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1.
Rev. colomb. psicol ; 32(1): 1-10, Jan.-June 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394968

RÉSUMÉ

Abstract The role of parenting in the development of children's learning constitutes, at present, part of the discussion in the psychoeducational field. Although parental competences (PC) and executive functions (EF) have been investigated by psychology and neuropsychology, their relationship with academic competences remains to be fully studied. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of PC perceived by parents on behavioral EF and performance-based measures of reading and mathematical competences in children. We worked with 131 school children of both sexes, between 9 and 11 years old, and their respective parents. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and structural equation model (SEM) were used. The results indicate that parental skills from the parents' perspective have a significant effect on EF, reading, and mathematical skills. However, the best fit model indicates that EFs mediate the relationship between parenting skills and reading and math skills.


Resumen El rol parental en el desarrollo del aprendizaje de los niños constituye, en el presente, una parte de la discusión en el campo psicoeducativo. Aunque las competencias parentales (PC) y las funciones ejecutivas (EF) han sido investigadas por la psicología y la neuropsicología, su relación con las competencias académicas permanece abierta para ser estudiada a profundidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar el efecto de los PC percibidos por los padres en EF comportamentales y las mediciones basadas en el desempeño de las competencias lectoras y matemáticas en niños. Trabajamos con 131 niños y niñas de colegio, entre 9 y 11 años, y sus padres. Se hizo uso del Análisis Multivarial de Variación (MANOVA) y el modelo de ecuación estructural (SEM). Los resultados indican que las habilidades parentales desde la perspectiva de los padres poseen un efecto significativo en las EF, la lectura y las habilidades matemáticas. De forma que los modelos mejor ajustados indican que las EFs median la relación entre las habilidades parentales, lectoras y matemáticas.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 17: 100396, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437904

RÉSUMÉ

Background: Developing countries have experienced significant COVID-19 disease burden. With the emergence of new variants, particularly omicron, the disease burden in children has increased. When the first COVID-19 vaccine was approved for use in children aged 5-11 years of age, very few countries recommended vaccination due to limited risk-benefit evidence for vaccination of this population. In Brazil, ranking second in the global COVID-19 death toll, the childhood COVID-19 disease burden increased significantly in early 2022. This prompted a risk-benefit assessment of the introduction and scaling-up of COVID-19 vaccination of children. Methods: To estimate the potential impact of vaccinating children aged 5-11 years with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine in the context of omicron dominance, we developed a discrete-time SEIR-like model stratified in age groups, considering a three-month time horizon. We considered three scenarios: No vaccination, slow, and maximum vaccination paces. In each scenario, we estimated the potential reduction in total COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, deaths, hospitalization costs, and potential years of life lost, considering the absence of vaccination as the base-case scenario. Findings: We estimated that vaccinating at a maximum pace could prevent, between mid-January and April 2022, about 26,000 COVID-19 hospitalizations, and 4200 deaths in all age groups; of which 5400 hospitalizations and 410 deaths in children aged 5-11 years. Continuing vaccination at a slow/current pace would prevent 1450 deaths and 9700 COVID-19 hospitalizations in all age groups in this same time period; of which 180 deaths and 2390 hospitalizations in children only. Interpretation: Maximum vaccination of children results in a significant reduction of COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths and should be enforced in developing countries with significant disease incidence in children. Funding: This manuscript was funded by the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technology Development (CNPq - Process # 402834/2020-8).

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159654, 2023 Jan 20.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280056

RÉSUMÉ

An ever-growing burden of scientific evidence links air pollution to different aspects of human health even at very low concentrations; the impact increases for those living in urban environments, especially the youngest and the elderly. This study investigated the exposure to air pollution of urban school children of Milan, Italy, by personal and biological monitoring, in the frame of the MAPS-MI project. A total of 128 primary school children (7-11 years) were involved in a two-season monitoring campaign during spring 2018 and winter 2019. Personal exposure to airborne VOCs and eBC, and biological monitoring of urinary benzene (BEN-U) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE-U) were performed. Time-activity patterns, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), spatial, and meteorological information were evaluated as determinants in mixed effects regression analysis. Children personal exposure was mostly quantifiable with median (5th-95th percentile) levels 1.9 (0.8-7.5) µg/m3 for eBC, and 1.1 (<0.6-3.4) and 0.8 (0.3-1.8) µg/m3 for benzene and MTBE, respectively; with values 2-3-fold higher in winter than in spring. In urine, median (5th-95th) BEN-U and MTBE-U levels were 44.9 (25.7-98.6) and 11.5 (5.0-35.5) ng/L, respectively. Mixed effect regression models explained from 72 to 93 % of the total variability for air pollutants, and from 58 to 61 % for biomarkers. Major contributors of personal exposure were season, wind speed, mobility- or traffic-related variables; biomarkers were mostly predicted by airborne exposure and ETS. Our results suggest that traffic-mitigation actions, together with parents' educational interventions on ETS and commuting mode, should be undertaken to lower children exposure to air pollution.

4.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114441, 2023 Jan 01.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191620

RÉSUMÉ

Exposure to the air pollutant particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risks of respiratory diseases and enhancement of airway inflammation in children. In the context of large scale air pollution studies, it can be challenging to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as indicator of lung inflammation. Urinary CC16 (U-CC16) is a potential biomarker of increased lung permeability and toxicity, increasing following short-term PM2.5 exposure. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CC16 G38A (rs3741240) affects CC16 levels and respiratory health. Our study aimed at assessing the use of U-CC16 (incl. CC16 G38A from saliva) as potential alternative for FeNO by investigating their mutual correlation in children exposed to PM. Samples from a small-scale study conducted in 42 children from urban (n = 19) and rural (n = 23) schools examined at two time points, were analysed. When considering recent (lag1) low level exposure to PM2.5 as air pollution measurement, we found that U-CC16 was positively associated with FeNO (ß = 0.23; 95% CI [-0.01; 0.47]; p = 0.06) in an adjusted analysis using a linear mixed effects model. Further, we observed a positive association between PM2.5 and FeNO (ß = 0.56; 95% CI [0.02; 1.09]; p = 0.04) and higher FeNO in urban school children as compared to rural school children (ß = 0.72; 95% CI [0.12; 1.31]; p = 0.02). Although more investigations are needed, our results suggest that inflammatory responses evidenced by increased FeNO are accompanied by potential increased lung epithelium permeability and injury, evidenced by increased U-CC16. In future large scale studies, where FeNO measurement is less feasible, the integrated analysis of U-CC16 and CC16 G38A, using noninvasive samples, might be a suitable alternative to assess the impact of air pollution exposure on the respiratory health of children, which is critical for policy development at population level.


Sujet(s)
Polluants atmosphériques , Pollution de l'air , Enfant , Humains , , Monoxyde d'azote/analyse , Pollution de l'air/effets indésirables , Pollution de l'air/analyse , Matière particulaire/analyse , Polluants atmosphériques/toxicité , Polluants atmosphériques/analyse , Exposition environnementale/analyse
5.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP183-NP211, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383473

RÉSUMÉ

Co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse occur at staggering levels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), yet little is known about the relationship between these forms of violence and a feminst-grounded conceptualization of family functioning nor how best to programmatically address these multiple forms of violence in the home. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from 203 adult couple dyads participating in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken to (1) understand the correlation of family functioning and violence in the home in North Kivu, DRC; (2) unpack potential shared correlates of violence in the home and family functioning, such as attitudes and behaviors; and (3) describe programmatic implications for delivering violence prevention programming that seeks to address multiple forms of violence in the home. Findings suggest over half of all families reported experiencing IPV against women or use of child abuse by any caregiver. Moderate levels of family functioning were also reported, although women reported lower levels. In adjusted models, a one-point change in family functioning score was associated with a 0.12 reduction in odds of co-occurring experience of IPV and use of child abuse for women, and a 0.03 reduction in odds of co-occurring perpetration for men. A focus on improving family functioning as a primary outcome, alongside explicit targeting of harmful gender norms and skills-based approaches, may be a promising avenue to integrate approaches from different violence prevention fields while maintaining a strong dedication to intersectional feminist-grounded approaches that allows for separate, but at times combined, approaches to reducing IPV and child abuse in the home.


Sujet(s)
Maltraitance des enfants , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Adulte , Enfant , Mâle , Femelle , Humains , République démocratique du Congo , Études transversales , Violence envers le partenaire intime/prévention et contrôle , Maltraitance des enfants/prévention et contrôle , Violence
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2021_0389, 2023. tab
Article de Anglais | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387932

RÉSUMÉ

ABSTRACT Introduction Lower limb stiffness has been shown to be associated with running economy (RE) in adults, but this relationship in children remains unclear. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower limb stiffness, RE, and repeated-sprint ability in child soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight male child soccer players (mean age 11.8 ± 0.9 years) participated in the study. RE was determined by measuring the steady-state oxygen uptake (ml/min/kg) at submaximal running speeds of 8 and 9 km/h. Vertical and leg stiffness were calculated from the flight and contact time data obtained during two submaximal running tests. Additionally, vertical stiffness was measured during the maximal and submaximal hopping tests. All participants performed the repeated sprint test consisting of 10 × 20-m all-out sprints interspersed with 20-s active recovery. Results During both submaximal running tests, vertical (r= -0.505 to -0.472) and leg stiffness (r= -0.484 to -0.459) were significantly correlated with RE (p< 0.05). Maximal (r= -0.450) and submaximal hopping stiffness (r= -0.404) were significantly correlated with RE at 8 km/h (p< 0.05). Maximal hopping stiffness was significantly correlated with the best sprint time (r= -0.439) and mean sprint time (r= -0.496) (p< 0.05). Vertical (r= -0.592 to -0.433) and leg stiffness (r= -0.612 to -0.429) at 8 and 9 km/h and submaximal hopping stiffness (r= -0.394) were significantly correlated with the fatigue index (p< 0.05). Conclusions Current findings indicate that the lower limb stiffness may be an important determinant of both RE and repeated-sprint ability in child soccer players. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test.


RESUMEN Introducción Se ha demostrado que la rigidez de los miembros inferiores está relacionada con la economía de carrera (RE) en los adultos, sin embargo esta relación no es muy clara cuando se trata de niños. Objetivos El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre la rigidez de los miembros inferiores, la RE y la capacidad de sprints repetidos en jugadores de fútbol infantil. Métodos Veintiocho jugadores de fútbol infantil de sexo masculino (edad media de 11,8 ± 0,9 años) participaron en el estudio. La determinación de la RE se produjo midiendo el consumo de oxígeno en estado estacionario (ml/min/kg) a velocidades de carrera submáximas de 8 km/h y 9 km/h. El cálculo de la rigidez vertical y de la rigidez de las piernas se basó en los datos de tiempo de vuelo y de contacto obtenidos durante dos tests submáximos de carrera. Además, se midió la rigidez vertical durante los tests submáximos y máximos de salto (hop test). Todos los participantes realizaron el test de sprints repetidos, que consistía en diez repeticiones de sprints a velocidad máxima de 20 m intercalados por una recuperación activa de 20 s. Resultados Durante ambos tests submáximos de carrera, la rigidez vertical (r= -0,505 a -0,472) y la rigidez de las piernas (r= -0,484 a -0,459) se correlacionaron significativamente con la RE (p<0,05). La rigidez de salto máximo (r= -0,450) y la rigidez de salto submáximo (r= -0,404) demostraron una correlación significativa con la RE a 8 km/h (p<0,05). La rigidez de salto máximo se asoció sustancialmente con un mejor tiempo de sprint (r= -0,439) y con el tiempo medio de sprint (r= -0,496) (p< 0,05). La rigidez vertical (r= -0,592 a -0,433), la rigidez de las piernas (r= -0,612 a -0,429) a 8 km/h y 9 km/h y la rigidez de salto submáximo (r= -0,394) se correlacionaron significativamente con el índice de fatiga (p< 0,05). Conclusiones Los hallazgos actuales indican que la rigidez de los miembros inferiores puede ser un determinante clave tanto de RE como de la capacidad de sprints repetidos en jugadores de fútbol infantil. Nivel de evidencia II: Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de una prueba diagnóstica.


RESUMO Introdução A rigidez dos membros inferiores demonstrou estar associada à economia de corrida (RE) em adultos, porém essa relação não é muito clara quando se trata de crianças. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre a rigidez dos membros inferiores, a RE e a capacidade de sprints repetidos em jogadores de futebol infantil. Métodos Vinte e oito jogadores do sexo masculino de futebol infantil (idade média de 11,8 ± 0,9 anos) participaram do estudo. A determinação da RE ocorreu por meio da medição do consumo de oxigênio em estado estacionário (ml/min/kg) a velocidades submáximas de corrida de 8 km/h e 9 km/h. O cálculo da rigidez vertical e da rigidez das pernas baseou-se nos dados de tempo de voo e tempo de contato obtidos durante dois testes submáximos de corrida. Além disso, mediu-se a rigidez vertical durante os testes máximo e submáximo de salto ( hop test ). Todos os participantes realizaram o teste de sprints repetidos que consistiu em dez repetições de sprints em velocidade máxima de 20 m intercalados por recuperação ativa de 20 s. Resultados Durante ambos os testes submáximos de corrida, a rigidez vertical (r= -0,505 a -0,472) e a rigidez das pernas (r= -0,484 a -0,459) estavam significativamente correlacionadas à RE (p<0,05). A rigidez de salto máximo (r= -0,450) e a de salto submáximo (r= -0,404) demonstraram uma correlação significativa com RE em 8 km/h (p<0,05). A rigidez de salto máximo estava associada, de forma substancial, ao melhor tempo de sprint (r= -0,439) e ao tempo médio de sprint (r= -0,496) (p< 0,05). A rigidez vertical (r= -0,592 a -0,433), a rigidez das pernas (r= -0,612 a -0,429) em 8 km/h e 9 km/h e a rigidez de salto submáximo (r= -0,394) estavam expressivamente correlacionadas ao índice de fadiga (p< 0,05). Conclusões Os achados atuais indicam que a rigidez dos membros inferiores pode ser um determinante fundamental tanto de RE quanto de capacidade de sprints repetidos em jogadores de futebol infantil. Nível de evidência II: Estudos diagnósticos - Investigando um teste diagnóstico.

7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2021_0398, 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387943

RÉSUMÉ

ABSTRACT Introduction: Childhood obesity is increasing and, as a consequence, it generates health complications resulting from sedentary behavior and low levels of physical fitness. There are few studies involving children, metabolic and cardiorespiratory profiles, and soccer. Objective: The purpose was to measure the effects of a 12-week recreational small-sided soccer program on cardiometabolic risk and individual responses to cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese boys. Methods: Thirteen boys aged 8-12 years (34.9±11.6% body fat) participated in a 12-week recreational small-sided soccer training program with two 80-minute sessions per week at intensities over 80% of the maximal heart rate. Anthropometric characteristics, cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic profile, individual responses to peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), maximal workload (Wmax), fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC, and TG were measured both pre- and post-training. Results: Considering the individual responses of the participants, recreational soccer training was effective in improving variations in maximum power and exhaustion time, as well as promoting at least one beneficial change in cardiometabolic risk factors in 84% of the overweight or obese children. There were no differences between pre- and post-program anthropometric characteristics, metabolic profiles, or VO2peak values. Conclusion: Twelve-week recreational small-sided soccer programs were able to improve maximal power and anaerobic capacity and maintain cardiometabolic risk factor levels in overweight and obese boys. Level of evidence I; High-quality prospective study (all patients were enrolled at the same stage of disease, with >80% of patients enrolled) .


RESUMEN Introdução: La obesidad infantil está aumentando y, como consecuencia, genera complicaciones de salud derivadas del comportamiento sedentario y de los bajos niveles de aptitud física. Existen pocos estudios sobre niños, perfiles metabólicos, cardiorrespiratorios y fútbol. Objetivo: El objetivo fue medir los efectos de un programa de fútbol recreativo reducido de 12 semanas sobre el riesgo cardiometabólico y respuestas individuales en niños con sobrepeso u obesos. Métodos: Trece niños de 8 a 12 años (34,9 ± 11,6% de grasa corporal) participaron en un programa de entrenamiento de fútbol recreativo reducido de 12 semanas con dos sesiones de 80 minutos por semana a intensidades superiores al 80% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima. Se midieron las características antropométricas, la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, el perfil metabólico y las respuestas individuales del consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2pico), la carga de trabajo máxima (Wmax), la glucemia y la insulina en ayunas, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, HDL-C, CT y TG antes y después del entrenamiento. Resultados: Teniendo en cuenta las respuestas individuales, el entrenamiento de fútbol recreativo fue eficaz para mejorar las variaciones de potencia máxima y el tiempo hasta el agotamiento, así como para promover al menos un cambio beneficioso en los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en el 84% de los niños con sobrepeso u obesidad. No hubo diferencias entre las características antropométricas, los perfiles metabólicos o el pico de VO2 antes y después del programa. Conclusões: Doce semanas de programas de fútbol recreativo reducido fueron capaces de mejorar la potencia máxima y la capacidad anaeróbica, así como de mantener los niveles de factores de riesgo cardiometabólicos en niños con sobrepeso y obesidad. Nível de evidência I; Estudo prospectivo de alta qualidade (todos os pacientes foram inscritos no mesmo estágio da doença, com > 80% dos pacientes inscritos) .


RESUMO Introdução: A obesidade infantil está aumentando e, como consequência, gera complicações de saúde decorrentes do comportamento sedentário e baixos níveis de aptidão física. Existem poucos estudos que envolvem crianças, perfis metabólicos e cardiorrespiratórios e futebol. Objetivo: O objetivo foi medir os efeitos de um programa de futebol recreativo reduzido de 12 semanas sobre o risco cardiometabólico e respostas individuais em meninos com sobrepeso ou obesos. Métodos: Treze meninos de 8 a 12 anos (34,9 ± 11,6% de gordura corporal) participaram de um programa de treinamento de futebol recreativo reduzido de 12 semanas com duas sessões de 80 minutos por semana em intensidades acima de 80% da frequência cardíaca máxima. As características antropométricas, a aptidão cardiorrespiratória, o perfil metabólico e as respostas individuais do pico de consumo de oxigênio (VO2pico), carga máxima de trabalho (Wmáx), glicemia e insulina em jejum, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, HDL-C, CT e TG foram medidos pré e pós-treinamento. Resultados: considerando as respostas individuais dos participantes, o treinamento recreativo de futebol foi eficaz para melhorar as variações da potência máxima e do tempo até a exaustão, bem como promover pelo menos uma alteração benéfica nos fatores de risco cardiometabólico em 84% das crianças com sobrepeso ou obesidade. Não houve diferenças entre as características antropométricas pré e pós-programa, perfis metabólicos ou VO2pico. Conclusões: Doze semanas de programas de futebol recreativo reduzido foram capazes de melhorar a potência máxima e a capacidade anaeróbica, bem como manter os níveis de fatores de risco cardiometabólicos em meninos com sobrepeso e obesos. Nível de evidência I; Estudo prospectivo de alta qualidade (todos os pacientes foram inscritos no mesmo estágio da doença, com > 80% dos pacientes inscritos) .

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158637, 2023 Jan 10.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096214

RÉSUMÉ

Forty-seven compounds among synthetic phenolic and amino antioxidants and ultraviolet filters, three suites of widely used chemical additives, were measured in eighteen popular children's car seats (fabric, foam, and laminated composites of both layers) marketed in the United States in 2018. Significantly higher levels of target compounds were found in foam and composite samples than in fabric samples. Median total concentrations of phenolic antioxidants and their transformation products ranged from 8.11 µg/g in fabric to 213 µg/g in foam In general, isooctyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate (AO-1135) and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (24-DBP) were the most abundant among all target compounds with maximum levels of526 µg/g in composite and 13.7 µg/g, respectively. The total concentrations of amino antioxidants and their transformation products and of ultraviolet filters were at least one order of magnitude lower than those of phenolic antioxidants, with medians of 0.15-37.1 µg/g and 0.29-1.81 µg/g, respectively, in which the predominant congeners were 4-tert-butyl diphenylamine (BDPA), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl diphenylamine (DBDPA), 4-tert-octyl diphenylamine (ODPA), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), and 2-(2-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-methylphenol (UV-P). Large variabilities in usage of these chemicals resulted in different compositional patterns among the car seats. These results suggest that these compounds are major polymeric additives in children's car seats as they are present at greater levels than previously measured groups of chemicals like brominated flame retardants and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Given the documented toxic potentials of synthetic antioxidants and ultraviolet filters, their abundances in children products are a cause for concern.


Sujet(s)
Antioxydants , Systèmes de retenue pour enfant , Humains , Enfant , États-Unis , Diphénylamine , Phénols/analyse
9.
Innovation (Camb) ; 4(1): 100347, 2023 Jan 30.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425095

RÉSUMÉ

Although fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a neurotoxicant, little is known about whether early-life PM2.5 exposure is associated with an increased risk of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We conducted a cohort study of 109 731 children aged 3-5 years from 551 county-level cities in China between April 2018 and December 2019. Residential PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a hybrid satellite-based exposure model. Children's motor performance was assessed using the Little DCD Questionnaire (LDCDQ). Linear mixed-effect models and generalized linear mixed models with a binomial distribution were used to examine the associations of PM2.5 exposure with LDCDQ scores and risk of DCD, respectively. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure to a higher level of PM2.5 was significantly associated with reduced total LDCDQ score, and the impacts were evident on subscales of control during movement and general coordination function but not fine motor function. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure in ages 0-3 was associated with a 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05, 0.33) decrement in the total score. Additionally, higher PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of DCD, and the adjusted odds ratios were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.10) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.13) for each interquartile range increase in PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and the first 3 years, respectively. Children who were from rural areas, had neonatal intensive care unit admission, or were exclusively breastfed for less than 6 months appeared to be more susceptible to PM2.5 exposure than their counterparts. Our findings provide robust evidence that early-life PM2.5 exposure contributes to an elevated risk of DCD.

10.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 3-19, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459413

RÉSUMÉ

Like adults, children experience less empathy toward some groups compared with others. In this investigation, we propose that mothers differ in how much empathy they want their children to feel toward specific outgroups, depending on their political ideology. We suggest that how mothers want their children to feel (i.e., the motivation for their child's empathy), in turn, is correlated with children's actual experience of empathy toward the outgroup. Across four studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (NTotal = 734), the degree of empathy mothers wanted their children to experience in the intergroup context varied as a function of their political ideology. Mothers' motivation for their child's empathy toward the outgroup (but not in general) was further associated with how they chose to communicate messages to their children in a real-life context and how children actually felt toward the outgroup. We discuss implications for the socialization of intergroup empathy.


Sujet(s)
Relations mère-enfant , Socialisation , Adulte , Femelle , Humains , Empathie
11.
Radiol Case Rep ; 18(2): 495-498, 2023 Feb.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439916

RÉSUMÉ

Atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumor of the primary central nervous system is an uncommon and highly aggressive tumor that often affects infants and young children. Approximately two-thirds of tumors start in the posterior fossa. The best treatment for atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumor is yet unknown. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are available as treatment options. Their respective roles are yet not each well defined. The prognosis for atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumor is absolutely poor. In this article, we intended to introduce a very rare case of multifocal atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumor in a 7-year-old boy.

12.
Radiol Case Rep ; 18(2): 463-466, 2023 Feb.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439925

RÉSUMÉ

Portal biliopathy (PB) refers to biliary obstruction caused by cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV). CTPV occurs most frequently in patients with liver cirrhosis or malignancy. Less common causes include congenital malformations and neonatal umbilical vein cannulation. We present a case of portal biliopathy in a 28-year-old man with CTPV secondary to umbilical vein catheterization in neonatal age. The case illustrates portal biliopathy as a late complication of neonatal invasive procedures and highlights the importance of a multimodality imaging approach to achieve a prompt diagnosis.

13.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 18(1): 2146244, 2023 Dec.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367977

RÉSUMÉ

PURPOSE: To explore the recovery narratives of 13 young women who had fallen ill with severe Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), also known as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), during childhood and adolescence, with the focus on what they had to say about their past experiences from the perspective of the present. METHOD: A qualitative narrative approach, informed by a phenomenological theoretical perspective, was adopted to explore what the women found significant and meaningful in their recovery process. Data analysis of in-depth narrative interviews was performed which are presented to readers through the stories of two particular participants. RESULTS: The first story describes how one participant made a recovery by testing her body's tolerance and working to create a more confident self. The second story describes a complex exploration of possibilities for action in recovery, along with a struggle to make sense of setbacks and hold on to what has been gained. CONCLUSION: Recovering from ME/CFS emerges as an inter-personal, contextual, fragile and nonlinear process of homecoming, based on gradually rising bodily based self-knowledge. Illness slowly fades away into the background, and there is the prospect of a healthier tomorrow.


Sujet(s)
Syndrome de fatigue chronique , Adolescent , Humains , Femelle , Recherche qualitative , Concept du soi , État de santé
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159792, 2023 Jan 20.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306842

RÉSUMÉ

Interest in assessing the effects of exposure to greenspace on human health has been increasing due to rapid urbanization, and rising trends of physical inactivity and air pollution. However, findings on the link between greenspace and child respiratory health, especially asthma, are inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenspace surrounding residential addresses and asthma in children. A city-wide cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 16,605 children aged 3-12 years, in Shanghai, China. Data on asthma symptoms and covariates were collected from validated self-reported questionnaires. Residential greenspace was measured using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Information on ambient temperature and particulate matter with dynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was also collected from satellite data. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of greenspace exposure with childhood asthma as well as the effect modification by covariates. The prevalence of current asthma in children was 4.8 % in this study. An interquartile range increase in mean NDVI from 2016 to 2018 was associated with decreased odds of asthma in 2019 at 500 m, and 250 m resolutions (0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.93; and 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.72 to 0.94, respectively) after adjustment for covariates. The greenspace-asthma association was modified by ambient temperature and residential area. Sensitivity analyses using various models and EVI exposure showed the robustness of the results. In conclusion, higher individual-level exposure to greenspace was associated with decreased odds of asthma in children, and the association appeared to be modified by different environmental and socio-demographic factors. These findings provide additional evidence for promoting urban greenness to protect children's health and well-being.

15.
J Atten Disord ; 27(1): 98-107, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314486

RÉSUMÉ

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether neuropsychological function in ADHD can be improved by the New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP), that combines standard parenting strategies with self-regulatory skills training, or predict ADHD and quality of life (QoL) treatment effects. METHOD: Participants were 93 medication-naive preschool children with ADHD (3-7 years) randomized to either NFPP (n = 49) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 44) in a recent randomized trial. Laboratory measures of executive function, reaction time variability, and delay of gratification were collected along with parent ratings of ADHD and QoL at baseline and post treatment. Ratings were collected again at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: NFPP did not improve neuropsychological function (compared to TAU), and baseline neuropsychological function did not predict treatment-related ADHD or QoL effects. CONCLUSION: Although NFPP includes a neuropsychological training element and has been shown to improve several clinical outcomes, it did not improve the neuropsychological functions it targets.

16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30051, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317671

RÉSUMÉ

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines rarely cause de novo immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) but may worsen preexisting ITP in adults. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines impact platelet counts and bleeding in children, adolescents, and young adults (C-AYA) with preexisting ITP is unknown. We report here the very limited effect of COVID-19 vaccination on platelet counts and bleeding in a single-center series of 2 C-AYA with ITP. No patient experienced worsening bleeding and only one child had a significant decrease in platelet count which improved spontaneously to her baseline without intervention. SARS-CoV2 vaccination was safe in C-AYA with ITP in this small cohort.


Sujet(s)
, Purpura thrombopénique idiopathique , Thrombopénie , Enfant , Femelle , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Humains , Purpura thrombopénique idiopathique/complications , Numération des plaquettes , /complications , /prévention et contrôle , /effets indésirables , ARN viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombopénie/complications , Hémorragie/étiologie , Vaccination
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30079, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326142

RÉSUMÉ

SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) induces a stark procoagulant state, with many hospitalized adults developing thrombosis despite prophylactic anticoagulation. This study aimed to characterize hemostatic parameters and associated clinical outcomes of COVID-19, such as thrombosis and bleeding, in children and to assess thromboprophylaxis use. This multicenter observational cohort study included 79 patients aged up to 18 years admitted to all pediatric hospitals in Québec, Canada, with SARS-CoV-2 infection during a 5-month period. D-dimers were elevated in 18/19 patients (94.7%) and fibrinogen in 15/26 patients (60%). Eleven patients (13.9%) received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. One thrombotic event and one major bleed were observed.


Sujet(s)
Troubles de l'hémostase et de la coagulation , , Thrombose , Thromboembolisme veineux , Adulte , Enfant , Humains , Sujet âgé , /complications , Anticoagulants/usage thérapeutique , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolisme veineux/traitement médicamenteux , Troubles de l'hémostase et de la coagulation/étiologie , Troubles de l'hémostase et de la coagulation/induit chimiquement , Thrombose/traitement médicamenteux , Hémorragie/traitement médicamenteux
18.
J Atten Disord ; 27(2): 214-219, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326299

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sour cherry concentrate in symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial, 70 children with ADHD referred to the psychiatric clinic of Ibn-e-Sina Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, in 2021 were selected. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group received 75 ml of sour cherry concentrate twice daily in addition to the routine treatment for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated using The Conner's Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) before and after the study by a psychiatry resident. RESULTS: Based on the findings, no significant differences were observed between the groups in change percent of Cognitive impairments (p = .317), Hyperactivity/impulsivity (p = .525), Oppositional (p = .986), and ADHD index (p = .451). Moreover, 28.6% and 31.4% of children with ADHD consuming the concentrate presented abdominal pain, and asthenia, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study did not indicate a beneficial effect of sour cherry concentrate on symptoms of ADHD.

19.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 78: 101802, 2023 Mar.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435544

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although narrative therapy (NT) is globally practiced for alleviating psychological disorders, studies of its efficacy for vulnerable children are still scarce, especially in African post-conflict settings. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of NT for Rwandan Orphans and abandoned children (OAC) with ADHD and anxiety disorders. METHOD: This study was a parallel randomized controlled trial in which participants (n = 72) were recruited from SOS Children's Villages. A half of participants (n = 36) were randomly allocated to either the NT group or the waitlist control group (WCG). Outcomes were collected at baseline before randomization and 10 weeks post-randomization. RESULTS: ANOVA results indicated a significant main effect of time for anxiety disorders (p < .001, ηp2= 0.176), and the main effects of group were significant for anxiety disorders (p < .001, ηp2= 0.254) and ADHD disorders (p < .001, ηp2= 0.260). There was a significant time by group interaction effect for anxiety disorders (p < .001, ηp2= 0.328) and for ADHD (p < .001, ηp2= 0.193). Between group analyses showed that the difference in symptoms was significant for anxiety disorders (p < .001, Cohen's d = 1.28) and for ADHD (p < .001, Cohen's d = 1.6) during the posttest, and the effect sizes were large. LIMITATION: The long-term effects of the intervention for the current sample were not assessed in this study. CONCLUSION: Despite its limitations, this study provides initial support for the safety, efficacy, and usefulness of NT among Rwandan OAC with ADHD and anxiety disorders. Health professionals must implement the new intervention as an everyday tool.


Sujet(s)
Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité , Thérapie par le récit , Enfant , Humains , Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité/diagnostic , Rwanda , Enfant abandonné , Troubles anxieux/psychologie , Anxiété/psychologie
20.
DEN open ; 3(1): e155, 2023 Apr.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898823

RÉSUMÉ

Gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation following influenza infection is rare. We encountered a pediatric case of hemorrhagic duodenal ulcer following influenza A infection. The patient was a 1-year and 4-month-old boy who was diagnosed with influenza A infection and treated with laninamivir octanoate. After inhalation, he had diarrhea, poor appetite, and melena. The next day, he had hematochezia and developed hemorrhagic shock. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed extravasation in the descending part of the duodenum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed spurting bleeding from a Dieulafoy's lesion on the oral side of the major papilla, and he underwent hemostasis by clipping. From the bulb to the descending part of the duodenum, the mucosa appeared atrophic with spotty redness on the circular folds and multiple and irregularly shaped erosions. Almost all mucosal lesions had healed by the eighth day, and he was monitored as an outpatient for more than one year without re-bleeding. Intestinal ischemia, viral invasion, and drug reaction of laninamivir octanoate may be involved in duodenal mucosal injury. Acute duodenal ulcers may occur in children with influenza infection, especially young children.

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