Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Montrer: 20 | 50 | 100
Résultats 1 - 20 de 1.513
Filtrer
1.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134885, 2023 Mar 30.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442244

RÉSUMÉ

The impact of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and DMSO concentration (0, 30, 50, 100 %) on the yield of antioxidants and minerals from Chlorella were investigated. The results showed that PLE increased the antioxidant yield. Water extracted more proteins, while with 100 % DMSO more polyphenols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids were obtained. The efficiency coefficient (KPLE) results showed that PLE + 100 % DMSO was more suitable for the recovery of antioxidants and pigments from Chlorella (polyphenols 10.465 mg/g, chlorophyll a 6.206 mg/g, chlorophyll b 3.003 mg/g, carotenoids 0.971 mg/g). Thus, PLE + 100 % DMSO was used for recovery studies on Spirulina, Chlorella, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Fucoxanthin, ß-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein were the major carotenoids in P. tricornutum, Spirulina, and Chlorella, respectively. Regarding the extraction of minerals, Relative Nutrient Values results were calculated based on Recommended Dietary Allowances. The results indicated that the extracts could be used as a mineral source for different populations.


Sujet(s)
Chlorella , Microalgues , Spirulina , Animaux , Diméthylsulfoxyde , Caroténoïdes , Antioxydants , Polyphénols , Chlorophylle A , Decapodiformes , Chlorophylle
2.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114113, 2023 Feb 02.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108777

RÉSUMÉ

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) allows assessing schizophrenia-like sensorimotor gating deficits in rodents. Previous studies indicate that PPI is modulated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is in agreement with our findings showing that PPI differences in the Roman rats are associated with divergences in mPFC activity. Here, we explore whether differences in PPI and mPFC activity in male Roman rats can be explained by (i) differences in the activation (c-Fos) of inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin (PV) interneurons); and/or (ii) reduced excitatory drive (PSD-95) to PV interneurons. Our data show that low PPI in the Roman high-avoidance (RHA) rats is associated with reduced activation of PV interneurons. Moreover, the RHA rats exhibit decreased density of both PV interneurons and PSD-95 puncta on active PV interneurons. These findings point to reduced cortical inhibition as a candidate to explain the schizophrenia-like features observed in RHA rats and support the role of impaired cortical inhibition in schizophrenia.


Sujet(s)
Interneurones , Parvalbumines , Cortex préfrontal , Schizophrénie , Filtrage sensoriel , Animaux , Mâle , Rats , Homologue-4 de la protéine Disks Large/métabolisme , Interneurones/physiologie , Parvalbumines/métabolisme , Cortex préfrontal/physiopathologie , Lignées consanguines de rats , Schizophrénie/physiopathologie , Filtrage sensoriel/physiologie
3.
Exp Gerontol ; : 112040, 2022 Nov 28.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455696

RÉSUMÉ

Frailty is a complex physiological syndrome associated with adverse ageing and decreased physiological reserves. Frailty leads to cognitive and physical disability and is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The underlying cause of frailty is multifaceted, including immunosenescence and inflammaging, changes in microbiota and metabolic dysfunction. Currently, salivary biomarkers are used as early predictors for some clinical diseases, contributing to the effective prevention and treatment of diseases, including frailty. Sample collection for salivary analysis is non-invasive and simple, which are paramount factors for testing in the vulnerable frail population. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on the association between frailty and the inflammatory process and discuss methods to identify putative biomarkers in salivary fluids to predict this syndrome. This study describes the relationship between i.-inflammatory process and frailty; ii.-infectious, chronic, skeletal, metabolic and cognitive diseases with inflammation and frailty; iii.-inflammatory biomarkers and salivary fluids. There is a limited number of previous studies focusing on the analysis of inflammatory salivary biomarkers and frailty syndrome; hence, the study of salivary fluids as a source for biomarkers is an open area of research with the potential to address the increasing demands for frailty-associated biomarkers.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 159899, 2022 Nov 03.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336062

RÉSUMÉ

The wildfire magnification in recent years has raised increasing concern about their adverse impacts on the environment. Wildfires are recognized as an important source of diffuse pollution for the nearby aquatic systems being potentially toxic to aquatic life. Albeit previous studies with wildfire runoff/ashes observed effects in aquatic organisms, to date, different severity origins of ashes and their impact at the sub-organismal level on aquatic biota have not been assessed. In this work, the molecular response of Chironomus riparius exposed to wildfire with low (LS) and high (HS) severity ashes from burnt Pine plantations was evaluated by employing an array of 42 genes related to crucial metabolic pathways by Real time-PCR. IV instar larvae were exposed for 72 h to aqueous extract of ashes (12.5 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and 100 %) prepared from LS and HS ashes. Mn, Zn, and Pb were the metals found at highest concentration in both ash extracts, for HS notable Cd, Mn and Cr presence. From the 42 genes studied only 4 were not altered (22 genes modulated their response by LS and 38 genes in the case of HS) showing the opposite response at 100% with downregulated by LS and upregulated by HS. The 12.5 %, 25 %, 100 % HS and 25 % LS were the main modulators, confirmed by the integrative biomarkers response (IBR). Remarkable genotoxicity was generated by ashes even activating the apoptosis response, and endocrine disruption observed could modify the development. Moreover, detoxification and stress response were strongly activated, limiting the organism's future response to external aggressions. The employment of this novelty approach with molecular tools act as early alarm signal preventing greater damages. Overall, wildfire ashes showed to be a significant environmental disruptor to C. riparius even at lower concentration and the short exposure time employed, emphasizing the strong impact of wildfires on aquatic systems.

5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20191362, 2022.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449888

RÉSUMÉ

we conducted anatomical analysis of anthers with the aim to establish the differences in the development pattern of microsporophytes and microgametophytes between perfect and imperfect flowers in the tribe Gardenieae (Rubiaceae). The species studied were: Tocoyena formosa (monoecious with perfect flowers), Cordiera concolor, Genipa americana, Randia calycina, and Randia heteromera (dioecious with imperfect flowers). Flowers in successive stages of development were collected and fixed. The material was processed and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The present study revealed the stage when pollen is arrested in the functionally pistillate flowers of the dioecious taxa. Based on these observations an evolutionary sequence of changes towards the reduction of non-functional anthers in Rubiaceae is proposed. In addition, we describe and discuss characters that might be of importance in future phylogenetic studies in Rubiaceae (e.g., pollen morphology and its dispersal unit, the presence of orbicules, and a new type of placentoid).


Sujet(s)
Rubiaceae , Phylogenèse , Pollen , Évolution biologique , Microscopie électronique à balayage
6.
Anal Chem ; 94(47): 16470-16480, 2022 Nov 29.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318661

RÉSUMÉ

Exceptional surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) can be achieved by on-demand mechanisms mediated by the formation of three-dimensional (3D) network supporting hotspots. Herein, a deep eutectic solvent (DES) is used to fabricate plasmonic aerogels as sustainable SERS substrates consisting of different gold nanoparticle (AuNP) heterostructures synthesized in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). This analytical approach is based on the AuNPs 3D arrangement within the CNC matrix, where the transient inter-CNCs interactions collapse after loading with the analyte aqueous solution, forming hotspots on demand. Theoretical calculations support the on-demand SERS mechanism, which consists of the hotspot formation by bringing the AuNPs closer upon activation with the liquid sample loading. To evaluate the plasmonic aerogel performance as a sensing platform, the organophosphorus pesticides edifenphos and parathion were tested in rice and tea extracts. Also, the detection of Methylene Blue in fish muscle extract resulted in a detection limit of 9.8 nM. The results demonstrate that the 3D plasmonic aerogel exhibits significantly higher SERS enhancement and sensitivity when compared to conventional 2D SERS substrates. The use of a green designer solvent, biobased ingredients, and the introduction of on-demand SERS-based sensing pave the way for further developments in the analysis of liquid samples within a sustainable framework.


Sujet(s)
Nanoparticules métalliques , Pesticides , Animaux , Or/composition chimique , Nanoparticules métalliques/composition chimique , , Solvants , Composés organiques du phosphore , Analyse spectrale Raman/méthodes , Cellulose/composition chimique
7.
Life (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 15.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431034

RÉSUMÉ

Dry eye has two basic subdivisions: aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE), with SS a major cause; and evaporative dry eye (EDE), due to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. SS is a chronic inflammatory disorder defined by dysfunction of the exocrine glands leading to dry eye and dry mouth. The objective of this article was to carry out a systematic and critical review of several scientific publications on dry eye disease, with the aim of providing general recommendations to distinguish dry eye and its different variants in patients with SS, during the period 1979 to 2020, using search engines for articles indexed in Scopus, Latindex, Scielo, Clinical Trials, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane, allowing the analysis of 132 articles published in indexed journals on the subject of dry eye disease and SS, evidencing its conceptualization, prevalence, risk factors, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

8.
Transportation (Amst) ; : 1-32, 2022 Nov 10.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407885

RÉSUMÉ

Ride-hailing services such as Lyft, Uber, and Cabify operate through smartphone apps and are a popular and growing mobility option in cities around the world. These companies can adjust their fares in real time using dynamic algorithms to balance the needs of drivers and riders, but it is still scarcely known how prices evolve at any given time. This research analyzes ride-hailing fares before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on applications of time series forecasting and machine learning models that may be useful for transport policy purposes. The Lyft Application Programming Interface was used to collect data on Lyft ride supply in Atlanta and Boston over 2 years (2019 and 2020). The Facebook Prophet model was used for long-term prediction to analyze the trends and global evolution of Lyft fares, while the Random Forest model was used for short-term prediction of ride-hailing fares. The results indicate that ride-hailing fares are affected during the COVID-19 pandemic, with values in the year 2020 being lower than those predicted by the models. The effects of fare peaks, uncontrollable events, and the impact of COVID-19 cases are also investigated. This study comes up with crucial policy recommendations for the ride-hailing market to better understand, regulate and integrate these services.

9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(11): 583, 2022 Nov 05.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334147

RÉSUMÉ

Eph receptors and their ligands, Ephrins, are involved in the thymocyte-thymic epithelial cell (TEC) interactions, key for the functional maturation of both thymocytes and thymic epithelium. Several years ago, we reported that the lack of EphA4, a Eph of the subfamily A, coursed with reduced proportions of double positive (DP) thymocytes apparently due to an altered thymic epithelial stroma [Munoz et al. in J Immunol 177:804-813, 2006]. In the present study, we reevaluate the lymphoid, epithelial, and extracellular matrix (ECM) phenotype of EphA4-/- mice grouped into three categories with respect to their proportions of DP thymocytes. Our results demonstrate a profound hypocellularity, specific alterations of T cell differentiation that affected not only DP thymocytes, but also double negative and single positive T cell subsets, as well as the proportions of positively and negatively selected thymocytes. In correlation, thymic histological organization changed markedly, especially in the cortex, as well as the proportions of both Ly51+UEA-1- cortical TECs and Ly51-UEA-1+ medullary TECs. The alterations observed in the expression of ECM components (Fibronectin, Laminin, Collagen IV), integrin receptors (VLA-4, VLA-6), chemokines (CXCL12, CCL25, CCL21) and their receptors (CXCR4, CCR7, CCR9) and in vitro transwell assays on the capacity of migration of WT and mutant thymocytes suggest that the lack of EphA4 alters T-cell differentiation by presumably affecting cell adhesion between TECs and T-TEC interactions rather than by thymocyte migration.


Sujet(s)
Thymocytes , Thymus (glande) , Souris , Animaux , Thymocytes/métabolisme , Thymus (glande)/métabolisme , Activation des lymphocytes , Cellules épithéliales/métabolisme , Différenciation cellulaire , Famille des récepteurs Eph/métabolisme , Matrice extracellulaire
10.
Eur J Neurol ; 2022 Nov 05.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334048

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. There are no disease-modifying therapies, and treatment remains mainly supportive. It has been shown previously that patients with MELAS syndrome have significantly increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamate and significantly decreased CSF glutamine levels compared to controls. Glutamine has many metabolic fates in neurons and astrocytes, and the glutamate-glutamine cycle couples with many metabolic pathways depending on cellular requirements. The aim was to compare CSF glutamate and glutamine levels before and after dietary glutamine supplementation. It is postulated that high-dose oral glutamine supplementation could reduce the increase in glutamate levels. METHOD: This open-label, single-cohort study determined the safety and changes in glutamate and glutamine levels in CSF after 12 weeks of oral glutamine supplementation. RESULTS: Nine adult patients with MELAS syndrome (66.7% females, mean age 35.8 ± 3.2 years) were included. After glutamine supplementation, CSF glutamate levels were significantly reduced (9.77 ± 1.21 vs. 18.48 ± 1.34 µmol/l, p < 0.001) and CSF glutamine levels were significantly increased (433.66 ± 15.31 vs. 336.31 ± 12.92 µmol/l, p = 0.002). A side effect observed in four of nine patients was a mild sensation of satiety. One patient developed mild and transient elevation of transaminases, and another patient was admitted for an epileptic status without stroke-like episode. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates that high-dose oral glutamine supplementation significantly reduces CSF glutamate and increases CSF glutamine levels in patients with MELAS syndrome. These findings may have potential therapeutic implications in these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04948138. Initial release 24 June 2021, first patient enrolled 1 July 2021. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04948138.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 687, 2022 11 09.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348280

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Individuals with serious mental illness often do not receive guideline-concordant metabolic screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, contributing to increased morbidity and premature mortality. This study evaluates the effectiveness of CRANIUM (Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment and treatment through a Novel Integration model for Underserved populations with Mental illness), an intervention to increase metabolic screening and HIV testing among patients with serious mental illness in a community mental health clinic compared to usual care. METHODS: The study used a quasi-experimental design, prospectively comparing a preventive care screening intervention at one community mental health clinic (n = 536 patients) to usual care at the remaining clinics within an urban behavioural health system (n = 4,847 patients). Psychiatrists at the intervention site received training in preventive health screening and had access to a primary care consultant, screening and treatment algorithms, patient registries, and a peer support specialist. Outcomes were the change in screening rates of A1c, lipid, and HIV testing post-intervention at the intervention site compared to usual care sites. RESULTS: Rates of lipid screening and HIV testing increased significantly at the intervention site compared to usual care, with and without multivariable adjustment [Lipid: aOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.32-2.75, P = .001; HIV: aOR 23.42, 95% CI 5.94-92.41, P < .001]. While we observed a significant increase in A1c screening rates at the intervention site, this increase did not persist after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.37, 95% CI .95-1.99, P = .09). CONCLUSIONS: This low-cost, reverse integrated care model targeting community psychiatrist practices had modest effects on increasing preventive care screenings, with the biggest effect seen for HIV testing rates. Additional incentives and structural supports may be needed to further promote screening practices for individuals with serious mental illness.


Sujet(s)
Infections à VIH , Santé mentale , Humains , Hémoglobine A glycosylée , Infections à VIH/diagnostic , Dépistage du VIH , Crâne , Lipides
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 Nov 23.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416731

RÉSUMÉ

We show for the first time glycosylation of recombinant metallothioneins (MTs) produced in E. coli. Interestingly, our results show that the glycosylation level of the recombinant MTs is inversely proportional to the degree of protein structuration, and reflects their different metal preferences.

13.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 50(6): 163-168, 2022.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335460

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials and real-life studies have been published showing effectiveness of benralizumab in severe eosinophilic asthmatic patients. The aim of the present study is to describe super-responders to benralizumab in a series of 79 patients who completed at least 1 year of treatment, and to compare super-responders with non super-responders. METHODS: This is a multicenter study of the Register of Severe Asthma of the Region of Murcia (RE-ASGRAMUR) Group performed in eight hospitals under the conditions of routine clinical practice. Patients with zero exacerbations and no oral corticosteroid therapy for asthma were considered super-responders. We analyzed clinical, functional, and inflammatory parameters of selected patients. RESULTS: In all, 50 of the 79 patients (63%) met the super-responder criteria. In addition, 36% of the patients (26/71) were considered as complete responders to treatment (super--responder + Asthma Control Test [ACT] ≥ 20 + forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] ≥ 80%). The super--responders were significantly older in age (P = 0.0029), had higher eosinophils count (P = 0.0423), higher proportion of nasal polyps (P = 0.036), and they had less severe disease at baseline. After 1 year of treatment, the super-responders had higher levels of ACT questionnaire (23 vs 19, P = 0.0007) and better percentage of FEV1 (83 vs 75, P = 0.0359). CONCLUSION: Almost two of the three patients treated with benralizumab were super--responders after 1 year of treatment and 36% had a complete response. Super-responders were associated with older age, higher eosinophils count, had nasal polyposis as comorbidity, and had less severe disease at baseline. This data illustrated the good real-life response of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma to the treatment with benralizumab.


Sujet(s)
Antiasthmatiques , Asthme , Polypes du nez , Poumon éosinophile , Humains , Antiasthmatiques/usage thérapeutique , Granulocytes éosinophiles , Asthme/traitement médicamenteux , Poumon éosinophile/traitement médicamenteux , Évolution de la maladie
14.
N Biotechnol ; 72: 97-106, 2022 Oct 03.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202346

RÉSUMÉ

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a source of diagnostic biomarkers for a range of neurological conditions. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is detected in CSF and differences in the concentration of cell-free mitochondrial DNA have been reported in studies of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the influence of pre-analytical steps has not been investigated for cfDNA in CSF and there is no standardised approach for quantification of total cfDNA (copies of nuclear genome or mitochondria-derived gene targets). In this study, the suitability of four extraction methods was evaluated: QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid (Qiagen), Quick-cfDNA Serum & Plasma (Zymo), NucleoSnap® DNA Plasma (Macherey-Nagel) and Plasma/Serum Circulating DNA Purification Mini (Norgen) kits, for cfDNA extraction from CSF of controls and AD dementia patients, utilising a spike-in control for extraction efficiency and fragment size. One of the optimal extraction methods was applied to a comparison of cfDNA concentrations in CSF from control subjects, AD dementia and primary and secondary brain tumour patients. Extraction efficiency based on spike-in recovery was similar in all three groups whilst both endogenous mitochondrial and nucleus-derived cfDNA was significantly higher in CSF from cancer patients compared to control and AD groups, which typically contained < 100 genome copies/mL. This study shows that it is feasible to measure low concentration nuclear and mitochondrial gene targets in CSF and that normalisation of extraction yield can help control pre-analytical variability influencing biomarker measurements.

15.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(4): 222-228, 2022.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256575

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of the different genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) varies depending on lesion severity and geographic region. OBJECTIVE: To identify multiple HPV infections in low- and high-grade cervical lesions in a group of women from the Mexican Bajío region referred with inconclusive cytology. METHODS: Pilot study of women referred from primary care units of Guanajuato, Mexico, with cytology suggestive of cervical lesion. Cervical smears were subjected to DNA extraction and HPV genotyping using microarrays. RESULTS: 100 consecutive cases were collected and 90 were analyzed; HPV positivity was observed in 26% of healthy women, and 62% had some degree of cervical lesion. The most common HPV genotypes were 59, 31, 16 and 51. Multiple infections were found in most samples. CONCLUSIONS: HPV heterogeneity was identified in the samples of the study population in contrast to worldwide reports; furthermore, multiple infections are common in precursor lesions and decrease in high-grade lesions. These data could have an impact on current HPV vaccination programs.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevalencia de los diferentes genotipos de virus del papiloma humano (VPH) varía dependiendo de la severidad de la lesión y región geográfica. OBJETIVO: Identificar infecciones múltiples de VPH en lesiones cervicales de bajo y alto grado en un grupo de mujeres del Bajío mexicano referidas con citología no concluyente. MÉTODOS: Estudio piloto de mujeres referidas de unidades del primer nivel de atención de Guanajuato, México, por citología sugerente de lesión cervical. Los raspados cervicales fueron sujetos a extracción de ADN y genotipificación del VPH mediante microarreglos. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 100 casos consecutivos y fueron analizados 90; se observó 26 % de positividad a VPH en mujeres sanas y 62 % presentó algún grado de lesión. Los genotipos de VPH más frecuentes fueron 59, 31, 16 y 51. En la mayoría de las muestras se encontró infección múltiple. CONCLUSIONES: Se identificó heterogeneidad de VPH en las muestras de la población estudiada en contraste con los reportes internacionales; además, son comunes las infecciones múltiples en lesiones precursoras y disminuyen en las lesiones de alto grado. Estos datos podrían influir en los actuales programas de vacunación anti-VPH.


Sujet(s)
Infections à papillomavirus , Humains , Femelle , Infections à papillomavirus/diagnostic , Infections à papillomavirus/épidémiologie , Projets pilotes , Papillomaviridae/génétique , Génotype , Prévalence , ADN
16.
J Clin Med ; 11(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233592

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the PaO2/FiO2 ratio at the time of ARDS diagnosis is weakly associated with mortality. We hypothesized that setting a PaO2/FiO2 threshold in 150 mm Hg at 24 h from moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis would improve predictions of death in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We conducted an ancillary study in 1303 patients with moderate to severe ARDS managed with lung-protective ventilation enrolled consecutively in four prospective multicenter cohorts in a network of ICUs. The first three cohorts were pooled (n = 1000) as a testing cohort; the fourth cohort (n = 303) served as a confirmatory cohort. Based on the thresholds for PaO2/FiO2 (150 mm Hg) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (10 cm H2O), the patients were classified into four possible subsets at baseline and at 24 h using a standardized PEEP-FiO2 approach: (I) PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 150 at PEEP < 10, (II) PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 150 at PEEP ≥ 10, (III) PaO2/FiO2 < 150 at PEEP < 10, and (IV) PaO2/FiO2 < 150 at PEEP ≥ 10. Primary outcome was death in the ICU. RESULTS: ICU mortalities were similar in the testing and confirmatory cohorts (375/1000, 37.5% vs. 112/303, 37.0%, respectively). At baseline, most patients from the testing cohort (n = 792/1000, 79.2%) had a PaO2/FiO2 < 150, with similar mortality among the four subsets (p = 0.23). When assessed at 24 h, ICU mortality increased with an advance in the subset: 17.9%, 22.8%, 40.0%, and 49.3% (p < 0.0001). The findings were replicated in the confirmatory cohort (p < 0.0001). However, independent of the PEEP levels, patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 150 at 24 h followed a distinct 30-day ICU survival compared with patients with PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 150 (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.5, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Subsets based on PaO2/FiO2 thresholds of 150 mm Hg assessed after 24 h of moderate/severe ARDS diagnosis are clinically relevant for establishing prognosis, and are helpful for selecting adjunctive therapies for hypoxemia and for enrolling patients into therapeutic trials.

17.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231985

RÉSUMÉ

Self-management interventions (SMIs) may improve outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). However, accurate comparisons of their relative effectiveness are challenging, partly due to a lack of clarity and detail regarding the intervention content being evaluated. This study systematically describes intervention components and characteristics in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to COPD self-management using the COMPAR-EU taxonomy as a framework, identifying components that are insufficiently incorporated into the design of the intervention or insufficiently reported. Overall, 235 RCTs published between 2010 and 2018, from a systematic review were coded using the taxonomy, which includes 132 components across four domains: intervention characteristics, expected patient (or caregiver) self-management behaviours, patient relevant outcomes, and target population characteristics. Risk of bias was also assessed. Interventions mainly focused on physical activity (67.4%), and condition-specific behaviours like breathing exercise (63.5%), self-monitoring (50.8%), and medication use (33.9%). Support techniques like education and skills-training, self-monitoring, and goal setting (over 35% of the RCTs) were mostly used for this. Emotional-based techniques, problem-solving, and shared decision-making were less frequently reported (less than 15% of the studies). Numerous SMIs components were insufficiently incorporated into the design of COPD SMIs or insufficiently reported. Characteristics like mode of delivery, intensity, location, and providers involved were often not described. Only 8% of the interventions were tailored to the target population's characteristics. Outcomes that are considered important by patients were hardly taken into account. There is still a lot to improve in both the design and description of SMIs for COPD. Using a framework such as the COMPAR-EU SMI taxonomy may contribute to better reporting and to better informing of replication efforts. In addition, prospective use of the taxonomy for developing and reporting intervention content would further aid in building a cumulative science of effective SMIs in COPD.


Sujet(s)
Broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive , Gestion de soi , Exercice physique , Humains , Broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive/thérapie , Qualité de vie , Essais contrôlés randomisés comme sujet
18.
Acta Vet Hung ; 2022 Oct 12.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227716

RÉSUMÉ

Dirofilaria immitis is an endemic mosquito-borne pathogen widely spread throughout Europe as well as North and South America. Infection by D. immitis has been reported in domestic ferrets, although little is known about the occurrence and the epidemiological features of this nematode in this species. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess the prevalence of D. immitis antibodies using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specifically developed for use in ferrets. One hundred and eighty-six serum samples were obtained from the Province of Valencia (Spain), an area endemic for dirofilariosis. Of the 186 serum samples included in the study, 27 (14.51%) were classified as D. immitis seropositive and 159 samples as D. immitis seronegative. The results provide valuable information on the seroprevalence of D. immitis infection in domestic ferrets in an area endemic for this vector-borne pathogen. The presence of seropositive ferrets should be taken into account and preventive measures should be implemented, including the possibility of serological screening for the early detection of Dirofilaria antibodies as a serological marker of exposure. This is the first study that demonstrates the presence of D. immitis exposure in ferrets in Spain. Veterinarians working in endemic areas should be aware of this infection in ferrets and their susceptibility.

19.
Vet Res Commun ; 2022 Oct 14.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229725

RÉSUMÉ

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in humans. Among domestic animals, cats are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 than dogs. The detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in seemingly healthy cats and/or infected cats which are in close contact with infected humans has been described. The presence of animals that tested positive by serology or molecular techniques could represent a potential transmission pathway of SARS-CoV-2 that can spill over into urban wildlife. This study analyses the seroprevalence variation of SARS-CoV-2 in stray cats from different waves of outbreaks in a geographical area where previous seroepidemiological information of SARS-CoV-2 was available and investigate if SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats were exposed to other co-infections causing an immunosuppressive status and/or a chronic disease that could lead to a SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. For this purpose, a total of 254 stray cats from Zaragoza (Spain) were included. This analysis was carried out by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the receptor binding domain of Spike antigen and confirmed by serum virus neutralization assay. The presence of co-infections including Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus, was evaluated using different serological methods. A seropositivity of 1.57% was observed for SARS-CoV-2 including the presence of neutralizing antibodies in three cats. None of the seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 cats were positive to feline coronavirus, however, four SARS-CoV-2-seropositive cats were also seropositive to other pathogens such as L. infantum, D. immitis and FIV (n = 1), L. infantum and D. immitis (n = 1) and L. infantum alone (n = 1).Considering other pathogens, a seroprevalence of 16.54% was detected for L. infantum, 30.31% for D. immitis, 13.78%, for T. gondii, 83.86% for feline calicivirus, 42.52% for feline herpesvirus type 1, 3.15% for FeLV and 7.87% for FIV.Our findings suggest that the epidemiological role of stray cats in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is scarce, and there is no increase in seropositivity during the different waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in this group of animals. Further epidemiological surveillances are necessary to determine the risk that other animals might possess even though stray cats do not seem to play a role in transmission.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230255

RÉSUMÉ

The aim of this study was to assess the effect that feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 (LSB) to lactating sows and their progeny has on inflammatory response and mucosal immunity after vaccination against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Sixty-seven Danbred sows were allotted into two treatments when they entered the farrowing room seven days before the expected farrowing date: control (CON: lactation diet) and LSB (CON + 12 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/d until weaning). At weaning, piglets were equally allotted into two experimental diets according to sow diet: control (CON: 2-phase post-weaning diets) and LSB (CON + 2 × 109 CFU/kg and 1 × 109 CFU/kg in phases 1 and 2, respectively). The piglets were vaccinated at days 26 and 49 post-weaning. Growth performance and number of IgA producing cells and cytokine's gene expression in lung, lymph node, and intestine samples at day 70 post-weaning were assessed and analyzed in SPSS Statistics 26: performance with a general linear model with sex, room, sow diet, piglet diet, and their interactions as main effects, and immunity with a Kruskal-Wallis test for k unrelated samples. Piglets from LSB-fed sows displayed a higher average daily gain (ADG; p < 0.01) and a heavier body weight (BW; p < 0.05) during lactation, tended (p < 0.1) to be heavier at day 49, and to have a higher ADG between days 26 and 49; had fewer number of IgA producing cells in the lymph node (p < 0.05); and all the cytokines studied were significantly under-regulated (p < 0.05) in the lung. It is concluded that feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 to sows improved piglet performance during lactation and showed a clear reduction in the inflammatory status of the lungs after vaccination against A. pleuropneumoniae, suggesting that there was a maternal imprinting effect on mucosal protection and a cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the lung.

SÉLECTION CITATIONS
DÉTAIL DE RECHERCHE
...