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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512

ABSTRACT

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.


A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.


Subject(s)
Triticum/parasitologie , Marqueurs biologiques , Parasites Agricoles , Champignons/génétique , /génétique
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

ABSTRACT

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.


Subject(s)
Animaux , Biodiversité , Rivières , Pollution de l'environnement , Poissons , , Pakistan
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

ABSTRACT

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Subject(s)
Humains , Plantes médicinales , Forêts , Maladies gastro-intestinales , , Médecine traditionnelle , Pakistan
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Subject(s)
Animaux , Mâle , Femelle , Strigiformes , Reproduction , Brésil , Comportement alimentaire
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animaux , Mâle , Rats , Brûlures/traitement médicamenteux , Glutamine , Rat Wistar , Dipeptides , Modèles animaux de maladie humaine , Acides aminés
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Nouveau-né , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Leishmaniose viscérale/diagnostic , Leishmaniose viscérale/épidémiologie , Saisons , Brésil/épidémiologie , Incidence , Modèles statistiques
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Subject(s)
Animaux , Mâle , Lapins , Agaricus , Comportement d'exploration , Modèles animaux de maladie humaine
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Subject(s)
Animaux , Femelle , Pasteurelloses/médecine vétérinaire , Reproduction , Hormones sexuelles stéroïdiennes/sang , Buffles , Progestérone , Bovins , Lipopolysaccharides , Hormone de libération des gonadotrophines , Pasteurella multocida
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Subject(s)
Humains , Femelle , Adulte , Qualité de vie , Brésil , Études transversales , Enquêtes et questionnaires
10.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213880

ABSTRACT

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common mental health problem, and its core cognitive manifestation is the persistent fear of being evaluated, including both negatively (FNE) and positively (FPE). This study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships of FNE, FPE and SAD and explore their neural basis. Methods: Three samples were retrieved in this study. First, the data of 649 college students who completed a survey and fMRI scan were used to explore the neural basis of FNE, FPE, and SAD symptoms. Next, the data of 450 participants who completed the same survey twice were used to examine the longitudinal relationships of the variables. Finally, the overlapping of the two samples (N = 288) who completed two surveys and the fMRI scan were used to establish a brain-behavior model. Results: Both FNE and FPE predicted SAD, and SAD also predicted FPE. The neural signals of subregions in prefrontal cortex were correlated with the scores of FNE, FPE and SAD. Abnormal prefrontal signals influenced SAD symptoms via fears of evaluation. Conclusions: Our findings explain the behavioral and neural underpinnings of social anxiety from a fear of evaluation angle. This contributes to a better theorical understanding of SAD and clinical practice. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Peur , Phobie sociale/classification , Phobie sociale/étiologie , Enquêtes et questionnaires , Spectroscopie par résonance magnétique , Universités
11.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213881

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies of neurostimulation reported alteration of hypnotizability and hypnotic phenomena after inhibition of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but the different assessments of hypnosis and the stimulation parameters still left open many questions about the role of this brain region in hypnotizability. We aimed to administer inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to observe effects of stimulation on the hypnotic experience and the feeling of agency. Methods: a procedure of hypnotic induction with suggestions was repeated twice: before and after the unilateral cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC. The experience was assessed through a phenomenological assessment of hypnosis and sense of agency in thirty-three participants randomly assigned to the sham or the active group. Results: active (inhibitory) tDCS enhanced the hypnotizability by 15.4% and altered a few dimensions of consciousness such as self-awareness and absorption. No changes emerged on the feeling of agency and pass rates for suggestions. Conclusions: tDCS reflects a promising tool to alter the hypnotic phenomena and the responsiveness to hypnotic procedures. Neurocognitive implications are discussed for the construct of hypnotizability as well as for the role of the left DLPFC in the dimensions of consciousness such as self-awareness. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Hypnotiques et sédatifs , Hypnose , Cortex préfrontal , Stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu , Conscience morale
12.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-10, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213882

ABSTRACT

Objective: Functional neuroimaging may provide a viable means of assessment and communication in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) mimicking the complete locked-in state. Functional neuroimaging has been used to assess residual cognitive function and has allowed for binary communication with other behaviourally non-responsive patients, such as those diagnosed with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. We evaluated the potential application of functional neuroimaging using a clinical-grade scanner to determine if individuals with severe GBS retained auditory function, command following, and communication. Methods: Fourteen healthy participants and two GBS patients were asked to perform motor imagery and spatial navigation imagery tasks while being scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The GBS patients were also asked to perform additional functional neuroimaging scans to attempt communication. Results: The motor imagery and spatial navigation task elicited significant activation in appropriate regions of interest for both GBS patients, indicating intact command following. Both patients were able to use the imagery technique to communicate in some instances. Patient 1 was able to use one of four communication tasks to answer a question correctly. Patient 2 was able to use three of seven communication tasks. However, two questions were incorrectly answered while a third was non-verifiable. Conclusions: GBS patients can respond using mental imagery and these responses can be detected using functional neuroimaging. Furthermore, these patients may also be able to use mental imagery to provide answers to ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions in some instances. We argue that the most appropriate use of neuroimaging-based communication in these patients is to allow them to communicate wishes or preferences and assent to previously expressed decisions, rather than to facilitate decision-making. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Sujet âgé , Syndrome de Guillain-Barré , Cognition , Neuroimagerie fonctionnelle , Spectroscopie par résonance magnétique
13.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213883

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to investigate the longer-term effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) in smoking cessation and to examine whether there is a difference in outcome between active and placebo stimulation. The present study constitutes an ancillary study from a main Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) evaluating the acute effects of aiTBS in smoking reduction. Method: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted where 89 participants were randomly allocated to three groups (transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)&N group: active aiTBS stimulation combined with neutral videos; TMS&S group: active aiTBS stimulation combined with smoking-related videos; Placebo group: placebo stimulation combined with smoking-related videos). Nicotine dependence, tobacco craving, perceived stress and motivation to quit smoking were measured after completion of 20 aiTBS sessions and during various follow ups (post one week, post one month and post six months). Results: Our results show that the positive effect on nicotine dependence and tobacco craving that occurred at the end of treatment lasts at least one month post treatment. This effect seems to dissipate six months post treatment. No significant differences were found between the three groups. Conclusion: Both active and placebo stimulation were equally effective in reducing nicotine dependence and tobacco craving up to one month after the end of treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Sujet âgé , Arrêter de fumer , Usage de tabac , Trouble lié au tabagisme , Dispositifs électroniques d'administration de nicotine , Enquêtes et questionnaires
14.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-11, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213884

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence shows that the posterior cerebellum is involved in mentalizing inferences of social events by detecting sequence information in these events, and building and updating internal models of these sequences. By applying anodal and sham cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the posteromedial cerebellum of healthy participants, and using a serial reaction time (SRT) task paradigm, the current study examined the causal involvement of the cerebellum in implicitly learning sequences of social beliefs of others (Belief SRT) and non-social colored shapes (Cognitive SRT). Apart from the social or cognitive domain differences, both tasks were structurally identical. Results of anodal stimulation (i.e., 2 mA for 20 min) during the social Belief SRT task, did not show significant improvement in reaction times, however it did reveal generally faster responses for the Cognitive SRT task. This improved performance could also be observed after the cessation of stimulation after 30 min, and up to one week later. Our findings suggest a general positive effect of anodal cerebellar tDCS on implicit non-social Cognitive sequence learning, supporting a causal role of the cerebellum in this learning process. We speculate that the lack of tDCS modulation of the social Belief SRT task is due to the familiar and overlearned nature of attributing social beliefs, suggesting that easy and automatized tasks leave little room for improvement through tDCS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu , Cervelet , Cognition , Stimulation cérébrale profonde , Temps de réaction
15.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213885

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: Antenatal depression (AD) is the commonest morbidity during pregnancy. There is evidence that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and AD share common immune-inflammatory and sex hormonal pathways. This study aims to evaluate the association between the severity of depressive PMS and AD in early and late pregnancy. Method: Participants were followed from early (<=16 weeks) to late pregnancy (>=20 weeks). The Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) was used to assess PMS and AD symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Results: Up to 57.6% of the variance in the early EPDS score was explained by the regression on the first factor extracted from 10 depression and anxiety PSST items (dubbed the DepAnx PSST), insomnia PSST, relation dissatisfaction, and partner abuse. There were specific indirect effects of DepAnx PSST (p < 0.001), insomnia PSST (p = 0.041), relation dissatisfaction (p = 0.023) and partner abuse (p = 0.007) on the late EPDS which were mediated by the early EPDS score. Conclusion: The affective, but not psychosomatic, symptoms of PMS strongly predict AD symptoms suggesting that the pathophysiology of affective PMS symptoms overlap with those of AD. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Femelle , Grossesse , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Syndrome prémenstruel , Dépression , Stress oxydatif , Thaïlande , Échelles d'évaluation en psychiatrie , Inflammation
16.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-6, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213886

ABSTRACT

Background: Although many OCD patients benefit from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as treatment, there is still a large group failing to achieve satisfactory response. Sleep problems have been considered transdiagnostic risk factors for psychiatric disorders, and prior work has shown comorbid sleep problems in OCD to be associated with non-response to rTMS in OCD. We therefore set out to investigate the utility of sleep problems in predicting response to rTMS in treatment resistant OCD. Method: A sample of 61 patients (treated with 1-Hz SMA or sequential 1-Hz SMA+DLPFC rTMS, combined with cognitive behavioral therapy) were included. Sleep disturbances were measured using the PSQI, HSDQ and actigraphy. Treatment response was defined as a decrease of at least 35% in symptom severity as measured with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Results: 32 of 61 patients (52.5%) responded to rTMS, and trajectories of response were similar for both rTMS protocols. Three PSQI items (Subjective Sleep Quality; Sleep Latency and Daytime Dysfunction) and the HSDQ-insomnia scale were found to predict TMS response. A discriminant model yielded a significant model, with an area under the curve of 0.813. Conclusion: Future replication of these predictors could aid in a more personalized treatment for OCD. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu , Trouble obsessionnel compulsif , Sommeil , Cortex préfrontal , Thérapie cognitive
17.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-6, abr.-jun. 2023. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213888

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the three resource variables sense of coherence, resilience, and dispositional optimism become impaired when people are ill with cancer, whether there are sex and age differences in these variables, and how these variables are associated with quality of life (QoL). Method: A sample of 1108 patients with mixed cancer diagnoses were examined using the Sense of Coherence Scale-3 (SOC-3), the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and the QoL questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30. Results: The three resource variables showed somewhat lower levels in the patients’ sample in comparison with general population controls, with effect sizes between −0.10 and −0.23. While there were only small sex differences in the resource variables, significant age differences were found in these variables, with stronger detriments in younger patients. The correlations among the resource variables ranged between .53 and .61. Sense of coherence was more strongly correlated with QoL than resilience and optimism. Conclusions: Cancer patients with low levels of personal resources adapt to their disease more poorly than patients with high levels. In addition to limitations in QoL, health care professionals should also consider patients’ resources for coping with the disease. Special attention should be given to young cancer patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Sujet âgé , Sujet âgé de 80 ans ou plus , Sens de la cohérence , Résilience psychologique , Optimisme , Tumeurs , Études transversales , Facteurs de protection , Qualité de vie , Enquêtes et questionnaires
18.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-10, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213889

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: Most studies investigating the neural correlates of threat learning were carried out using an explicit Pavlovian conditioning paradigm where declarative knowledge on contingencies between conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) is acquired. The current study aimed at understanding the neural correlates of threat conditioning when contingency awareness is limited or even absent. Method: We conducted an fMRI report of threat learning in an implicit associative learning paradigm called multi-CS conditioning, in which a number of faces were associated with aversive screams (US) such that participants could not report contingencies between the faces and the screams. Results: The univariate results showed support for the recruitment of threat-related regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the cerebellum during acquisition. Further analyses by the multivariate representational similarity technique identified learning-dependent changes in the bilateral dlPFC. Conclusion: Our findings support the involvement of the dlPFC and the cerebellum in threat conditioning that occurs with highly limited or even absent contingency awareness. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Cortex préfrontal , Cervelet , Apprentissage , Imagerie par résonance magnétique , Dangers , Peur
19.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-5, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213890

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives: Several studies have shown that personality traits are a benchmark in research field of bullying prevention, while others have highlighted that the socio-emotional skills are important to prevent a wide range of maladjusted behaviors, suggesting that the investment in their developing may mediate the effects of personality dispositions. The present study aims to clarify if socio-emotional attitudes can mediate the relationships between personality traits and bullying. Methods: Five sequential mediation models are tested using the Big Five personality traits as focal predictors, bullying as the outcome, and trait emotional intelligence and empathy as causally chained mediators, involving 199 primary school children (8-10 years) through the Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire, the Big Five Questionnaire for children, the Emotional Intelligence Index and the Empathy-Teen Conflict Survey. Results: Data showed that openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were inversely related to bullying, and that the causal chain of TEI-empathy negatively and completely mediated the relationship between emotional instability and bullying and negatively and partially mediated the relationship between openness and bullying. Conclusions: These results suggest that TEI and empathy mediate the relationship between personality traits and bullying, reducing the risk of being involved in bullying perpetration. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Enfant , Personnalité , Brimades , Intelligence émotionnelle , Empathie , Enquêtes et questionnaires , Développement de l'enfant
20.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213891

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: Screening for depression in patients with cancer can be difficult due to overlap between symptoms of depression and cancer. We assessed validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in this population. Method: Data was obtained in an outpatient neuropsychiatry unit treating patients with and without cancer. Psychometric properties of the BDI-II Portuguese version were assessed separately in 202 patients with cancer, and 376 outpatients with mental health complaints but without cancer. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a three-factor structure model (cognitive, affective and somatic) provided best fit to data in both samples. Criterion validity was good for detecting depression in oncological patients, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76–0.91). A cut-off score of 14 had sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 73%. Excluding somatic items did not significantly change the ROC curve for BDI-II (difference AUCs = 0.002, p=0.9). A good criterion validity for BDI-II was also obtained in the non-oncological population (AUC = 0.87; 95% CI 0.81–0.91), with a cut-off of 18 (sensitivity=84%; specificity=73%). Conclusions: The BDI-II demonstrated good psychometric properties in patients with cancer, comparable to a population without cancer. Exclusion of somatic items did not affect screening accuracy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Sujet âgé , Sujet âgé de 80 ans ou plus , Tumeurs/psychologie , Dépression , Psychométrie , Analyse statistique factorielle , Courbe ROC , Enquêtes et questionnaires , Portugal
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