantes, acompanhados de náuseas, vómitos, cólica abdominal e hipotensão imediatamente após ingestão de uma banana. O teste cutâneo por picada com caqui e banana em natureza foram positivos, bem como o doseamento de IgE específica. O teste ImmunoCAP ISAC_112i identificou a presença de IgE específica para Act d 2 (taumatina do kiwi), homóloga da TLP da banana (Mus a 4). O estudo de inibição ImmunoCAP ISAC com "esponja" de Diospyros kaki (f301) produziu uma inibição parcial (40%) da ligação de IgE a Act d 2, permitindo presumir que uma proteína semelhante à taumatina é, pelo menos, parcialmente responsável pela referida sensibilização. Este doente encontra-se sensibilizado a Diospyros kaki e Musa acuminata. Uma anafilaxia ao caqui ingerido, presumivelmente resultante de reatividade cruzada com a taumatina da banana foi diagnosticada. Não estão descritas na literatura TLPs como alergênicos do caqui com reatividade cruzada com a banana e com Act d 2 in vitro (TLP do kiwi).


Humans , Male , Young Adult , Diospyros , Musa , Eating , Rhinitis, Allergic , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Anaphylaxis , Mites , Pruritus , Signs and Symptoms , Urticaria , Vomiting , Immunoglobulin E , Intradermal Tests , Allergens , Colic , Ear Canal , Mouth Mucosa , Nausea
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(6): 2284-2292, 2021 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831619

BACKGROUND: Recurrent idiopathic histaminergic angioedema is currently classified as a subtype of angioedema, as well as a subtype of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), based on the fact that both are mast cell-mediated and respond to the same treatments. OBJECTIVE: In the present work, we sought to verify whether chronic histaminergic angioedema (CHA) is an entity distinct from CSU or represents a CSU subtype that lacks hives. METHODS: We performed a prospective study comparing 68 CHA patients, angioedema without hives, with 63 CSU patients, with hives and angioedema, from whom we collected demographic and clinical data, as well as blood and serum markers. RESULTS: We found key pathogenic features that differentiate CHA from CSU: gender distribution, basophil number, and antibodies against the IgE receptor. The male/female ratio in CHA was 0.78, whereas in CSU it was 0.36 (P = .0466). Basopenia was more often seen in CSU (n = 13 [20%]) than in CHA (n = 5 [7%]). Finally, 31.15% of CSU sera induced basophil activation, whereas no CHA sera were able to activate normal basophils. By contrast, nonspecific inflammation or immune markers, for example, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, or IgG antithyroid antibodies, were very similar between both groups. IgE anti-IL-24 could not be assessed because a control population did not differ from CSU. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of CHA as part of the spectrum of CSU is an assumption not evidence-based, and when studied separately, important differences were observed. Until there is further evidence, CHA and CSU should not necessarily be considered the same disorder, and it is our opinion that review articles and guidelines should reflect that possibility.


Angioedema , Chronic Urticaria , Urticaria , Angioedema/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Urticaria/epidemiology
16.
Allergy ; 76(5): 1507-1516, 2021 05.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043475

BACKGROUND: Epinephrine is the first-line treatment for anaphylaxis. Patients at risk should always carry an epinephrine autoinjector (EAI). Several EAI gaps have been identified. We sought to evaluate satisfaction using a medical device (digital technology comprising an EAI smart case connected to a mobile APP) with functions that overcome most of the EAI limitations and to determine whether patient behaviour and anaphylaxis management improve with its use. METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, crossover clinical trial in a tertiary hospital involving patients with history of anaphylaxis carrying an EAI. The study was conducted in two three-month periods, one with and one without the medical device. The primary endpoint was satisfaction with the medical device. Usability, adherence, anxiety and anaphylaxis episodes were evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included (mean age 38.1 years, 74% female), and 95 completed the trial. The satisfaction visual analogue scale (VAS) after using the medical device was higher than before its use (89.1 [95% CI, 60.2-99.1] vs 56.3 [95% CI, 48.1-81.4]; P < .0001). The adherence VAS improved from 59.7 (95% CI, 54.0-65.3) to 88.6 (95% CI, 84.2-92.9) (P < .0001). Overall, 90% patients found the medical device easy to use. Patients' anxiety decreased from 52.2% to 29.3% (P < .001). Seven episodes of anaphylaxis occurred during the study, all in patients without the medical device (P = .025). Eighty-eight per cent of patients felt more involved in the management of anaphylaxis when using the medical device. CONCLUSION: This is the first clinical trial evaluating digital technology for EAIs, showing a change of behaviour in patients at risk of anaphylaxis, increasing satisfaction, improving adherence, and reducing anxiety, with good usability.


Anaphylaxis , Adult , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Digital Technology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Injections , Male
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244627, 2020.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370397

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients at high-risk of poor prognosis is crucial. We aimed to establish predictive models for COVID-19 pneumonia severity in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of 430 patients admitted in Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Barcelona) between 03-12-2020 and 04-28-2020 due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Two models to identify the patients who required high-flow-oxygen-support were generated, one using baseline data and another with also follow-up analytical results. Calibration was performed by a 1000-bootstrap replication model. RESULTS: 249 were male, mean age 57.9 years. Overall, 135 (31.4%) required high-flow-oxygen-support. The baseline predictive model showed a ROC of 0.800 based on: SpO2/FiO2 (adjusted Hazard Ratio-aHR = 8), chest x-ray (aHR = 4), prior immunosuppressive therapy (aHR = 4), obesity (aHR = 2), IL-6 (aHR = 2), platelets (aHR = 0.5). The cut-off of 11 presented a specificity of 94.8%. The second model included changes on the analytical parameters: ferritin (aHR = 7.5 if ≥200ng/mL) and IL-6 (aHR = 18 if ≥64pg/mL) plus chest x-ray (aHR = 2) showing a ROC of 0.877. The cut-off of 12 exhibited a negative predictive value of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: SpO2/FiO2 and chest x-ray on admission or changes on inflammatory parameters as IL-6 and ferritin allow us early identification of COVID-19 patients at risk of high-flow-oxygen-support that may benefit from a more intensive disease management.


COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(10): 1166-1175, 2020 10.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735720

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence describing the benefits of recommended therapies and their impact on the quality of life (QoL) of chronic urticaria (CU) patients is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate disease burden, current treatment schedule, and the use of clinical resources by patients with H1 -antihistamine-refractory CU in Europe. METHODS: AWARE (A World-wide Antihistamine-Refractory chronic urticaria patient Evaluation) is a global, prospective, non-interventional study in the real-world setting, sponsored by the manufacturer of omalizumab. Disease characteristics, pharmacological treatments, and health-related QoL of patients (N = 2727) ≥18 years of age diagnosed with H1 -antihistamine-refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (without inducible urticaria) for >2 months are reported here. RESULTS: Of the 2727 patients included, 1232 (45.2%) and 1278 (46.9%) were successfully followed up for any assessment and for the key outcome, the urticaria control test (UCT) score, respectively, and patients with complete remission (14.1%) were excluded from analyses.The proportion of patients with uncontrolled CSU (UCT score <12) dropped from 78% (n/N = 1641/2104) at baseline to 28.7% (n/N = 269/936) after two years of participation in the AWARE study. In addition, the proportion of patients with no impact of CSU on their QoL (assessed by the Dermatological Life Quality Index) increased to 57% (n/N = 664/1164) from 18.7% (n/N = 491/2621) at baseline. Emergency room visits (2.4% [n/N = 7/296] vs 33.5% [n/N = 779/2322]) and hospital stays (1.7% [n/N = 5/296] vs 24.2% [n/N = 561/2322]) reduced at Month 24 vs baseline. Overall, 23.2% (n/N = 26/112) patients on non-sedating H1 -antihistamines (nsAH) and 41.9% (n/N = 44/105) patients on up-dosed nsAH had uncontrolled CSU (UCT <12) at Month 24. In omalizumab-treated patients, 27.1% (n/N = 78/288) had uncontrolled CSU at Month 24. CONCLUSION: These data confirm improvements for most patients with CSU over a 2-year follow-up period. Further studies are needed to understand the differences between guideline recommendations and reported management.


Chronic Urticaria/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Histamine H1 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Adult , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Chronic Urticaria/diagnosis , Chronic Urticaria/immunology , Cost of Illness , Europe , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Histamine H1 Antagonists/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 20(3): 248-252, 2020 06.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977447

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Molecular diagnosis has become an indispensable tool in allergy. In suspected idiopathic anaphylaxis, it is mandatory to extend the diagnostic search to its limits. The current review evaluates how molecular diagnosis allows to identify a number of difficult to prove potential culprits. RECENT FINDINGS: Depending on different geographical areas, it has been shown that the number of anaphylaxis labelled as idiopathic may decrease by the use of molecular diagnosis. The most relevant allergens identified are alpha-gal, omega-5-gliadin, Anisakis, lipid transfer proteins and oleosins. The role of cofactors has been shown to be relevant in a high proportion of cases. Mast cell disorders should always be ruled out. SUMMARY: There is a need to provide further molecular diagnostic tests for use in clinical practice to identify sensitization to allergens not well represented in current commercial assays.


Allergens/immunology , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin E/isolation & purification , Immunologic Tests/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Anaphylaxis/blood , Anaphylaxis/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/immunology
20.
Adv Lab Med ; 1(4): 20200051, 2020 Dec.
Article En, Es | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37360620

In vitro allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) detection and quantification tests are routinely performed in clinical laboratories to diagnose patients with a suspected allergy. Numerous commercial assays are available to test for allergies, but the results can vary widely, thereby influencing both diagnosis and treatment. Given the challenges posed by differences in the various assays for in vitro determination of specific IgE, a group of experts has compiled in a document a series of recommendations on the implications that the use of a certain in vitro technique may have and the impact on the management of the allergic patient that the differences between the various techniques represent. The reading and analysis of this consensus document will help to understand the implications of the change of in vitro diagnostic method in the management of the patient with allergy, in the quality of life and in the socioeconomic costs associated with the disease.

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