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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Nouveau-né , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Leishmaniose viscérale/diagnostic , Leishmaniose viscérale/épidémiologie , Saisons , Brésil/épidémiologie , Incidence , Modèles statistiques
2.
Oper Dent ; 47(5): 476-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36026708

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to present a case of masking of a hypoplastic lesion using the infiltrating resin technique, without use of drilling or any loss of tooth structure. A 22-year-old female patient complained of a noncarious white spot on the buccal surface of the upper right central incisor which affected the esthetics of her smile. Despite the tooth discoloration, the tooth structure was intact, with no depressions, cracks, or grooves. During the anamnesis, she reported that the white spot had been present since childhood. On the basis of the information provided by the patient and collected during intraoral clinical examination, it was determined that the stain was suggestive of enamel hypoplasia. The treatment proposed to the patient was the application of infiltrating resin to mask the hypoplasia on the surface of the tooth enamel without any loss of tooth structure. In this case, Icon infiltrating resin proved to be efficient in masking the hypoplastic lesion. The final appearance of the treated tooth was satisfactory, with homogeneity and gloss on the surface, which minimized the characteristics of an unpleasant smile.


Subject(s)
Caries dentaires , Hypoplasie de l'émail dentaire , Blanchiment dentaire , Dyschromie dentaire , Maladies des dents , Adulte , Enfant , Caries dentaires/anatomopathologie , Émail dentaire/anatomopathologie , Hypoplasie de l'émail dentaire/traitement médicamenteux , Hypoplasie de l'émail dentaire/anatomopathologie , Femelle , Humains , Incisive/chirurgie , Résines synthétiques/usage thérapeutique , Blanchiment dentaire/méthodes , Dyschromie dentaire/thérapie , Jeune adulte
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257402, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081217

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Subject(s)
Leishmaniose viscérale , Adolescent , Brésil/épidémiologie , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Femelle , Humains , Incidence , Nourrisson , Nouveau-né , Leishmaniose viscérale/diagnostic , Leishmaniose viscérale/épidémiologie , Mâle , Modèles statistiques , Saisons
4.
Tree Physiol ; 42(3): 537-556, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508606

ABSTRACT

Future climate change predictions for tropical forests highlight increased frequency and intensity of extreme drought events. However, it remains unclear whether large and small trees have differential strategies to tolerate drought due to the different niches they occupy. The future of tropical forests is ultimately dependent on the capacity of small trees (<10 cm in diameter) to adjust their hydraulic system to tolerate drought. To address this question, we evaluated whether the drought tolerance of neotropical small trees can adjust to experimental water stress and was different from tall trees. We measured multiple drought resistance-related hydraulic traits across nine common neotropical genera at the world's longest-running tropical forest throughfall-exclusion experiment and compared their responses with surviving large canopy trees. Small understorey trees in both the control and the throughfall-exclusion treatment had lower minimum stomatal conductance and maximum hydraulic leaf-specific conductivity relative to large trees of the same genera, as well as a greater hydraulic safety margin (HSM), percentage loss of conductivity and embolism resistance, demonstrating that they occupy a distinct hydraulic niche. Surprisingly, in response to the drought treatment, small trees increased specific hydraulic conductivity by 56.3% and leaf:sapwood area ratio by 45.6%. The greater HSM of small understorey trees relative to large canopy trees likely enabled them to adjust other aspects of their hydraulic systems to increase hydraulic conductivity and take advantage of increases in light availability in the understorey resulting from the drought-induced mortality of canopy trees. Our results demonstrate that differences in hydraulic strategies between small understorey and large canopy trees drive hydraulic niche segregation. Small understorey trees can adjust their hydraulic systems in response to changes in water and light availability, indicating that natural regeneration of tropical forests following long-term drought may be possible.


Subject(s)
Sécheresses , Arbres , Changement climatique , Forêts , Feuilles de plante/physiologie , Arbres/physiologie
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 557-565, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease with a wide distribution in the Americas. Brazil is an endemic country and present cases in all states. This study aimed to describe the occurrence, the underlying clinical and epidemiological factors, and the correlation of climatic variables with the frequency of reported CL cases in the municipality of Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil. This is a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study based on data extracted from the Brazilian Information System of Diseases Notification, from 2007 to 2017. Maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity data were provided by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. A total of 201 reported autochthonous CL cases were analyzed. The predominance of cases was observed in males (70.1%). The age range between 31 and 60 years old was the most affected, with 96 cases (47.9%). Of the total number of registered cases, 38.8% of the affected individuals were engaged in agriculture-related activities. The georeferenced distribution revealed the heterogeneity of disease occurrence, with cases concentrated in the Western and Southern regions of the municipality. An association was detected between relative air humidity (monthly mean) and the number of CL cases per month (p = 0.04). CL continues to be a concerning public health issue in Caxias. In this context, there is a pressing need to strengthen measures of prevention and control of the disease through the network of health services of the municipality, considering local and regional particularities.


Resumo A leishmaniose cutânea (CL) é uma doença tropical negligenciada, com ampla distribuição nas Américas. O Brasil é um país endêmico e apresenta casos em todos os estados. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a ocorrência, os fatores clínicos e epidemiológicos subjacentes e a correlação de variáveis climáticas com a frequência de casos de CL notificados no município de Caxias, estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Este é um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo e descritivo, com base em dados extraídos da Notificação do Sistema Brasileiro de Informação de Doenças, de 2007 a 2017. Dados máximos e mínimos de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Foram analisados 201 casos de CL autóctones relatados. A predominância de casos foi observada no sexo masculino (70,1%). A faixa etária entre 31 e 60 anos foi a mais afetada, com 96 casos (47,9%). Do número total de casos registrados, 38,8% dos indivíduos afetados estavam envolvidos em atividades relacionadas à agricultura. A distribuição georreferenciada revelou a heterogeneidade da ocorrência da doença, com casos concentrados nas regiões oeste e sul do município. Foi detectada associação entre a umidade relativa do ar (média mensal) e o número de casos de CL por mês (p = 0,04). O CL continua sendo uma questão preocupante de saúde pública em Caxias. Nesse contexto, há uma necessidade premente de fortalecer medidas de prevenção e controle da doença por meio da rede de serviços de saúde do município, considerando as particularidades locais e regionais.


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Leishmaniose cutanée/épidémiologie , Brésil/épidémiologie , Études rétrospectives , Villes , Environnement
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 711-720, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278355

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance, dry matter intake, apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior of feedlot calves fed corn silage from the feed out face of trench silos with different types of sealing. The animals were divided into three treatments with four repetitions: Conventional seal - double-sided polyethylene of 110µm thickness; Double-sided seal - double-sided polyethylene of 200µm thickness; and Double seal - composed of double face polyethylene with a thickness of 80µm superimposed on a polyamide translucent vacuum film with a thickness of 20µm. The use of double face sealing provided 12.63% increase in average daily gain and improved food conversion by 0.62 percentage points. The apparent digestibility of the diet with double-face sealing system silage was 4.30% higher than the diet with double-face sealing silage and 11.00% higher than the diet with conventional sealing silage. It is recommended to use the double face sealing with 200µm polyethylene and double face sealing with 80µm thick polyethylene on top of a 20µm thick polyamide translucent vacuum film.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, o consumo de matéria seca, a digestibilidade aparente e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos confinados, alimentados com silagem de milho da porção inicial de silos do tipo trincheira, conservada sob distintos tipos de vedação. Os animais foram divididos em três tratamentos, com quatro repetições: vedação convencional - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 110µm; vedação dupla face - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 200µm; e dupla vedação - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida, com espessura de 20µm. O uso da vedação dupla face proporcionou incremento de 12,63% no ganho de peso médio diário e melhorou em 0,62 ponto percentual a conversão alimentar. A digestibilidade aparente da dieta com silagem do sistema de vedação dupla face foi 4,30% superior em relação à dieta com silagem da dupla vedação e 11,00% superior à dieta com silagem da vedação convencional. Recomenda-se a utilização tanto da vedação dupla face com polietileno de 200µm quanto da dupla vedação com polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm, sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida com espessura de 20µm.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animaux , Mâle , Bovins , Ensilage/analyse , Prise de poids , Polyéthylène , Consommation alimentaire , Stockage des aliments/méthodes , Emballage alimentaire/méthodes
7.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 557-565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876165

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease with a wide distribution in the Americas. Brazil is an endemic country and present cases in all states. This study aimed to describe the occurrence, the underlying clinical and epidemiological factors, and the correlation of climatic variables with the frequency of reported CL cases in the municipality of Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil. This is a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study based on data extracted from the Brazilian Information System of Diseases Notification, from 2007 to 2017. Maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity data were provided by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. A total of 201 reported autochthonous CL cases were analyzed. The predominance of cases was observed in males (70.1%). The age range between 31 and 60 years old was the most affected, with 96 cases (47.9%). Of the total number of registered cases, 38.8% of the affected individuals were engaged in agriculture-related activities. The georeferenced distribution revealed the heterogeneity of disease occurrence, with cases concentrated in the Western and Southern regions of the municipality. An association was detected between relative air humidity (monthly mean) and the number of CL cases per month (p = 0.04). CL continues to be a concerning public health issue in Caxias. In this context, there is a pressing need to strengthen measures of prevention and control of the disease through the network of health services of the municipality, considering local and regional particularities.


Subject(s)
Leishmaniose cutanée , Adulte , Brésil/épidémiologie , Villes , Environnement , Humains , Leishmaniose cutanée/épidémiologie , Mâle , Adulte d'âge moyen , Études rétrospectives
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2487-2490, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018511

ABSTRACT

Cardiac cellular models are utilized as the building blocks for tissue simulation. One of the imprecisions of conventional cellular modeling, especially when the models are used in tissue-level modeling, stems from the mere consideration of cellular properties (e.g., action potential shape) in parameter tuning of the model. In our previous work, we put forward an accurate framework in which membrane resistance (Rm) reflecting inter-cellular characteristics, i.e., electrotonic effects, was considered alongside cellular features in cellular model fitting. This paper, for the first time, examines the hypothesis that considering Rm as an additional optimization objective improves the accuracy of tissue-level modeling. To study this hypothesis, after cellular-level optimization of a well-known model, source-sink mismatch configurations in a 2-dimensional model are investigated. The results demonstrate that including Rm in the optimization protocol yields a substantial improvement in the relative error of the critical transition border which is defined as the minimum window size between source and sink that wave propagates. Model developers can utilize the proposed concept during parameter tuning to increase the accuracy of models.


Subject(s)
Potentiels d'action , Coeur , Coeur/physiologie , Humains , Membranes , Myocarde/cytologie
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8452, 2019 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186465

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate that chirality of the electron scattering in Weyl semimetals leads to the formation of magnetic chemical bonds for molecular states of a pair of impurities. The effect is associated with the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking terms in the Hamiltonian which drive a crossover from s- to p-wave scattering. The profiles of the corresponding molecular orbitals and their spin polarizations are defined by the relative orientation of the lines connecting two Weyl nodes and two impurities. The magnetic character of the molecular orbitals and their tunability open the way for using doped Weyl semimetals for spintronics and realization of qubits.

10.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 21(6): 1097-1109, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251437

ABSTRACT

Foliar uptake of dew is likely an important mechanism of water acquisition for plants from tropical dry environments. However, there is still limited experimental evidence describing the anatomical pathways involved in this process and the effects of this water subsidy on the maintenance of gas exchange and leaf lifespan of species from seasonally dry tropical vegetation such as the Brazilian caatinga. We performed scanning electron, bright-field and confocal microscopic analyses and used apoplastic tracers to examine the foliar water uptake (FWU) routes in four woody species with different foliar phenology and widely distributed in the caatinga. Leaves of plants subjected to water stress were exposed to dew simulation to evaluate the effects of the FWU on leaf water potentials, gas exchange and leaf lifespan. All species absorbed water through their leaf cuticles and/or peltate trichomes but FWU capacity differed among species. Leaf wetting by dew increased leaf lifespan duration up to 36 days compared to plants in the drought treatment. A positive effect on leaf gas exchange and new leaf production was only observed in the anisohydric and evergreen species. We showed that leaf wetting by dew is relevant for the physiology and leaf lifespan of plants from seasonally dry tropical vegetation, especially for evergreen species.


Subject(s)
Feuilles de plante/métabolisme , Photosynthèse/physiologie , Feuilles de plante/physiologie , Stomates de plante/métabolisme , Stomates de plante/physiologie , Transpiration des plantes/physiologie , Eau/métabolisme
11.
Med Vet Entomol ; 33(3): 397-406, 2019 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887540

ABSTRACT

New species of insect-specific viruses (ISV) have been reported worldwide. In the present study, the complete genome of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and partial sequences of other ISVs in Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 females (n = 3425) sampled in 200 urban areas census tracts of Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, were identified via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for a NS5 region of flaviviruses, nucleotide and high-throughput sequencing, and viral isolation in C6/36 cells. CxFV was detected in 16 of 403 mosquito pools; sequences found in the study presented a high similarity with isolates from São Paulo, Brazil and other countries in Latin American that belong to genotype II, supporting the geographical influence on CxFV evolution. The monthly maximum likelihood estimation for CxFV ranged from 1.81 to 9.94 per 1000 mosquitoes. In addition to the CxFV complete genome, one pool contained an ORF1 sequence (756 bp) that belongs to a novel Negevirus from the Sandewavirus supergroup most similar to the Santana virus (77.1%) and another pool presented an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence (1081 bp) of a novel Rhabdovirus most similar to Wuhan mosquito virus 9 (44%). After three passages in C6/36 cells, only CxFV was isolated from these co-infected pools. The importance of ISVs relies on their possible ability to interfere with arbovirus replication in competent vectors.


Subject(s)
Culex/virologie , Flavivirus/génétique , Génome viral , Animaux , Brésil , Femelle , Flavivirus/classification , Flavivirus/isolement et purification , Génotype , Phylogenèse
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 117-121, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888081

ABSTRACT

São poucos os dados publicados sobre a aplicabilidade ou a confiabilidade dos métodos digitais para mensuração do ângulo do platô tibial (APT) em comparação à mensuração manual. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o APT obtido pelo cálculo manual padrão, em filmes radiográficos, com os valores obtidos por cálculos em imagens digitais, por meio do software do computador. Foram analisadas radiografias digitais do membro pélvico, direito e esquerdo, em perfil verdadeiro, de 20 cães saudáveis, com idade superior a um ano. Três observadores com graus de experiência semelhantes em cálculo do APT realizaram as mensurações em cada radiografia. Primeiramente, foram calculados os ângulos dos platôs tibiais manualmente nas películas radiográficas e, posteriormente, os cálculos foram realizados na imagem digital, por meio do software para medicina veterinária do sistema de raios X digital. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstraram diferenças significativas entre os métodos, com valor das médias do cálculo digital 20,48±3.71 e do cálculo manual 23.90±4.02. Valor de P foi < 0,01 na comparação entre médias dos dois grupos. Na avaliação interobservadores, houve diferença significativa no cálculo manual no perfil direito, o que sugere maior variação no cálculo manual quando comparado ao digital. O cálculo realizado pelo software apresentou menor variação nos valores interobservadores. Acredita-se que a menor variação obtida nos resultados aqui apresentados se dê em razão das facilidades proporcionadas pelo software. Conclui-se que houve diferença entre os valores obtidos por meio dos métodos convencional e digital no cálculo do ângulo do platô tibial, sendo os valores digitais menores entre os observadores, e que o método digital no cálculo do ângulo do platô tibial levou à menor variação quando comparado ao método manual.(AU)


There are few published data on the applicability and reliability of digital methods for measuring the TPA compared with manual measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the TPA obtained by calculating standard manual on conventional radiographs, with the values obtained by calculations in digital images through a computer program. Bilateral digital radiographs of hind limb were analyzed in true profile for 20 healthy dogs older than two years. Three observers with similar levels of experience in calculating the TPA conducted measurements on each radiograph. First we calculated the angle of the tibial plateaus manually in x-ray film and then the calculations were made through the program offered by the computer program in the digital image. The results of this study showed significant differences between the methods, with average value of 20.48±3.71 digital calculating average and 23.90±2.4 in the manual calculation. P value was < 0.01 when comparing averages. No significant difference in manual calculation in right profile were found between interobserver assessments, suggesting greater variation in manual calculation compared to digital. The calculation performed by the software showed less variation in values. The slight variation obtained in our results is believed to be due to the facilities provided by the software. There was a difference between the values obtained by means of conventional and digital methods for calculating the angle of the tibial plateau, and the smaller digital values between the observers and the digital method in the calculation of the tibial plateau angle led to less variation when compared to the manual method.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animaux , Chiens , Étude comparative , Ligament croisé antérieur/malformations , Chiens/malformations , Genou/malformations
13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 24(8): 889-895, 2018 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence, associated factors, treatment outcomes and transmission of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, for 2011 to 2013. METHODS: Drug susceptibility testing to first- and second-line drugs was performed by BACTEC MGIT 960 and molecular typing, by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism. Clinical, epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from surveillance information systems for TB. Patients were divided into three groups: multidrug resistant (MDR) TB (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), pre-XDR-TB (MDR-TB resistant to a fluoroquinolone or to at least one of the second-line injectable drugs) and XDR-TB (MDR-TB resistant to a fluoroquinolone and to at least one of the second-line injectables). RESULTS: Among the 313 MDR-TB patients identified, the prevalence of XDR-TB and pre-XDR-TB was 10.2% (n = 32) and 19.2% (n = 60), respectively. Compared to MDR-TB patients, XDR-TB patients were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR) = 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-5.83), have a history of TB (OR = 5.16; 95% CI, 1.52-17.51) and present higher death rates (OR= 3.74; 95% CI 1.70-8.25). XDR-TB transmission was observed in households, between neighbours and between a patient and a healthcare worker in a hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of XDR-TB in the state of São Paulo is close to that estimated globally. Most of the XDR-TB patients were treated previously for TB and presented the lowest successful outcome rates. Because transmission of XDR-TB occurred, it is important that timely diagnosis of drug resistance is performed.


Subject(s)
Tuberculose ultrarésistante aux médicaments/épidémiologie , Tuberculose ultrarésistante aux médicaments/transmission , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antituberculeux/pharmacologie , Antituberculeux/usage thérapeutique , Brésil/épidémiologie , Études transversales , Multirésistance bactérienne aux médicaments , Tuberculose ultrarésistante aux médicaments/traitement médicamenteux , Tuberculose ultrarésistante aux médicaments/microbiologie , Femelle , Humains , Mâle , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/effets des médicaments et des substances chimiques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/génétique , , Polymorphisme de restriction , Prévalence , Surveillance de la santé publique , Facteurs de risque
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1736-1746, nov.-dez. 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969662

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a resposta dos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (FR), temperatura retal (TR) e a atividade sérica das enzimas creatina quinase (CK) e lactato desidrogenase (LDH) em cães adultos hígidos, machos e fêmeas, sob duas modalidades de hidroterapia. Dez cães foram distribuídos em dois grupos de cinco animais, denominados de grupo I (caminhada em esteira aquática) e grupo II (natação) e submetidos a duas sessões por semana com duração inicial de 10 minutos, acrescida de cinco minutos por sessão até 30 minutos, durante nove semanas. As avaliações foram realizadas antes, imediatamente depois e quatro horas após o exercício em todas as sessões para as variáveis de FC, FR e TR e nos dias um, sete, 28 e 60 para CK e LDH. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) quando comparados os valores médios dos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca e respiratória e de temperatura retal. Os níveis de CK e LDH não se elevaram após a hidroterapia nos diferentes tempos e dias avaliados. Dessa forma, foi possível concluir que as sessões de natação e de caminhada em esteira aquática não causaram alterações nos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal e nos níveis sanguíneos de creatina quinase (CK) e lactato desidrogenase (LDH) no protocolo proposto.(AU)


The physiological parameters of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (TR), and serum activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in healthy dogs, male and female, under two hydrotherapy modalities. Ten dogs were distributed in two groups of five animals, named Group I (underwater treadmill walk) and Group II (swimming), submitted to two sessions per week with initial duration of 10 minutes, plus 5 minutes per session up to 30 minutes, during 9 weeks. The evaluations were performed before, immediately after and 4 hours after exercise in all sessions for the HR, RR and TR variables and on days one, seven, 28 and 60 for CK and LDH. There was no difference (P> 0.05) when comparing the mean values of physiological parameters of heart and respiratory rate and rectal temperature. CK and LDH levels did not rise after hydrotherapy at different times and days evaluated. So, it was possible to conclude that swimming sessions and underwater treadmill walking did not cause alterations in the physiological parameters of heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and the blood levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the proposed protocol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animaux , Chiens , Biochimie , Techniques de laboratoire clinique/médecine vétérinaire , Chiens , Hydrothérapie/méthodes
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 851-859, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876608

ABSTRACT

A acropostite-fimose é um processo inflamatório da extremidade do prepúcio, diagnosticada com frequência em touros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o exame ultrassonográfico na definição da viabilidade do folheto prepucial interno (FPI) e na evolução clínica do pós-operatório, após o emprego de fios de categute ou poliglactina na hemostasia e de algodão ou poliglactina na confecção de sutura padrão Donatti empregada para fixar o FPI à pele prepucial no transoperatório da acropostite-fimose em touros. A sutura utilizada foi captonada ou não captonada, e os animais submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico apresentavam no mínimo dois terços do FPI viável. Os touros foram alocados, aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos contendo nove animais cada, de acordo com o fio empregado na hemostasia e na confecção da sutura padrão Donatti. O exame ultrassonográfico mostrou-se importante na indicação ou não do tratamento cirúrgico da acropostite-fimose e possibilitou localizar lesões, mensurar a área de reação tecidual e identificar lesões profundas e pontos de estreitamento do FPI. Os animais de GII apresentaram edema mais discreto, observando-se diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre GII e os grupos GI, GIII e GIV. A ocorrência de hiperemia no sétimo dia de pós-operatório também foi menor nos touros do grupo GII, ocorrendo diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre GII e os grupos GI e GIII. A sutura empregando o dispositivo de látex (cápton) e o emprego do fio de poliglactina apresentaram-se como medidas benéficas, resultando em menor número de complicações pós-operatórias.(AU)


Acropostitis-Phimosis is an inflammatory process of the extremity of the prepuce, frequently diagnosed in bulls. The present study aimed to evaluate ultrassound exams in the definition of viability of the internal layer of prepuce and the postoperative clinical evolution. This evaluation is after the employment of catgut or poliglactin threads in homeostasis, and cloth or polyglactin threads in confection of the standard suture, Donatti, used to fix the internal layer of prepuce to the preputial in the postoperative of acropostitis-phimosis in bulls. The suture was captonated and non-captonated and the animals conducted to the surgical procedure showed at least 2/3 of viability of the internal layer of prepuce. The bulls were randomly allocated in four groups, each one containing nine animals, according to the thread used in homeostasis and confection of the Donatti standard suture. Ultrassound was shown to be important in the indication or not of the surgical treatment of acropostitis-phimosis and allowed the identification of lesions, measurement of areas of tissue reaction and locate deep lesions and narrowing points of internal layer of prepuce. The employment of latex device (capton) in suture and the employment of polyglactin thread 910 were shown as beneficial measures, resulting in a lower number of postoperative complications.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animaux , Mâle , Bovins , Prépuce/imagerie diagnostique , Prépuce/anatomopathologie , Phimosis/imagerie diagnostique , Phimosis/médecine vétérinaire , Polyglactine 910 , Matériaux de suture
16.
Genome Announc ; 5(9)2017 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28254970

ABSTRACT

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the BeAn 58058 virus (prototype) strain, isolated from a wild rodent Oryzomys sp. in the Utinga forest, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil in 1963. The genome of this virus showed similarity to the Poxviridae family, suggesting its inclusion in a possible new genus.

17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 953-957, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792472

ABSTRACT

O Amblyomma geayi é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, encontrado principalmente em mamíferos e aves silvestres de regiões tropicais da América do Sul. Descreve-se a ocorrência de um carrapato ixodídeo da espécie A. geayi, encontrado em uma preguiça (Bradypus variegatus) proveniente do Parque Zoobotânico da Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Amazônia Ocidental.(AU)


Amblyomma geayi is a tick of the Ixodidae family found primarily in mammals and wild birds from tropical regions in South America. This case report the occurrence of an ixodid tick species A. geayi found in a brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the botanical zoo Park of the Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazon.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animaux , Femelle , Paresseux (animal)/parasitologie , Tiques , Écosystème Amazonien
18.
Neuroradiology ; 58(6): 585-594, 2016 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26909692

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most frequent cause of hemorrhagic strokes in the pediatric population. The study aim was to retrospectively assess the safety and efficacy of Onyx embolization with the intention to cure AVMs in a pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients (<18 years) who underwent endovascular embolization using Onyx at our institution was conducted. The primary endpoint was the composite complete angiographic occlusion of AVM immediately after the last embolization session that had no procedure-related complication requiring emergency surgery. Secondary endpoints were angiographic occlusion rates, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (mean age, 11.7 years) underwent a total of 45 embolization sessions. The median Spetzler-Martin grade was 3 (range 1 to 4). The primary endpoint was achieved in 19 patients (82.6 %). Complete angiographic occlusion of the AVM was obtained in 21 patients (91.3 %) immediately after embolization and at the 6-month follow-up. Embolization-related complications were observed in three patients (13 %). None of the complications resulted in permanent functional disability or death. In two patients (8.7 %), the AVM could not be completely occluded by embolization alone and the patients were referred to radiosurgery and microsurgery, respectively. CONCLUSION: Onyx embolization of AVM in pediatric patients with the intention to cure resulted in high occlusion rates without increasing neurological disability or death. The development of new embolization techniques and devices seems to improve the safety of Onyx embolization.


Subject(s)
Diméthylsulfoxyde/usage thérapeutique , Embolisation thérapeutique/méthodes , Hémostatiques/usage thérapeutique , Malformations artérioveineuses intracrâniennes/imagerie diagnostique , Malformations artérioveineuses intracrâniennes/thérapie , Polyvinyles/usage thérapeutique , Adolescent , Angiographie cérébrale/méthodes , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Angiographie par tomodensitométrie/méthodes , Diméthylsulfoxyde/effets indésirables , Embolisation thérapeutique/effets indésirables , Femelle , Hémostatiques/effets indésirables , Humains , Nourrisson , Mâle , Polyvinyles/effets indésirables , Études rétrospectives , Résultat thérapeutique
19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 20(1): 133-9, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25976838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare caries incidence and progression on sound occlusal surfaces and on surfaces presenting inactive enamel lesions in children and adolescents over 1 year and to estimate the risk of caries incidence and progression on these surfaces. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 200 7-15-year-old caries-inactive schoolchildren over 1 year. Stage of eruption, occlusal plaque, and occlusal caries were recorded on permanent molars. Statistical analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations with a logistic link function. RESULTS: Twenty-two children (11 %) presented "caries progression" (at least one active lesion on molar teeth). At site level, no difference was observed in caries incidence and progression between sites classified either sound (2.6 %) or with inactive enamel lesion (3.9 %) at the baseline examination (χ (2) test, p = 0.48). Adjusted for plaque, stage of eruption, type of molar and dental arch, inactive enamel lesions presented a similar risk for caries progression than sound occlusal surfaces (OR = 0.98, 95 % CI = 0.40-2.38). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, no difference was observed in caries incidence, progression, and risk on sound occlusal sites in comparison with sites presenting inactive enamel lesions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Occlusal surfaces harboring inactive caries lesions did not require additional attention than the one normally given to sound occlusal surfaces over a 1-year period.


Subject(s)
Caries dentaires/anatomopathologie , Émail dentaire/anatomopathologie , Adolescent , Brésil/épidémiologie , Enfant , Indice DCAO , Caries dentaires/épidémiologie , Indice de plaque dentaire , Évolution de la maladie , Femelle , Humains , Incidence , Mâle , Molaire , Études prospectives , Facteurs de risque
20.
Nature ; 528(7580): 119-22, 2015 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595275

ABSTRACT

Drought threatens tropical rainforests over seasonal to decadal timescales, but the drivers of tree mortality following drought remain poorly understood. It has been suggested that reduced availability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) critically increases mortality risk through insufficient carbon supply to metabolism ('carbon starvation'). However, little is known about how NSC stores are affected by drought, especially over the long term, and whether they are more important than hydraulic processes in determining drought-induced mortality. Using data from the world's longest-running experimental drought study in tropical rainforest (in the Brazilian Amazon), we test whether carbon starvation or deterioration of the water-conducting pathways from soil to leaf trigger tree mortality. Biomass loss from mortality in the experimentally droughted forest increased substantially after >10 years of reduced soil moisture availability. The mortality signal was dominated by the death of large trees, which were at a much greater risk of hydraulic deterioration than smaller trees. However, we find no evidence that the droughted trees suffered carbon starvation, as their NSC concentrations were similar to those of non-droughted trees, and growth rates did not decline in either living or dying trees. Our results indicate that hydraulics, rather than carbon starvation, triggers tree death from drought in tropical rainforest.


Subject(s)
Carbone/métabolisme , Sécheresses , Forêt pluviale , Arbres/métabolisme , Climat tropical , Eau/métabolisme , Biomasse , Mensurations corporelles , Brésil , Métabolisme glucidique , Feuilles de plante/métabolisme , Tiges de plante/métabolisme , Saisons , Sol/composition chimique , Arbres/croissance et développement , Xylème/métabolisme
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