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Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 77(5): 383-392, mayo 2024. tab, graf
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-JHG-71

Introducción y objetivos: Existe controversia sobre la mejor estrategia de revascularización en la enfermedad coronaria avanzada, incluidas la enfermedad del tronco coronario y la enfermedad multivaso. Varios metanálisis han comparado resultados a 5 años, pero no hay resultados después del quinto año. Se realizaron una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados para comparar los resultados después del quinto año entre la cirugía de revascularización coronaria (CABG) y la intervención coronaria percutánea (ICP) con stents farmacoactivos.MétodosSe analizaron los ensayos clínicos publicados entre 2010 y 2023. El objetivo primario fue la mortalidad por cualquier causa. Las bases de datos originales se reconstruyeron a partir de las curvas de Kaplan-Meier simulando un metanálisis individual. Se realizaron comparaciones en ciertos puntos de corte (5 y 10 años). Se calculó la diferencia del tiempo medio de supervivencia restringida. Se aplicó el modelo de efectos aleatorios y de DerSimonian-Laird.ResultadosSe analizó a 5.180 pacientes. Durante los 10 años de seguimiento, las ICP muestran una mayor incidencia de mortalidad (HR=1,19; IC95%, 1,04-1,32; p=0,008). La ICP muestra un mayor riesgo de mortalidad a 5 años (HR=1,2; IC95%, 1,06-1,53; p=0,008), mientras que no hubo diferencias de 5 a 10 años (HR=1,03; IC95%, 0,84-1,26; p=0,76). La esperanza de vida de los pacientes sometidos a CABG fue ligeramente mayor (2,4 meses más).ConclusionesEntre los pacientes con enfermedad coronaria avanzada, incluidas la enfermedad del tronco coronario y la enfermedad multivaso, hubo mayor mortalidad tras una ICP que tras la CABG a los 10 años de seguimiento. En concreto, la ICP tiene mayor mortalidad durante los primeros 5 años y un riesgo comparable de 5 a 10 años. (AU)

Introduction and objectives: There is controversy about the optimal revascularization strategy in severe coronary artery disease (CAD), including left main disease and/or multivessel disease. Several meta-analyses have analyzed the results at 5-year follow-up but there are no results after the fifth year. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, comparing results after the fifth year, between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using drug-eluting stents in patients with severe CAD.MethodsWe analyzed all clinical trials between January 2010 and January 2023. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The databases of the original articles were reconstructed from Kaplan-Meier curves, simulating an individual-level meta-analysis. Comparisons were made at certain cutoff points (5 and 10 years). The 10-year restricted median survival time difference between CABG and PCI was calculated. The random effects model and the DerSimonian-Laird method were applied.ResultsThe meta-analysis included 5180 patients. During the 10-year follow-up, PCI showed a higher overall incidence of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.19; 95%CI, 1.04-1.32; P=.008)]. PCI showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality within 5 years (HR, 1.2; 95%CI, 1.06-1.53; P=.008), while no differences in the 5–10-year period were revealed (HR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.84-1.26; P=.76). Life expectancy of CABG patients was slightly higher than that of PCI patients (2.4 months more).ConclusionsIn patients with severe CAD, including left main disease and/or multivessel disease, there was higher a incidence of all-cause mortality after PCI compared with CABG at 10 years of follow-up. Specifically, PCI has higher mortality during the first 5 years and comparable risk beyond 5 years. (AU)

Humans , Drug-Eluting Stents , Global Health , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Survival Rate
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 300, 2024 May 17.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760821

BACKGROUND: Despite advancements in school scoliosis screening (SSS), there are still no effective indicators to estimate the severity of spinal curvature. We aim to investigate the association between incorrect postures and curve magnitude of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: In this SSS program, we examined the incorrect posture, Adam's forward bending test (FBT) results, and angle of trunk rotation (ATR) in adolescents. Those with suspected scoliosis were referred for a standing anteroposterior whole-spine radiography as outpatients. The radiographic data of 426 students with lateral Cobb angles were collected from 2016 to 2022 and the associations were studied using logistic regression (LR) models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Univariate LR revealed that female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-5.09, P < 0.001], age 16-19y (OR = 2.83, 95%CI 1.10-7.28, P = 0.031), right shoulder height (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.23-3.75, P = 0.007), right scapula tilt (OR = 2.03, 95%CI 1.18-3.50, P = 0.010), right rib hump (OR = 1.88, 95%CI 1.23-2.85, P = 0.003), right thoracic rotation ≥ 5° (OR = 2.14, 95%CI 1.43-3.20, P < 0.001), and left thoracolumbar kyphosis (OR = 3.79, 95%CI 1.06-13.56, P = 0.041) were all significantly associated with the severity of the curve magnitude. Multivariate LR showed that female gender [adjusted OR (AOR) = 3.23, 95%CI 1.81-5.73, P < 0.001], those aged 16-19y (AOR = 5.08, 95%CI 1.86-13.91, P = 0.002), and with a right rib hump (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.11-2.64, P = 0.015) presented with a higher risk of severe curve magnitude than men, those aged 7-12y, and without a rib hump, respectively. ROC curves further proved that sex, age, shoulder-height difference, scapula tilt, flat back, rib hump, angle of thoracic rotation were the risk predictors for curve magnitude. CONCLUSION: Incorrect posture and ATR, especially the right rib hump, were significantly associated with the curve magnitude of AIS. Early screening for incorrect postures and ATR could be an effective and economical strategy to predict the severity of AIS through SSS in Chinese adolescents.

Posture , Scoliosis , Humans , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging , Scoliosis/physiopathology , Adolescent , Female , Male , China/epidemiology , Posture/physiology , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , Radiography
Dermatol Online J ; 30(1)2024 Mar 15.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762856

Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare variant of psoriasis. Evidence recommending generalized pustular psoriasis treatment with secukinumab is limited. This report aims to evaluate the use of secukinumab in two patients with generalized pustular psoriasis. The standard treatment regimen for secukinumab was as follows: 300mg subcutaneously once weekly in weeks 0-4, followed by 300mg every four weeks. The efficacy was evaluated by analyzing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI). One patient had generalized pustular psoriasis, which had developed from palmoplantar pustulosis over 12 years. The second patient was an adolescent with recurrent generalized pustular psoriasis. The first patient achieved PASI-75 response by week 3 and both PASI-90 and a DLQI score of 0 were observed by week 8. The second patient achieved PASI-75 response by week 4 and complete clinical resolution, except for nail changes, and a DLQI of 0 by week 8, without any adverse events.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Psoriasis , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Male , Adolescent , Female , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Adult
Clin Ter ; 175(3): 137-145, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767070

Background: Various non-invasive methods have been studied for assessing the fibrosis stage in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the performance of APGA, Fibrosis index in diagnosing liver fibrosis remains unclear globally and specifically in Vietnam. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was performed among 242 patients treated at Thong Nhat Hospital. Results: Both the APGA index and Fibrosis index showed good accuracy in diagnosing significant fibrosis (≥ F2), advanced liver fibro-sis (≥ F3), and cirrhosis (F4) with an area under the curve (AUROC) greater than 0.7. AUROC value of APGA index, Fibrosis index for diagnosing signifcant fibrosis (≥ F2) were 0.828, 0.767 respectively. AUROC value of APGA index, Fibrosis index for diagnosing advanced liver fibrosis (≥ F3) were 0.784, 0.755 respectively. AUROC value of APGA index, Fibrosis index for diagnosing cirrhosis (F4) were 0.736, 0.782 respectively. APGA index and the Fibrosis index were significantly positively correlated with the fibrosis stage (p < 0.001), with the APGA index showing the strongest correlation (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The APGA values of 6.23, 7.88, and 8.99 can serve as cutoff points for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2), advanced fibrosis (≥F3), and cirrhosis (F4) when combined with ARFI data.

Hepatitis B, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/pathology , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Vietnam
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29673, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767184

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for the human disease known as COVID-19. This virus is capable of generating a spectrum of infections ranging from moderate to severe. Serum apolipoprotein E (ApoE) inhibits inflammation by preserving immune regulatory function. Nonetheless, the relationship between serum ApoE and clinical prognosis in omicron remains elusive. A cohort of 231 patients was observed for 65 days, with death as the primary outcome. Based on their ApoE levels, the patients were categorized into patients with elevated ApoE levels and those with lower ApoE levels. To do statistical comparisons, the log-rank test was utilized, and the Kaplan-Meier method was utilized to estimate survival rates. Cox hazard models, both univariate and multivariate, were employed to examine the prognostic relevance. According to our research, omicron had significantly greater ApoE levels. In mild-to-moderate and severe cases, the study identified a statistically significant variation in ApoE levels. Additionally, there was a drop in overall survival that is statistically significant (OS, p < 0.0001) for patients with greater ApoE levels. Multiple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis indicates that an elevated ApoE level was determined to be an adverse and independent prognostic factor of OS in patients with omicron. Taken together, our study found that the level of serum ApoE at the time of initial diagnosis was substantially connected to the severity and prognosis of omicron. Consequently, we propose that ApoE might be a poor prognostic factor in individuals afflicted with the omicron variant.

Apolipoproteins E , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Prognosis , Middle Aged , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/blood , Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Adult , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Severity of Illness Index
J Dermatolog Treat ; 35(1): 2355261, 2024 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767401

BACKGROUND: Biologics have revolutionized psoriasis treatment; however, relapse of psoriasis after discontinuation of biologics remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of adjunctive Chinese medicine (CM) therapy on relapse of psoriasis vulgaris (PV) after discontinuation of biologics. METHODS: We constructed a prospective cohort study through a psoriasis case registry platform that enrolled patients treated with biologics (in combination with or without CM). The endpoint event was relapse, defined as loss of psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) 75. RESULTS: A total of 391 patients completed the study and were included in the analysis, of whom 169 (43.2%) experienced relapse during follow-up. To minimize the bias, a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed, generating matched cohorts of 156 individuals per group. Adjuvant CM therapy significantly associated with reduced incidence of relapse (HR =0.418, 95% CI = 0.289 ∼ 0.604, p < 0.001), and the protective effect of CM in the subgroup analysis was significant. In addition, PASI 90 response and disease duration were associated with relapse (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Adjunctive CM therapy is associated with reduced relapse incidence in PV after discontinuation of biologics.

Biological Products , Psoriasis , Recurrence , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Psoriasis/pathology , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged , Adult , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1354, 2024 May 20.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769476

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience extensive problems due to fatigue and illness perception. Reducing these problems may improve these patients' quality of life (QoL). Accordingly, the current study is aimed at investigating the mediating role of self-efficacy, locus of control, coping strategy, and outcome expectancy in the relationship between illness perception and fatigue severity in patients with MS. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analytical study, data of 172 MS patients were collected by self-report questionnaires including illness perception questionnaires (IPQ-R), Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy (MSSES) scale, health locus of control (MHLC), coping strategies in MS(CMSS), outcome expectancy, level of physical activity (IPAQ-SF), patient activation measure (PAM-13) and fatigue severity scale (FSS). The data were analyzed using linear and multiple regression analysis in SPSS software version 24 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: The final model explained 62% of the fatigue variance. Illness perception both directly and indirectly (through self-efficacy, physical activity level, internal health locus of control, patient activation, and negative coping strategies) could predict the participants' fatigue severity. Among the mediating variables, internal health locus of control, self-efficacy, and negative coping strategies had the greatest impact, respectively. moreover, outcome expectancy variable did not a mediating role in the aforementioned relationship. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance the well-being of MS patients and to improve the efficiency of treating MS related fatigue, a comprehensive treatment protocol is needed, encompassing psychological factors affecting fatigue severity.

Adaptation, Psychological , Fatigue , Internal-External Control , Multiple Sclerosis , Self Efficacy , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Female , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Fatigue/psychology , Adult , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Severity of Illness Index , Quality of Life/psychology , Young Adult , Coping Skills
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 305, 2024 May 21.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769508

BACKGROUND: It is beneficial for society to discover the risk factors associated with surgery and to carry out some early interventions for patients with these risk factors. Few studies specifically explored the relationship between bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and long-term incident joint surgery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between BML severity observed in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients' first MRI examination and incident knee surgery within 5 years. Additionally, to assess the predictive value of BMLs for the incident knee surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with knee OA and treated at our institution between January 2015 and January 2018, and retrieved their baseline clinical data and first MRI examination films from the information system. Next, we proceeded to determine the Max BML grades, BML burden grades and Presence BML grades for the medial, lateral, patellofemoral, and total compartments, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression models examined the association of the BML grades with 5-year incident knee surgery. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) were determined for BML grades referring to 5-year incident knee surgery. RESULTS: Totally, 1011 participants (knees) were found eligible to form the study population. Within the 5 years, surgery was performed on 74 knees. Max BML grade 2 and grade 3 of medial, patellofemoral and total compartments were strongly and significantly associated with incident surgery. None of the BML grades from lateral compartment was associated with incident surgery. The PPV was low and NPV was high for BMLs. CONCLUSIONS: BMLs found in the first MRI examination were associated with 5-year incident joint surgery, except for those allocated in lateral compartments. The high NPVs imply that patients without BMLs have a low risk of requiring surgery within 5 years.

Bone Marrow , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Humans , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Osteoarthritis, Knee/diagnostic imaging , Osteoarthritis, Knee/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Marrow/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow/pathology , Cohort Studies , Time Factors , Risk Factors , Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging , Knee Joint/surgery , Knee Joint/pathology , Bone Marrow Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow Diseases/etiology , Bone Marrow Diseases/pathology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Severity of Illness Index
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(19): e164, 2024 May 20.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769923

BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) exert a substantial burden on patients and healthcare systems; however, data related to the frequency of AECOPD in the Korean population are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the frequency of severe, and moderate or severe AECOPD, as well as clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in South Korea. METHODS: Data from patients aged > 40 years with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ≤ 70% of the normal predicted value from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study database were analyzed (April 2012 to 2021). The protocol was based on the EXAcerbations of COPD and their OutcomeS International study. Data were collected retrospectively for year 0 (0-12 months before study enrollment) based on patient recall, and prospectively during years 1, 2, and 3 (0-12, 13-24, and 25-36 months after study enrollment, respectively). The data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Data from 3,477 Korean patients (mean age, 68.5 years) with COPD were analyzed. Overall, most patients were male (92.3%), former or current smokers (90.8%), had a modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale score ≥ 1 (83.3%), and had moderate airflow limitation (54.4%). The mean body mass index (BMI) of the study population was 23.1 kg/m², and 27.6% were obese or overweight. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (37.6%). The mean blood eosinophil count was 226.8 cells/µL, with 21.9% of patients having ≥ 300 cells/µL. A clinically insignificant change in FEV1 (+1.4%) was observed a year after enrollment. Overall, patients experienced a mean of 0.2 severe annual AECOPD and approximately 1.1 mean moderate or severe AECOPD. Notably, the rates of severe AECOPD remained generally consistent over time. Compared with patients with no exacerbations, patients who experienced severe exacerbations had a lower mean BMI (21.7 vs. 23.1 kg/m²; P < 0.001) and lower lung function parameters (all P values < 0.001), but reported high rates of depression (25.5% vs. 15.1%; P = 0.044) and anxiety (37.3% vs. 16.7%; P < 0.001) as a comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Findings from this Korean cohort of patients with COPD indicated a high exacerbation burden, which may be attributable to the unique characteristics of the study population and suboptimal disease management. This highlights the need to align clinical practices with the latest treatment recommendations to alleviate AECOPD burden in Korea. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT05750810.

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Forced Expiratory Volume , Retrospective Studies , Disease Progression , Vital Capacity , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Smoking/epidemiology
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303757, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771834

Whether 30-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores can predict 90-day scores is unclear. This study derived and validated a model to predict ordinal 90-day mRS score in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) population using 30-day mRS values and routinely available baseline variables. Adults enrolled in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage-2 (ATACH-2) trial between May 2011 and September 2015 with acute ICH, who were alive at 30 days and had mRS scores reported at both 30 and 90 days were included in this post-hoc analysis. A proportional odds regression model for predicting ordinal 90-day mRS scores was developed and internally validated using bootstrapping. Variables in the model included: mRS score at 30 days, age (years), hematoma volume (cm3), hematoma location (deep [basal ganglia, thalamus], lobar, or infratentorial), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), baseline Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at randomization. We assessed model fit, calibration, discrimination, and agreement (ordinal, dichotomized functional independence), and EuroQol-5D ([EQ-5D] utility weighted) between predicted and observed 90-day mRS. A total of 898/1000 participants were included. Following bootstrap internal validation, our model (calibration slope = 0.967) had an optimism-corrected c-index of 0.884 (95% CI = 0.873-0.896) and R2 = 0.712 for 90-day mRS score. The weighted ĸ for agreement between observed and predicted ordinal 90-day mRS score was 0.811 (95% CI = 0.787-0.834). Agreement between observed and predicted functional independence (mRS score of 0-2) at 90 days was 74.3% (95% CI = 69.9-78.7%). The mean ± SD absolute difference between predicted and observed EQ-5D-weighted mRS score was negligible (0.005 ± 0.145). This tool allows practitioners and researchers to utilize clinically available information along with the mRS score 30 days after ICH to reliably predict the mRS score at 90 days.

Intracranial Hemorrhages , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Glasgow Coma Scale , Prognosis , Aged, 80 and over
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303899, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771892

BACKGROUND: The Pneumonia Score Index (PSI) was developed to estimate the risk of dying within 30 days of presentation for community-acquired pneumonia patients and is a strong predictor of 30-day mortality after COVID-19. However, three of its required 20 variables (skilled nursing home, altered mental status and pleural effusion) are not discreetly available in the electronic medical record (EMR), resulting in manual chart review for these 3 factors. The goal of this study is to compare a simplified 17-factor version (PSI-17) to the original (denoted PSI-20) in terms of prediction of 30-day mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 2/28/20-5/28/20 were identified to compare the predictive performance between PSI-17 and PSI-20. Correlation was assessed between PSI-17 and PSI-20, and logistic regressions were performed for 30-day mortality. The predictive abilities were compared by discrimination, calibration, and overall performance. RESULTS: Based on 1,138 COVID-19 patients, the correlation between PSI-17 and PSI-20 was 0.95. Univariate logistic regression showed that PSI-17 had performance similar to PSI-20, based on AUC, ICI and Brier Score. After adjusting for confounding variables by multivariable logistic regression, PSI-17 and PSI-20 had AUCs (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.83-0.88) and 0.86 (0.84-0.89), respectively, indicating no significant difference in AUC at significance level of 0.05. CONCLUSION: PSI-17 and PSI-20 are equally effective predictors of 30-day mortality in terms of several performance metrics. PSI-17 can be obtained without the manual chart review, which allows for automated risk calculations within an EMR. PSI-17 can be easily obtained and may be a comparable alternative to PSI-20.

COVID-19 , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , Male , Female , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis
Transpl Int ; 37: 12732, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773987

Sex inequities in liver transplantation (LT) have been documented in several, mostly US-based, studies. Our aim was to describe sex-related differences in access to LT in a system with short waiting times. All adult patients registered in the RETH-Spanish Liver Transplant Registry (2000-2022) for LT were included. Baseline demographics, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, cause and severity of liver disease, time on the waiting list (WL), access to transplantation, and reasons for removal from the WL were assessed. 14,385 patients were analysed (77% men, 56.2 ± 8.7 years). Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was reported for 5,475 patients (mean value: 16.6 ± 5.7). Women were less likely to receive a transplant than men (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63, 0.97) with a trend to a higher risk of exclusion for deterioration (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.99, 1.38), despite similar disease severity. Women waited longer on the WL (198.6 ± 338.9 vs. 173.3 ± 285.5 days, p < 0.001). Recently, women's risk of dropout has reduced, concomitantly with shorter WL times. Even in countries with short waiting times, women are disadvantaged in LT. Policies directed at optimizing the whole LT network should be encouraged to guarantee a fair and equal access of all patients to this life saving resource.

Health Services Accessibility , Liver Transplantation , Registries , Waiting Lists , Humans , Female , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Male , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Spain , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Adult , United States , Severity of Illness Index , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1366015, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774226

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a quarter of the world's population and encompasses a spectrum of liver conditions, from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, NAFLD also links to extrahepatic conditions like diabetes or obesity. However, it remains unclear if NAFLD independently correlates with the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between NAFLD severity, assessed via liver biopsy, and early atherosclerosis using adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) density. It included 44 patients with obesity (33 with steatosis, 11 with NASH) undergoing bariatric surgery. Results: Results revealed no significant differences in adventitial VV density between steatosis and NASH groups, neither in the mean values [0.759 ± 0.104 vs. 0.780 ± 0.043, P=0.702] nor left-right sides. Similarly, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) did not vary between these groups. Additionally, no linear correlation existed between VV density and cIMT. Only gender showed an association with VV density. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NASH severity doesn't independently drive early atherosclerosis or affects cIMT. Gender might play a role in early atherosclerotic disease in NAFLD, impacting VV density and cIMT. This highlights the need to consider other risk factors when evaluating cardiovascular risk in NAFLD patients.

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Severity of Illness Index , Vasa Vasorum , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Male , Female , Vasa Vasorum/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Adult , Adventitia/pathology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Obesity/complications
Front Immunol ; 15: 1380481, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774868

Objectives: Cell surface glycosylation can influence protein-protein interactions with particular relevance to changes in core fucosylation and terminal sialylation. Glycans are ligands for immune regulatory lectin families like galectins (Gals) or sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs). This study delves into the glycan alterations within immune subsets of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: Evaluation of binding affinities of Galectin-1, Galectin-3, Siglec-1, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL, recognizing core fucosylation), and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, specific for α-2,6-sialylation) was conducted on various immune subsets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from control and SLE subjects. Lectin binding was measured by multi-parameter flow cytometry in 18 manually gated subsets of T-cells, NK-cells, NKT-cells, B-cells, and monocytes in unstimulated resting state and also after 3-day activation. Stimulated pre-gated populations were subsequently clustered by FlowSOM algorithm based on lectin binding and activation markers, CD25 or HLA-DR. Results: Elevated AAL, SNA and CD25+/CD25- SNA binding ratio in certain stimulated SLE T-cell subsets correlated with SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scores. The significantly increased frequencies of activated AALlow Siglec-1low NK metaclusters in SLE also correlated with SLEDAI-2K indices. In SLE, activated double negative NKTs displayed significantly lower core fucosylation and CD25+/CD25- Siglec-1 binding ratio, negatively correlating with disease activity. The significantly enhanced AAL binding in resting SLE plasmablasts positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K scores. Conclusion: Alterations in the glycosylation of immune cells in SLE correlate with disease severity, which might represent potential implications in the pathogenesis of SLE.

Flow Cytometry , Lectins , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , Adult , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Lectins/metabolism , Lectins/immunology , Protein Binding , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Glycosylation , Galectins/metabolism , Galectins/immunology , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index
J Dermatolog Treat ; 35(1): 2358150, 2024 Dec.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777338

BACKGROUND: The recent introduction of biological drugs specifically targeting the interleukins involved in psoriasis pathogenesis revolutionized the therapeutic scenario of moderate to severe forms of psoriasis. Among these, risankizumab, an anti-IL-23, was shown to be effective both in clinical trials and real-life experiences. However, data on its use on very severe forms of psoriasis, defined by a Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) of at least 30, are scant. In this context, our study aimed to investigate the outcomes of patients with very severe psoriasis, and the involvement of difficult-to-treat areas treated with risankizumab for up to 2 years. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study enrolled patients with very severe plaque psoriasis and the involvement of difficult-to-treat areas undergoing treatment with risankizumab. Clinical and demographic data were collected at baseline. Moreover, at baseline and each dermatological examination (16, 28, 40 and 104 weeks), clinical improvement was measured using the percentage of patients achieving PASI 75/90/100 response, site-specific Psoriasis Global Assessment and Dermatology Life Quality Index. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean PASI was 35.1 ± 5.1. A significant reduction was observed since week 16 and maintained up to week 104. Moreover, the Psoriasis Global Assessment and Dermatology Life Quality Index improved as well. CONCLUSIONS: Risankizumab showed to be effective and safe in patients affected by very severe forms of psoriasis with the involvement of difficult-to-treat areas.

Psoriasis , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Psoriasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Treatment Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 61: 266-273, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777442

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Insufficient screening and management of malnutrition leads to increase morbidity and mortality. AIMS: to evaluate the characteristics and clinical outcomes of malnourished patients referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for the management of malnutrition (primary); to compare the latter according to malnutrition severity; to determine the factors associated with severe malnutrition and mortality; to compare the consistency of the decided medical nutrition therapy with the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines (secondary). METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included malnourished adults referred for the first time to the specialized nutrition consultation of a teaching University Hospital during 50 months. Malnutrition was diagnosed according to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria, including body composition assessment by bioimpedance analysis. STATISTICS: Chi2 or Fisher, Student or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests; multivariable logistic regression to assess the factors associated with severe malnutrition and mortality. RESULTS: 108 malnourished adults were included: 74% had severe malnutrition. The main secondary diagnosis was digestive cancer (48.2%). During the follow-up (median = 70 days) after the first nutritional consultation, 11% of patients were admitted at hospital, 19% had infections and 23.1% died, without any difference according to malnutrition severity. Severely malnourished patients had lower body mass index, a smaller fat mass index (FMI) (4.6 ± 1.8 vs 6.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2; p = 0.01), and a higher level of total body water (64.7 ± 7.1 vs 60.6 ± 5.4%; p = 0.02), compared to moderately malnourished individuals. A low FMI (odds ratio = 0.72 [0.54-0.96]) was the only factor significantly associated with severe malnutrition. We did not find any factor associated with mortality. There was a moderate consistency (47.1%) between the decided medical nutrition therapy and the ESPEN guidelines of nutritional care. CONCLUSIONS: Adults referred for the first time to a specialized nutritional consultation present mostly with severe malnutrition and are at risk for significant complications, leading to a high mortality rate. In this population, a low FMI is associated with severe malnutrition. An earlier diagnosis and care of malnutrition and an earlier referral to clinical nutrition units would improve outcomes.

Malnutrition , Nutrition Assessment , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Malnutrition/therapy , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Referral and Consultation , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Nutritional Status , Adult , Treatment Outcome , Aged, 80 and over , Body Composition , Severity of Illness Index , Hospitalization , Body Mass Index
Front Immunol ; 15: 1365544, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745653

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by type 2-skewed immune responses, and significantly influenced by cytokines dependent on Janus kinases (JAKs). Upadacitinib, a JAK1 inhibitor, is effective for moderate-to-severe AD. This study aims to identify biomarkers that reflect long-term therapeutic effects of upadacitinib 15 mg or 30 mg. Methods: A retrospective study from August 2021 to July 2023 included 213 AD patients treated with upadacitinib 15 mg and 70 AD patients with 30 mg. We analyzed eczema area and severity index (EASI), peak pruritus-numerical rating scale (PP-NRS), serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total eosinophil count (TEC) at weeks 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 of treatment. Results: Both treatments with upadacitinib 15 mg and 30 mg significantly reduced EASI and PP-NRS scores over week 4 to 48 compared to baseline. Upadacitinib 15 mg or 30 mg treatment significantly decreased TEC compared to baseline through week 4 to 36 or week 4 to 48, respectively. The percent reduction of TEC correlated with those of EASI and PP-NRS through week 4 to 48 of treatment with upadacitinib 15 mg, or through week 12 to 48 with 30 mg, respectively. After adjusting for % reductions of other laboratory markers, the significance of correlations was preserved at weeks 36 and 48 of 15 mg treatment, while at weeks 4 and 36 of 30 mg treatment. Conclusion: The % reduction of TEC correlated with those of EASI and PP-NRS during upadacitinib treatment, indicating its potential as a biomarker reflecting treatment responses to upadacitinib in AD patients. However, the variability of significant correlation during treatment indicates that further inspection is needed for its usefulness in monitoring responses to upadacitinib treatment for AD.

Biomarkers , Dermatitis, Atopic , Eosinophils , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/immunology , Male , Female , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Atopic/blood , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Leukocyte Count , Middle Aged , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
Front Immunol ; 15: 1362960, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745659

Introduction: The protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine kinase receptors Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) are ubiquitous proteins involved in regulating inflammation and apoptotic body clearance. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system leading to progressive and irreversible disability if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Gas6 and TAM receptors have been associated with neuronal remyelination and stimulation of oligodendrocyte survival. However, few data are available regarding clinical correlation in MS patients. We aimed to evaluate soluble levels of these molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum at MS diagnosis and correlate them with short-term disease severity. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 64 patients with a diagnosis of clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), radiological isolated syndrome (RIS) and relapsing-remitting (RR) MS according to the McDonald 2017 Criteria. Before any treatment initiation, we sampled the serum and CSF, and collected clinical data: disease course, presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and expanded disability status score (EDSS). At the last clinical follow-up, we assessed EDSS and calculated MS severity score (MSSS) and age-related MS severity (ARMSS). Gas6 and TAM receptors were determined using an ELISA kit (R&D Systems) and compared to neurofilament (NFLs) levels evaluated with SimplePlex™ fluorescence-based immunoassay. Results: At diagnosis, serum sAxl was higher in patients receiving none or low-efficacy disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) versus patients with high-efficacy DMTs (p = 0.04). Higher CSF Gas6 and serum sAXL were associated with an EDSS <3 at diagnosis (p = 0.04; p = 0.037). Serum Gas6 correlates to a lower MSSS (r2 = -0.32, p = 0.01). Serum and CSF NFLs were confirmed as disability biomarkers in our cohort according to EDSS (p = 0.005; p = 0.002) and MSSS (r2 = 0.27, p = 0.03; r2 = 0.39, p = 0.001). Results were corroborated using multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Our data suggest a protective role of Gas6 and its receptors in patients with MS and suitable severity disease biomarkers.

Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase , Biomarkers , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Multiple Sclerosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase , Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Adult , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/blood , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/cerebrospinal fluid , Prognosis , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
J Bras Nefrol ; 46(3): e20240012, 2024.
Article En, Pt | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748945

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt deterioration of kidney function. The incidence of pediatric AKI is increasing worldwide, both in critically and non-critically ill settings. We aimed to characterize the presentation, etiology, evolution, and outcome of AKI in pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary care center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational single-center study of patients aged 29 days to 17 years and 365 days admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit from January 2012 to December 2021, with the diagnosis of AKI. AKI severity was categorized according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The outcomes considered were death or sequelae (proteinuria, hypertension, or changes in renal function at 3 to 6 months follow-up assessments). RESULTS: Forty-six patients with a median age of 13.0 (3.5-15.5) years were included. About half of the patients (n = 24, 52.2%) had an identifiable risk factor for the development of AKI. Thirteen patients (28.3%) were anuric, and all of those were categorized as AKI KDIGO stage 3 (p < 0.001). Almost one quarter (n = 10, 21.7%) of patients required renal replacement therapy. Approximately 60% of patients (n = 26) had at least one sequelae, with proteinuria being the most common (n = 15, 38.5%; median (P25-75) urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio 0.30 (0.27-0.44) mg/mg), followed by reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (n = 11, 27.5%; median (P25-75) GFR 75 (62-83) mL/min/1.73 m2). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric AKI is associated with substantial morbidity, with potential for proteinuria development and renal function impairment and a relevant impact on long-term prognosis.

Acute Kidney Injury , Tertiary Care Centers , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Child , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Female , Male , Child, Preschool , Nephrology , Risk Factors , Infant , Severity of Illness Index , Renal Replacement Therapy , Proteinuria