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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 03.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363545

RÉSUMÉ

Skeletal class III malocclusion with severe skeletal disharmonies and arch discrepancies is usually treated via the conventional orthodontic-surgical approach. However, when associated with tooth impaction and periodontal risks, the treatment is more challenging and complex. The esthetic, occlusal, and periodontal stability of the treatment outcome is more difficult to obtain. The 16-year-old female patient in this case was diagnosed with dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion, bilateral impacted maxillary canines, and scalloped thin gingiva. The multidisciplinary management included a segmental arch technique, extracting two premolars, a subepithelial connective tissue graft surgery, and orthognathic surgery. The esthetic facial profile, pleasant smile, appropriate occlusion, and functional treatment results were obtained and maintained in 8-year follow-up.


Sujet(s)
Malocclusion de classe III , Malocclusion dentaire , Dent enclavée , Femelle , Humains , Céphalométrie , Canine , Études de suivi , Malocclusion dentaire/complications , Malocclusion de classe III/chirurgie , Malocclusion de classe III/complications , Maxillaire/chirurgie , Dent enclavée/complications , Dent enclavée/chirurgie
2.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30515, 2022 Oct.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415434

RÉSUMÉ

In class II malocclusion, there is an anteroposterior disparity between the upper dentition and the lower dentition, which may or may not be accompanied by a skeletal discrepancy. For orthodontists, this is one of the common malocclusions encountered during clinical practice. This might be due to excess maxillary growth or retarded growth of the mandible or a combination of both. In such types of malocclusion, both the upper and lower airways are affected, the lower one most commonly. Characteristic features seen are a narrow maxillary arch, a proclined upper anterior, and mouth breathing as a developing habit. Also, the position of the condyle in the skeletal type of class II malocclusion plays a vital role in the development of temporomandibular joint disorders. Treating such disparity in a growing individual leads to better results in the long term as well as prevention of malocclusion taking a severe form. Myofunctional appliances are useful for repositioning the mandible as well as the condyle. In adults, extraction of the upper premolars is most commonly done for the correction of class II malocclusion. This provides the patient with a better esthetic appearance. In addition to this, various treatment modalities, such as splint therapy, exercise, and prolotherapy, are beneficial for pain relief and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) correction. This article deals with the characteristics, development, etiology, and comprehensive treatment options of class II malocclusion and its co-relation with the upper and lower airway along with the severity of temporomandibular joint disorders. Repositioning of the condyle in the glenoid fossae is the key to the correction of this disorder.

3.
Aust Dent J ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346173

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in children is underestimated due to impediments in detection and diagnosis. Consequently, delayed management may affect the quality of life and the growth and development of a child. Due to their patient demographic, orthodontists are optimally positioned to identify those at risk of sleep-disordered breathing and make referrals for investigation and management. This study aims to determine the prevalence of children at risk of sleep-disordered breathing in an Australian orthodontic population. METHODS: A 1-year retrospective study was conducted in an urban Western Australian private orthodontic practice with two branches in similar socioeconomic demographics. The responses of new patients to a modified paediatric sleep questionnaire and standard medical history form were recorded. RESULTS: In 1209 patients (4-18 years), 7.3% were at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. An association between sex and the potential risk of sleep-disordered breathing was found with 11% of males at risk of sleep-disordered breathing compared to 7% of females (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high prevalence of children at risk of sleep-disordered breathing presenting for orthodontic care presents an opportunity to identify at-risk individuals through routine use of the paediatric sleep questionnaire. This would facilitate early referral for diagnosis and management of sleep-disordered breathing.

4.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323403

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Surgery First Approach (SFA) and Surgery Early (SE) are considered promising alternatives, compared to the conventional three-stages orthodontic-surgical approach, for treatment of dento-maxillofacial deformities. However, many features need further study, like the role of the orthodontist. Aim of the study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent SFA and SE, and if differences in duration of orthodontics could be influenced by clinical features. METHODS: A retrospective research was performed on patients who met the inclusion criteria for SFA (31) and SE (12), of the total of patients affected by dento-facial deformities in our Unit (191) in the period 2012-2017. After collection of clinical data, duration of orthodontics, age, pre-treatment PAR Index, ANB angle, amount of the curve of Spee were compared. A regression analysis evaluated if these clinical parameters, together with type of bracket and type of intervention, could influence the duration of post-surgical orthodontics. RESULTS: All patients who performed the SFA/SE were affected by class III, II and active Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia (22% of total population). Pre-treatment mean differences of age (p = 0.0518), PAR Index (p = 0.0916), curve of Spee (p = 0.1006) between groups were not statistically significant. A statically significant difference was found for the overall duration of therapy, for the significant shorter duration of pre-surgical orthodontics, while the difference of post-surgical orthodontics duration was not significant (p = 0.4753). Type of bracket (rho=-0.19039, p = 0.266) and intervention performed (rho=-0.11522, p = 0.5034) were not correlated with duration of post-surgical orthodontics, as well as pre-treatment PAR Index, ANB angle and depth of the curve of Spee. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery First/Early Approach is a therapeutic choice that could be performed only in patients affected by specific malocclusions and who exactly meet indications. Protocol and post-surgical occlusal stability are factors that should influence the duration of therapy more than clinical characteristics.

5.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360394

RÉSUMÉ

Adult patients with severe vertical growth pattern, skeletal class III malocclusion and open bite anteriorly are difficult orthodontic cases to treat. An orthognathic surgical treatment plan may benefit adult patients with such types of complex malocclusions, however in certain cases, the patient's medical history may contraindicate the surgical treatment plan. A male patient aged 17 years presented with a prognathic mandible, Angle's class III malocclusion on a class III skeletal base with proclination in upper incisors, retroclination of lower incisors, and reduced facial convexity. Patient gave history of asthma and complex cardiac diseases including arrhythmia, irregular heartbeat, and pacemaker. This case report describes a non-surgical approach of distalization of mandibular and maxillary arches performed with the help of miniplates to achieve an improvement in the facial balance without surgery.

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 28.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360492

RÉSUMÉ

This study assessed the prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 12-18-year-old adolescents and explored the association between OHRQoL and treatment needs, gender, education level and family income. A total of 243 participants with no prior history of orthodontic treatment were included in this cross-sectional study utilizing a standardized self-explanatory questionnaire and clinical examination. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part included the participants' demographics (age, gender, education level, economic status) and the second part contained the Arabic version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP)-14, which consists of 14 questions to assess the impact of the severity of malocclusion on routine activities. The clinical examination involved the dental health component (DHC) index of orthodontic treatment needs (IOTN). The outcome of the study showed that 46% of participants had little or no treatment needs, followed by 23.5% with borderline needs, and 30.5% with severe needs. Female participants had higher mean OHIP-14 scores (10.94 ± 8.17) compared to their male counterparts (8.44 ± 7.15), and the difference in the mean scores was significant (p = 0.015). The educational level did not significantly influence the mean OHIP-14 scores (p = 0.723), whereas the family income correlated negatively with the mean OHIP-14 scores. Participants with less family income had higher mean OHIP-14 scores (11.53 ± 8.67) compared to participants with high (8.22 ± 6.71) and average family income (10.68 ± 8.30). The mean OHIP-14 scores between the family income groups were statistically significant (p = 0.036). The overall OHIP-14 score of the participants was 9.67 ± 7.75. The need for orthodontic treatment is crucial among adolescents. It is recommended to have regular orthodontic consultations for adolescents and prompt referral for treatment to improve the OHRQoL.

7.
Oral Dis ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350305

RÉSUMÉ

Non-syndromic skeletal Class III malocclusion is a major craniofacial disorder characterized by genetic and environmental factors. Patients with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion require orthognathic surgery to obtain aesthetic facial appearance and functional occlusion. Recent studies have demonstrated that susceptible chromosomal regions and genetic variants of candidate genes play important roles in the etiology of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of the genetic factors that affect non-syndromic skeletal Class III malocclusion, including the patterns of inheritance and multiple genetic approaches. We then summarize the functional studies on related loci and genes using cell biology and animal models, which will help to implement individualized therapeutic interventions.

8.
Vet Sci ; 9(11)2022 Nov 10.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356102

RÉSUMÉ

The present study aimed to investigate any biochemical and histological changes of the rat condyle and mandible in animals that had sustained mandibular growth restriction. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Each group consisted of three equal subgroups. The animals were sacrificed 30, 60, and 90 days after the start of the experiment. Blood samples were collected from the eye, and the osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating factor (MCSF)concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. A histological analysis was performed on the mandibular condyles. The blood serum values of OPG, RANKL, and MCSF did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between groups or subgroups. However, significant histological changes became evident after a histomorphometric condylar examination was performed. The Bone Surface/Total Surface ratio appeared reduced in the anterior and posterior regions of the condyle. In addition, the Posterior Condylar Cartilage Thickness was measured and determined to be significantly diminished. The present intervention that employed orthodontic/orthopedic devices did not prove to have any significant effect on the circulating proteins under study. Posterior displacement of the mandible may culminate only in local histological alterations in condylar cartilage thickness and its osseous microarchitecture.

9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322153

RÉSUMÉ

OBJECTIVES: To date, there are no data available in the scientific literature about the diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in adults. We aimed to assess the MIH prevalence and clinical characteristics in adolescents and adults and its association with facial profile and occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, permanent teeth were evaluated in 275 patients between the ages of 12 and 49 at a dental clinic, using intraoral photographs. A calibrated examiner classified enamel hypomineralization using the MIH index. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square, Fisher's tests, and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: MIH was observed in 12.73% of all patients. The most commonly affected teeth were permanent molars, while incisors, premolars, and canines were less affected. MIH usually appears as demarcated opacities, with less than one-third of the tooth affected. There was no association between severe defects and facial profile and occlusion, but rather with the higher age of the participants. CONCLUSION: Enamel hypomineralization mainly affects the first and second permanent molars, but it could also be observed in the third molars, although it is not associated with the orthodontic characteristics investigated. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study to highlight the prevalence of MIH in adults. This result showed the importance of other specialists beyond Pediatric Dentistry in the diagnosis of this defect. In addition, hypomineralization of other permanent teeth (canines, premolars, and second molars) has been described previously in other studies, but this is the first to identify MIH in third molars.

10.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2022 Nov 10.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355224

RÉSUMÉ

OBJECTIVES: Carriere Motion 3D™ appliance (CMA) represents a method for molar distalization and correction of class II malocclusion. The aim was to investigate the 3D effects of the CMA by superimposing digital models and cephalometric X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined 16 patients treated with CMA in combination with class II elastics. We compared digitized models and cephalometric X-rays of records taken before therapy and after the removal of CMA. The records were superimposed to assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The results of the cephalometric X-ray analysis were compared to an untreated age- and gender-matched sample. RESULTS: Class II occlusion was corrected after 11.85 ± 4.70 months by 3.45 ± 2.33 mm. The average distalization of the upper first molars was 0.96 ± 0.80 mm. The analysis of the cephalometric X-rays confirmed a distalization of the upper first molars with distal tipping and revealed a mesialization of the lower first molars of 1.91 ± 1.72 mm. Importantly, CMA resulted in a mild correction of the skeletal class II relationship (ANB: - 0.71 ± 0.77°; Wits: - 1.99 ± 1.74 mm) and a protrusion of the lower incisors (2.94 ± 2.52°). Compared to the untreated control group, there was significant distalization of the upper first molars and canines with mesialization and extrusion of the lower first molars. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: CMA is an efficient method for treating class II malocclusions. However, the class II correction is only partially caused by a distalization of the upper molars.

11.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(11): e6468, 2022 Nov.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408088

RÉSUMÉ

Patients presenting with Class III malocclusion often present significant challenges for the orthodontist and restorative clinician. The characteristic anterior crossbite is commonly associated with a maxillo-mandibular skeletal base discrepancy leading to both functional and esthetic issues. Three potential incisal tooth positions are discussed using clinical examples including implants.

12.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2022 Nov 20.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404137

RÉSUMÉ

PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze changes in the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus structure and function in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion one year after bimaxillary surgery. MATERIALS/METHODS: In this study, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 20 patients (10 men and 10 women; mean age 24.3 ± 3.4 years) with skeletal Class III malocclusion who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were obtained before and one year after the surgery. CBCT data were stored opened with Element 3D (E3D) to establish a nasal airway model (the paranasal sinus includes only the maxillary sinus). Ansys (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA, USA) software is used for simulation and analysis. RESULTS: The maxillary sinus and nasal cavity volumes decreased significantly one year after the surgery. After surgery, the volume of nasal cavity decreased by 13.5%, and the average volume of maxillary sinus decreased by 7.8%. There was no significant difference in the degree of deviation of the septum and nasal cavity resistance, and air distribution in the maxillary sinus did not change. The nasal cavity wall shear stress change was similar to that before surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The maxillary sinus volume and nasal cavity volume of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion changed significantly after bimaxillary surgery, but there was no significant change in nasal ventilation function one year after surgery.

13.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329568

RÉSUMÉ

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the effects of mandibular incisor (MnI) agenesis and divergent malocclusion type on mandibular symphysis inclination and morphology. METHODS: A total of 162 selected patients were divided into two groups: one group consisted of patients with one or two congenitally missing MnIs, and another group comprised patients without tooth agenesis. Patients in each group were categorized into three divergent malocclusion groups (hypodivergent, normodivergent and hyperdivergent) according to the Frankfort mandibular plane angle, with 27 patients per group. Lateral cephalograms were used to evaluate mandibular symphysis inclination and morphology. Two-way analysis of variance, simple main effect analysis and Tukey's test were used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: The agenesis group demonstrated a significantly greater retroclination of the mandibular symphysis than the non-agenesis group in the normodivergent group. In the hypodivergent and normodivergent groups, the agenesis group showed a significantly smaller area of the alveolar bone with thinner width and shorter height than the non-agenesis group. CONCLUSION: For the Japanese orthodontic patients, MnI agenesis caused a significantly great retroclination of the mandibular symphysis in patients with normodivergent malocclusion and significantly small area of the alveolar bone with thin width and short height in patients with hypo- and normodivergent malocclusions.

14.
Natl J Maxillofac Surg ; 13(Suppl 1): S97-S102, 2022 Aug.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36393961

RÉSUMÉ

Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze and assess the soft-tissue response in patients treated by anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO) in the postoperative period at 3, 6, and 9 months and to qualitatively assess the outcome of the surgery by the patients. Patients and Methods: The study included twenty adult healthy patients between 18 and 25 years with skeletal Class II malocclusion and requiring AMO setback for the correction of facial deformity. Preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalograms were taken and soft-tissue changes that occurred following AMO were compared at 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively. The stability and acceptance of the soft-tissue changes were analyzed, and the patient's acceptance for the soft-tissue changes was measured on the surgical rating scale (SRS). Results: All the soft-tissue parameters showed noticeable changes following AMO. Statistically significant difference was observed with nasolabial angle, upper lip, and lower lip inclination. All the patients were moderately satisfied with the outcome of the surgery. Conclusion: This study aims in quantifying the soft-tissue changes following the AMO and the quality of the changes were recorded based on the SRS by the patients. Although there are changes associated with all the parameters assessed, significant differences was observed in nasolabial angle, upper lip, and lower lip inclination. The surgeon must be aware of the soft-tissue adaptation following the surgery for better outcomes.

15.
J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Oct 26.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362547

RÉSUMÉ

Purpose: Allergic rhinitis (AR), which is a major cause of upper airway obstruction, may affect the development of the dental malocclusion. This retrospective study was aimed to investigate association between AR and dental malocclusion in otolaryngologic perspectives. Methods: Patients (n = 217) referred to the otolaryngology department before initiating orthodontic treatment were recruited. The frequency and severity of AR symptoms, sinonasal outcome test (SNOT-22) scores, physical examination findings, acoustic rhinometry results, and treatment modalities were retrospectively assessed. Patients with positive skin prick test findings (SPT) (n = 173; orthodontic group) were compared with age- and sex-matched patients being treated for AR (AR group). Results: We found that 76.5% of the enrolled patients had subjective nasal symptoms, and 93.1% patients showed abnormal physical examination findings such as inferior turbinate hypertrophy (82.0%), adenotonsillar hypertrophy (31.8%), or deviated nasal septum (7.4%). The 173 (79.7%) patients with positive SPT results exhibited a significantly higher incidence of rhinorrhoea, sneezing, and inferior turbinate hypertrophy compared to those with negative SPT results. The proportion of patients who underwent pharmacological or surgical treatments was significantly higher among patients with nasal obstruction (92.0%) than among patients without nasal obstruction (36.9%). The frequency and mean visual analogue symptom scores for nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, and sneezing, as well as all SNOT-22 domain scores, were significantly higher in the AR group than in the orthodontic group. The minimal cross-sectional area measured with acoustic rhinometry showed no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: Patients with dental malocclusion had a high SPT (+) rate and a high prevalence of structural abnormalities of the upper airway. The early detection and treatment of subclinical AR, other rhinological problems, and structural abnormalities of the upper airway in patients with malocclusion may help us manage malocclusion from an otolaryngologic perspective.

16.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428347

RÉSUMÉ

Dental disorders, a term encompassing both malocclusion and dental disease, constitute a serious health problem in horses worldwide. As horse populations differ among countries and regions, a geographically specific characterization of the occurrence of various dental disorders may be helpful for local equine practitioners. This study investigated the prevalence and frequency distribution of selected malocclusions and dental diseases in horses housed in the Mazovia region of Poland, with attention paid to variations among age, gender, and breed categories. Routine dental examinations were conducted on 206 privately owned horses (n = 206). Disorders were recorded using a dental chart and classified as either malocclusions or dental diseases. Out of all examined horses, 95% demonstrated at least one dental disorder, with a roughly equal distribution of these disorders among incisor teeth (31%) and cheek teeth (31% each for premolars and molars). More specifically, there were disorders noted in 14 incisors, 3 canines, 2 wolf teeth, and 15 cheek teeth. Across all age, gender, and breed groups, malocclusions of incisor, premolar, and molar teeth occurred with a higher prevalence than did dental diseases. Curvatures and calculus were the most commonly reported pathologies in incisor teeth, whereas sharp enamel points and caries predominated in cheek teeth.

17.
Cureus ; 14(10): e30704, 2022 Oct.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320787

RÉSUMÉ

Background Smiling is one of the effective ways for people to express their feelings. It is an integral part of the diagnosis and planning and a key point of the treatment objectives in orthodontic care. Many factors are associated with a pleasant smile, such as correct anatomy, gingival health, and teeth proportion. Therefore, different malocclusion classes can affect the characteristics of smile esthetics. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of skeletal class II malocclusion on the characteristics and dynamics of the smile in the sagittal and frontal planes. Methodology The study sample included 60 patients comprising three groups of malocclusion classes, namely, Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2. A video recording was taken for 5-10 seconds for each patient using a specific camera mounted at a fixed distance from the imaged face. Two facial expressions were captured for each patient, one representing the lips at rest and the second representing the unrestricted natural smile. The facial still images were derived from the streaming video recording, and two images were chosen for each plane (the frontal plane and the sagittal plane) for each patient. In total, 12 variables were assessed on these captured images. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect significant differences between the three groups. Results There were statistically significant differences in some of the measured variables. The mean values of thickness of the upper lip, commissure height, gum width, maxillary incisor display, and interlabial gap were greater in the Class II division 1 group than in the other two groups. The proclined incisors were evident in the Class II division 1 group, while the retroclined incisors were evident in the Class II division 2 group. Conclusions The skeletal Class II malocclusion influences the characteristics of the smile, either assessed on the anterior or lateral imaging angles, in addition to its influence on the resting position of the lips. Orthodontists should always analyze patients' facial expressions, including those related to the upper and lower lips at rest and when patients smile naturally. Depending on the results of this analysis, treatment planning could be built to improve the characteristics of the natural smile in patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions.

18.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29584, 2022 Sep.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321006

RÉSUMÉ

Background and objectives The nose is one of the major focuses of face attractiveness. Through careful evaluation of the soft tissue drape, a treatment plan can be designed to enhance a patient's facial attractiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the variations in nasal morphology among class I malocclusion and class II horizontal and class II vertical malocclusion. Material and method Lateral cephalograms of 27 patients were taken and consisted of three groups: skeletal class I malocclusion, class II horizontal malocclusion, and class II vertical malocclusion. The various linear and angular measurements specific to nose were assessed. Results and conclusion In class II and class I malocclusion, the nose is observed to be straight and convex, respectively. Additionally, compared to class II horizontal malocclusion, it is more convex in class II vertical malocclusion. Vertical growers or high-angle cases are more likely to have a nose with an increased inclination toward nasal dorsum convexity than horizontal growers or low-angle instances.

19.
Dent Med Probl ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421048

RÉSUMÉ

Bullying is a social problem that affects children and adolescents in particular. It deteriorates the selfesteem of its victims, decreases their quality of life and generates future psychological problems. The aim of this review was to determine the influence of dentofacial characteristics on the appearance of selfreported bullying through a literature review. A systematic search was carried out in the databases of international scientific literature on health sciences, including MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO. Up to October 10, 2020, a total of 348 articles were identified, but only 36 were ultimately selected for the review. Specific keywords in English were used in the search: "dentofacial features"; "soft tissue"; and "malocclusion". It was found that the appearance of bullying was associated with altered facial profiles, namely the presence of different classes of malocclusion, with class II or class III malocclusion being the most impactful. Altered dentofacial characteristics can make an individual the target of harassment, leading to low quality of life, emotional instability, low self-esteem, and the lack of confidence with regard to dentofacial appearance as well as poor long-term social and academic performance. There is a need to develop preventive measures that would be applied by both parents and authorities, with disseminating information on bullying in schools as well as on adequate oral hygiene and the importance of going to the dentist. Traditional and cybernetic bullying share similarities. While working out strategies against bullying, it is essential to raise awareness among victims and bullies, families, and society, and to determine how bullying is perceived by children and teenagers.

20.
J Oral Rehabil ; 2022 Nov 27.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435988

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Bilateral Class II intermaxillary elastics (CII elastics) are commonly used in orthodontics; however, the effects of CII elastics on masticatory muscle activity and the occlusal contact area have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the short-term effects of CII elastics on masticatory muscle activity balance, occlusal contact area, and masticatory performance in a group of adult orthodontic patients after three months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with a <3 mm Class II molar relationship receiving ongoing treatment with fixed appliances were recruited. The experimental group (n=21) wore CII elastics (100-150 g/side) full time; the control group (n=22) did not wear CII elastics. Surface electromyography, the areas of occlusal contact and near contact (ACNC), and the median particle size of a test food were assessed prior to (T0), and after one (T1) and three months (T2). Within- and between-group differences were analyzed and the relationships between changes in dependent variables were examined (α=0.05). RESULTS: At T2, the experimental group showed better masticatory muscle activity balance (P<0.001) and masticatory performance (P<0.05) than controls. Both masticatory muscle activity balance (P<0.001) and masticatory performance (P<0.001) significantly improved in the experimental group between T0 and T2. The changes in masticatory muscle activity balance and masticatory performance were significantly related (P<0.05). No significant changes in cumulative ACNC or ACNC balance were observed (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: After three months, CII elastics improved masticatory muscle activity balance, which led to better masticatory performance.

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