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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Nouveau-né , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Leishmaniose viscérale/diagnostic , Leishmaniose viscérale/épidémiologie , Saisons , Brésil/épidémiologie , Incidence , Modèles statistiques
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-8, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-213892

ABSTRACT

Background: The number of ex-prisoners worldwide has constantly been increasing in recent years. Currently, little is known about post-release daily adaptation, not to mention valid and reliable instruments for post-release daily routines pertinent to mental health. Objective: This study aims to develop and validate a self-report instrument, hereafter referred to as Post Release Living Inventory for Ex-prisoners (PORLI-ex). Methods: Three separate samples of ex-prisoners were recruited to complete an online survey (N=1,277, age range=17–89 years, 53.2% male, 72% white). Results: The final model evidenced acceptable goodness-of-fit and consisted of 45 items on nine dimensions, which loaded on three second-order factors: Consolidation (three dimensions; e.g., Institutional Routines), Replacement (two dimensions; e.g., Maladaptive Behaviors), and Addition (four dimensions; e.g., Socializing with Ex-prisoner Friends) (α=.695–.915). Convergent validity was demonstrated in the positive correlations with IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the weak correlations with the LEC-5 and perceived social and personal cost of punishment. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated in the correlations with psychiatric symptoms and crime-related outcomes and incremental validity in the correlations with these measures independent of the scores on IADL, SOLI, MLQ, GSE-6, and MSPSS. Conclusion: This study calls for more resources on fostering psychological strengths and resilience through regularizing basic daily life experiences on top of traditional interventions for risk management among the ex-prisoners. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Sujet âgé , Sujet âgé de 80 ans ou plus , Santé mentale , Prisonniers , Autorapport , Enquêtes et questionnaires
3.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 34(1): 12-21, ene.-feb. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-214409

ABSTRACT

Background: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) is a life-threatening injury. Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased mortality in AOD patients, a detailed individual analysis of these patients is lacking in the literature. Methods: Patients ≥16 years old who were diagnosed of AOD with concomitant severe TBI from 2010 to 2020 were included in this retrospective study. We examined the epidemiology, injury mechanisms, associated injuries, and outcomes of these patients. Results: Eight patients were included. Six patients died before any intervention could be performed, and two patients underwent an occipito-cervical fixation, showing a notorious neurologic improvement on follow-up. Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) was a strong predictor of subsequent death. CT signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were present in most patients and were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in survivors. Although TBI was not the main cause of death, it was responsible for the delayed neurological improvement and deferred stabilization. The average sensitivity of the different used methodologies for AOD diagnosis ranged from 0.50 to 1.00, being the Basion Dens Interval (BDI) and the Condyle-C1 interval (CCI) sum the most reliable criteria. Non-survivors tended to show greater distraction measurements. The high incidence of condylar avulsion fractures suggests that their visualization on the initial CT study should heighten the suspicion for AOD. Conclusions: Our data suggest that patients with AOD and concomitant severe TBI might be salvageable patients. In those who survive beyond the first hospital days and show neurological improvement, surgical treatment should be performed as they can achieve an important neurologic recovery. (AU)


Antecedentes: La luxación atlantooccipital (AOD) traumática es una lesión potencialmente mortal. Aunque el traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) se asocia con un aumento de la mortalidad en los pacientes con AOD, no existe en la literatura un análisis individual detallado de estos pacientes. Métodos: En este estudio retrospectivo se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 16 años que fueron diagnosticados de AOD con TCE grave concomitante durante el periodo 2010-2020. Estudiamos la epidemiología, los mecanismos lesionales, así como las lesiones asociadas y los resultados de estos pacientes. Resultados: Se incluyeron ocho pacientes. Seis pacientes fallecieron antes de que se pudiera realizar cualquier intervención y dos pacientes fueron sometidos a una fijación occipitocervical, mostrando una notoria mejoría neurológica durante el seguimiento. La parada cardiorrespiratoria fue un predictor de muerte. En la TC inicial, signos de lesión axonal difusa estaban presentes en la mayoría de los pacientes y se confirmaron mediante imágenes de resonancia magnética en los supervivientes. Aunque el TCE no fue la principal causa de muerte, fue responsable de una mejoría neurológica tardía y por ello una estabilización diferida. La sensibilidad de las diferentes metodologías utilizadas para el diagnóstico de AOD osciló entre 0,50 y 1,00, siendo el intervalo Basion Dens y la suma del intervalo Condylo-C1 los criterios más fiables. Además, los no supervivientes presentaban mayores medidas de distracción. La alta incidencia de fracturas de cóndilo por avulsión sugiere que su visualización en el estudio de TC inicial debería aumentar la sospecha de AOD. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos sugieren que los pacientes con AOD y TCE grave concomitante podrían ser pacientes salvables. En aquellos que sobreviven más allá de los primeros días de...(AU)Palabras clave:Luxación atlantooccipitalColumna cervicalUnión craneocervicalFusión occipitocervicalTraumatismo craneoencefálico


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Adulte d'âge moyen , Lésions traumatiques de l'encéphale/épidémiologie , Luxations/imagerie diagnostique , Articulation atlanto-occipitale/traumatismes , Articulation atlanto-occipitale/imagerie diagnostique , Lésions traumatiques de l'encéphale/imagerie diagnostique , Tomodensitométrie , Études rétrospectives , Incidence , Espagne
4.
Actas urol. esp ; 47(1): 22-26, jan.- feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-214418

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Este estudio investiga el impacto del uso de la cobertura de dartos para aumentar la neouretra en los resultados funcionales y cosméticos. Evaluar una técnica novedosa que demuestra cómo fijar la cobertura de dartos como cobertura de barrera de la neouretra en la corrección de hipospadias. Pacientes y métodos Este estudio se realizó en 204 pacientes varones, todos con diferentes grados de hipospadias (HPD: 132, hipospadias coronal: 46 y HPM: 26). Sus edades oscilaban entre 1-23 años (edad media: 2 años). Había incurvación ventral (chorda) en (HPD: 45, hipospadias coronal: 33 y HPM: 26). Todos los pacientes tenían un chorro urinario anormal dirigido hacia abajo. La corrección del hipospadias se realizó mediante la técnica TIP clásica, además de nuestra novedosa modificación con cobertura de dartos. El seguimiento se realizó durante 5 años mediante evaluaciones clínicas de los parámetros funcionales y cosméticos. Resultados Se registraron tasas de éxito en 200 pacientes, 3 pacientes tuvieron complicaciones con una fístula uretrocutánea subcoronal y un paciente presentó la pérdida completa de la reparación. Conclusión La fijación triple de dartos es una técnica sencilla con la que todos los hipospadiólogos pueden reducir la fístula uretrocutánea como complicación común de la corrección de hipospadias con unos buenos resultados funcionales y cosméticos (AU)


Objective This study investigates the impact of the use of dartos covering to augment the neourethra on functional and cosmetic results. To evaluate a novel technique demonstrating how to fix dartos flap to cover the neourethra as a barrier in hypospadias repair. Patients and methods This study comprised 204 male patients with different degree of hypospadias (DPH: 132, coronal hypospadias: 46, MPH: 26). Their ages ranged from 1-23 ys (mean age: 2ys). Penile chordee was in (DPH: 45, coronal hypospadias: 33, MPH: 26). All patients had abnormal downward directed urinary stream. Hypospadias repair was performed by the classic TIP technique in addition to our novel modification of dartos covering. Patients were submitted to 5 years of follow-up including clinical examination of the functional and cosmetic parameters. Results Success rates were reported in 200 patients, 3 patients had complications with subcoronal urethrocutaneous fistula and one patient with complete repair disruption. Conclusion Triple dartos fixation is a simple technique for all hypospadiologists to minimize urethrocutaneous fistula as common complication of hypospadias repair with good functional and cosmetic results (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Hypospadias/chirurgie , Procédures de chirurgie urologique masculine/méthodes , Résultat thérapeutique , Études de suivi , Études prospectives , Urètre/chirurgie
5.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 45(1): 30-37, ene.-feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-214692

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Comparar los efectos de un estiramiento pasivo del músculo cuádriceps frente a un autoestiramiento en la flexibilidad de los músculos del muslo y el rango de movimiento (ROM) de la cadera en jugadores de fútbol. Métodos Se diseñó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado en el que se incluyeron 34 jugadores de fútbol amateur con déficit de flexibilidad en el músculo cuádriceps. Los jugadores fueron aleatorizados en dos grupos (grupo estiramiento o grupo autoestiramiento). Cada participante recibió una única sesión de estiramiento pasivo o autoestiramiento del cuádriceps en su pierna dominante. Se valoró la flexibilidad del cuádriceps mediante el test de Ely, la flexibilidad de los isquiotibiales mediante el Passive Knee Extension test, y ROM de flexión y extensión de la cadera. Resultados Ambos grupos mostraron un aumento estadísticamente significativo de la flexibilidad del cuádriceps, de la flexibilidad de los isquiotibiales y del ROM de extensión de la cadera sin diferencias significativas entre ellos (p>0,05). El grupo estiramiento mostró unos tamaños del efecto grandes en la flexibilidad y el ROM de extensión (d>0,8), siendo superiores a los registrados en el grupo autoestiramiento. Conclusiones La flexibilidad de los músculos cuádriceps e isquiotibiales, así como el ROM de extensión de cadera aumentaron tras el estiramiento y el autoestiramiento del músculo cuádriceps. Los tamaños del efecto mostrados por el grupo estiramiento fueron superiores a los del grupo autoestiramiento (AU)


Objective To compare the effects of quadriceps passive stretching or quadriceps self-stretching in muscle flexibility and hip range of motion (ROM) in football athletes. Methods A randomized clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-four football athletes with lack of flexibility in the quadriceps muscle were included and randomized in two groups (Stretching group or self-stretching group) and received a single session of quadriceps passive stretching or quadriceps self-stretching in the dominant lower limb. The outcome variables were: quadriceps flexibility measured with the Ely's test, hamstring flexibility measured with the Passive Knee Extension test and hip flexion and extension ROM. Results Both groups achieved a statistically significant improvement of quadriceps flexibility, hamstrings flexibility and hip extension ROM without statistically significant differences between them (p>0.05). The stretching group reported large effect sizes in muscle flexibility and hip extension ROM (d>0.8), and the effect sizes of the stretching group were higher than the self-stretching group. Conclusions Flexibility of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles as well as hip extension ROM increased after stretching and self-stretching of the quadriceps muscle. The effect sizes shown by the stretching group were higher than those of the self-stretching group (AU)


Subject(s)
Humains , Mâle , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Exercices d'étirement musculaire , Muscle quadriceps fémoral/physiologie , Football/physiologie , Athlètes , Méthode en simple aveugle
6.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57087

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Develar las experiencias y determinantes de la participación de adolescentes y jóvenes en meca- nismos formales de participación durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en Chile. Métodos. Estudio transversal, descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo, adscrito al paradigma constructivista de investigación. Se realizaron 3 grupos focales con informantes claves, adolescentes y jóvenes, quienes parti- cipan regularmente en consejos consultivos del Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL) en Chile. Se aplicó la técnica de análisis de contenido para categorías teóricas y emergentes del estudio. Los relatos fueron transcritos y estudiados con técnica de análisis de datos y hermenéutica. Este estudio fue realizado durante la pandemia de COVID-19, entre los meses de marzo y noviembre del 2021. Resultados. Durante la pandemia, las experiencias de participación en salud de adolescentes y jóvenes se vieron afectadas; no obstante, los mecanismos de participación formales, como los consejos consultivos, permitieron dar continuidad. En este contexto, adolescentes y jóvenes dentro de sus experiencias destacaron algunos factores que facilitaron o limitaron la participación, de acuerdo con tres niveles de gestión: individual, relacional y estructural, destacándo la comunicación virtual, el uso de redes sociales y la salud digital como excelentes herramientas para la participación de jóvenes y adolescentes en tiempos de pandemia en Chile. Conclusión. La pandemia ha afectado a los mecanismos de participación de adolescentes y jóvenes en Chile. No obstante, dentro de las experiencias destacadas por los jóvenes han surgido aspectos como la comunicación virtual, la salud digital y otras estrategias que han facilitado la participación. Por otro lado, en esta crisis sanitaria mundial se han acrecentado algunas brechas en la participación en salud, como el acceso principalmente en poblaciones rurales.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Shed light on the experiences and determinants of young people’s and adolescents’ participation in formal participation mechanisms during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Chile. Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, within the constructivist research paradigm. Three focus groups were conducted with key informants: young people and adolescents who regu- larly participate in advisory councils of Chile’s Ministry of Health (MINSAL). Content analysis was applied for theoretical and emerging categories in the study. The reports were transcribed and studied with data analysis and hermeneutics. This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, between the months of March and November 2021. Results. During the pandemic, adolescents’ and young people’s experiences of health participation were affected; however, formal participation mechanisms such as advisory councils allowed for continuity. In this context and based on their experiences, young people and adolescents highlighted some factors that facili- tated or limited their participation at three levels: individual, relational, and structural. They highlighted virtual communication, use of social networks, and digital health as excellent tools for the participation of young people and adolescents during the pandemic in Chile. Conclusion. The pandemic affected the participation mechanisms used by young people and adolescents in Chile; however, among the experiences highlighted by young people, aspects that facilitated participation emerged, such as virtual communication, digital health, and other strategies. At the same time, some gaps in health participation widened during this global health crisis, such as access mainly in rural populations.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Divulgar as experiências e determinantes da participação dos jovens e adolescentes em mecanis- mos formais de participação durante a pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 no Chile. Métodos. Estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, ligado ao paradigma construtivista de pesquisa. Foram realizados 3 grupos focais com informantes-chave: jovens e adolescentes que participam regularmente dos conselhos consultivos do Ministério da Saúde do Chile. Foi aplicada a técnica de análise de conteúdo para as categorias teóricas e emergentes do estudo. Os relatos foram transcritos e estudados com técnicas de análise de dados e hermenêutica. Este estudo foi realizado durante a pandemia de COVID-19, entre os meses de março e novembro de 2021. Resultados. Durante a pandemia, as experiências de participação de adolescentes e jovens na saúde foram afetadas, porém os mecanismos formais de participação, como os conselhos consultivos, permitiram sua continuidade. Nesse contexto, os jovens e adolescentes, em suas experiências, destacaram alguns fatores que facilitaram ou limitaram a participação, conforme três níveis de gestão: individual, relacional e estrutural. A comunicação virtual, o uso das redes sociais e a saúde digital destacaram-se como excelentes ferramentas para a participação de jovens e adolescentes em tempos de pandemia no Chile. Conclusão. A pandemia afetou os mecanismos de participação de jovens e adolescentes no Chile. No entanto, dentro das experiências destacadas pelos jovens, surgiram aspectos como comunicação virtual, saúde digital e outras estratégias que facilitaram a participação. Por outro lado, nessa crise de saúde mun- dial, aumentaram algumas lacunas na participação em saúde, como o acesso, principalmente em populações rurais.


Subject(s)
Participation sociale , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Stratégies de e-Santé , , Participation sociale , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Stratégies de e-Santé , Participation sociale , Stratégies de e-Santé
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 50, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining good oral hygiene is key to preventing dental caries and periodontal disease. Children and adolescents with good oral hygiene behaviours are likely to grow into adults with the same behaviours. This study assessed the frequency of using various oral hygiene methods among children and adolescents from different countries and individual, familial and country-level factors associated with the use of these methods. METHODS: A multi-country online survey collected data from caregivers of children in 2020-21 about children's use of oral hygiene methods including toothbrush, fluoridated toothpaste, mouthwash, dental floss and miswak using self-administered, close-ended questions. Adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between each of the five oral hygiene methods (dependent variables) and the independent factors: sex, age, and history of dental visits (individual factors), mother's education and area of residence (familial factors) as well as country income and region (country-level factors). RESULTS: A total of 4766 parents/caregivers were included from 20 countries (77.4% Eastern Mediterranean-region and 41.6% lower middle income countries). The most frequent oral hygiene methods were using toothbrush and toothpaste (90% and 60.3%). The use of oral hygiene methods differed by age, sex and history of dental visits as well as mother's education and area of residence (P < 0.05). In addition, children from low income countries had significantly lower odds of using mouthwashes and dental floss than those from high income countries (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31, 0.98 and AOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12, 0.97) whereas children from the European region had higher odds of using mouthwash (AOR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.27, 6.26) and those from the region of the Americas had higher odds of using dental floss (AOR = 3.84, 95% CI 1.28, 11.52) than those from the Eastern Mediterranean region. CONCLUSIONS: The use of various oral hygiene methods is associated with individual, familial and country-level factors. Oral health promotion programs should be developed taking into account these influences.


Subject(s)
Caries dentaires , Hygiène buccodentaire , Adulte , Adolescent , Humains , Enfant , Caries dentaires/prévention et contrôle , Pâtes dentifrices , Bains de bouche/usage thérapeutique , Santé buccodentaire
8.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 77, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710347

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of distal femoral, proximal tibial, and distal tibial physeal bar resection combined with or without the Hemi-Epiphysiodesis procedure and provide a better understanding of the application of physeal bar resection combined with Hemi-Epiphysiodesis procedure in the treatment of physeal bar growth arrest. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the patients who suffered physeal bar and underwent physeal bar resection with or without the Hemi-Epiphysiodesis technique during 2010-2020. All were followed up for at least 2 years or to maturity. A modified mapping method was used to determine the area of a physeal bar by CT data. The aLDFA, aMPTA, aLDTA, MAD, and LLD were measured to assess the deformity of the lower limb. RESULTS: In total, 19 patients were included in this study. The average age was 8.9 years (range 4.4 to 13.3 years old). During the follow-up, 4 (21.1%) patients had an angular change < 5°; 12 (63.2%) patients had angular deformity improvement > 5° averaging 10.0° (range 5.3° to 23.2°), and 3 (15.8%) patients had improvement of the angular deformity averaging 16.8° (range 7.4° to 27.1°). Eleven patients (57.9%) had significant MAD improvement. After surgery, we found that 7 (36.8%) patients had an LLD change of < 5 mm and were considered unchanged. Only 2 (15%) patients had an LLD improvement > 5 mm averaging 1.0 cm (range 0.7 to 1.3 cm), and 7 (36.8%) patients had increasing of LLD > 5 mm averaging 1.3 cm (range 0.5 to 2.5 cm). There were no postoperative fractures, infections, or intraoperative complications such as neurovascular injury. CONCLUSION: Physeal bar resection combined with Hemi-epiphysiodesis is helpful for partial epiphysis growth arrest. Without statistically verifying, we still believe that patients with limited growth ability could benefit more from physeal bar resection combined with Hemi-epiphysiodesis.


Subject(s)
Dysplasies osseuses , Inégalité de longueur des membres inférieurs , Humains , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Études rétrospectives , Inégalité de longueur des membres inférieurs/chirurgie , Lame épiphysaire/imagerie diagnostique , Lame épiphysaire/chirurgie , Tibia/imagerie diagnostique , Tibia/chirurgie , Fémur/imagerie diagnostique , Fémur/chirurgie
9.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 18(1): 2170007, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710436

ABSTRACT

Purpose Body image encompasses body-related self-perceptions and personal attitudes. Dissatisfaction with body image during the early stages of adolescence is negatively related to self-esteem and other health problems. A few publications focused on positive body image and directly related to the experiences and interactions of adolescents themselves. To explore positive body image in adolescents and describe the familial and educational factors that contribute to its development.Methods A qualitative study was conducted. Purposive sampling was used, and 9 adolescents, 6 families, and 8 teachers participated in semi-structured interviews, which were then theme analyzed. Results Self-care, body acceptance, confronting messages that attack body image, and the influence of social media have been identified as emerging themes in adolescents' positive body image experiences. Therefore, the pubertal period, family values, fostering, and educational actions as well as media literacy were identified as factors promoting self-esteem and positive body image in the family and educational environment. Conclusions Their parents also expressed aspects such as those that contribute to the development of healthy self-esteem, confidence, and positive body image. Alternatively, the teachers indicated educational activities to work on self-image and self-esteem when faced with situations of concern in the classroom.


Subject(s)
Image du corps , Concept du soi , Humains , Adolescent , Parents , Recherche qualitative , Attitude
10.
Riv Psichiatr ; 58(1): 37-39, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36715582

ABSTRACT

We report a pathological imagination process in an adolescent at clinical high-risk for psychosis, associated with the presence of self-disorders. The subjective experience associated with pathological imagination helped in distinguishing such mental activity from intrusive thoughts of obsessive-compulsive patients; moreover, such anomalous imagination focused on other people may be an adaptive process triggered by negative emotionality against others that appear difficult or impossible to relationally grasp and attune with. In conclusion, anomalies of imaginations may occur within the schizophrenic spectrum since adolescent prodromal stages, associated with self-disorders.


Subject(s)
Troubles psychotiques , Humains , Adolescent , Imagination , Cognition , Psychologie des schizophrènes , Symptômes prodromiques
11.
J Neurooncol ; 161(1): 77-84, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592264

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Survivors of paediatric intracranial tumours are at increased risk of psychosocial, neuro-developmental, and functional impairment. This study aimed to evaluate long-term health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes in patients with benign paediatric brain tumours treated curatively with surgical resection alone. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with benign paediatric intracranial tumours managed with surgery alone between 2000 and 2015. Eligible patients with a minimum of 5-years follow-up after surgery were identified. Validated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires were administered: SF-36, QLQ-BN20, QLQ-C30 and PedsQL™. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients participated (median age at surgery 13 years; range 1-18; 12 male). The most common diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 15). Median time from surgery to participation was 11 years(range 6-19). Fourteen patients achieved A-level qualifications and two obtained an undergraduate degree. Twelve patients were employed, eight were studying and three were unemployed or volunteering. HRQOL outcomes demonstrated significant limitation from social functioning (p = 0.03) and cognitive functioning (p = 0.023) compared to the general population. Patients also experienced higher rates of loss of appetite (p = 0.009) and nausea and vomiting (p = 0.031). Ten patients were under transitional teenager and young-adult (TYA) clinic follow-up. TYA patients achieved higher levels of education (p = 0.014), were more likely to hold a driver's license (p = 0.041) compared to patients not followed-up through these services. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood brain-tumour survivors have a greater risk of developing psychological, neuro-cognitive and physical impairment. Early comprehensive assessment, specialist healthcare and TYA services are vital to support these patients.


Subject(s)
Astrocytome , Tumeurs du cerveau , Adulte , Adolescent , Humains , Enfant , Mâle , Qualité de vie , Études transversales , Tumeurs du cerveau/thérapie , Survivants , Astrocytome/thérapie , Enquêtes et questionnaires
12.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e064849, 2023 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and disability-related needs of children and adolescents with physical disabilities in the Kilimanjaro region, North-Eastern Tanzania. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community survey was conducted from November 2020 to June 2021. Trained research assistants interviewed primary children's carers using a questionnaire based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Framework. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics V.27. The Pearson χ2 test was used to examine differences between age, gender and self-reported needs. The independent t-test assessed difference in needs according to age and gender. SETTING: Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS: Children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, with physical disabilities (n=212). RESULTS: Almost 40% had severe speech (n=84) and joint mobility (n=79) impairments, and more than half (n=124) had severe or complete difficulties walking. In aspects of self-care (caring for body parts, toileting, dressing, eating and drinking), most had severe and complete difficulties. Almost 70% (n=135) of households were located near health facilities without rehabilitation services. About one-quarter (n=51) had never received rehabilitation services. More than 90% (n=196) needed assistive devices, and therapeutic exercises (n=193). Over three-quarters needed nutritional supplements (n=162). CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents with physical disabilities in North-Eastern Tanzania have impaired speech and joint mobility, and difficulties in communication, self-care and walking. Rehabilitation services essential for addressing these impairments and activity limitations are either scarce or inaccessible. Action is needed to facilitate urban and rural access to rehabilitation services in order to improve the well-being of children and adolescents with physical disabilities.


Subject(s)
Personnes handicapées , Dispositifs d'assistance au mouvement , Humains , Adolescent , Études transversales , Tanzanie , Personnes handicapées/rééducation et réadaptation , Caractéristiques familiales
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e068108, 2023 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599636

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is a global driver of HIV infection and disease progression, mediated through risky behaviour and poor antiretroviral adherence. Most studies about the burden of alcohol use among people living with HIV (PLWH)/AIDS have been done in adult populations, but less is known about young people with HIV, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), despite the high level of alcohol use in these settings. The aim of this review is to collate evidence on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, alcohol use disorder (AUD) among young adults (aged 15-24 years) living with HIV/AIDS in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two experienced librarians will conduct an independent article search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science databases, using relevant Medical Subject Headings terms and Boolean operators ('AND', 'OR'). We will include English-language articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals from 1 January 2000, to 25 July 2022, that documented the prevalence of AUD among young people (15-24 years) living with HIV in LMICs. We shall exclude systematic review articles and qualitative studies. Two independent reviewers will screen the articles for eligibility and data will be extracted onto a preset Excel spreadsheet. Data analysis will be done using Stata V.14.0. Heterogeneity will be assessed by use of the I2 statistic and data will be pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Publication bias will be assessed using the funnel plot. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not needed as this systematic review will be based on published studies. Findings from this study will be disseminated via submission for publication in a peer-reviewed journal, at conference presentations, and made available to health professionals, scientists and policy makers. Our data set can be made available on request. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO, CRD42022308955.


Subject(s)
Syndrome d'immunodéficience acquise , Alcoolisme , Infections à VIH , Humains , Jeune adulte , Adolescent , Infections à VIH/épidémiologie , Pays en voie de développement , Prévalence , Revues systématiques comme sujet
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 125-137, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588222

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of cataract surgery in patients of the pediatric age group with systemic comorbidities. Methods: Medical records of 54 eyes (30 patients) of the pediatric age group with systemic comorbidities who had undergone cataract surgery in a tertiary-care center were reviewed. The following parameters were recorded: systemic comorbidity; toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, HIV (TORCH) profile, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), strabismus, nystagmus, and cataract morphology. Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 55 months (9 months-14 years) were included. On average, every child was seen by three physicians, and the mean duration between the first visit to a physician and presentation to our center was 2.23 ± 0.67 years. The various causes for delay in referral include multiple referrals due to a lack of general anesthesia services in 78% of cases, a long waiting list at the referral hospital in 35% of cases, and a lack of awareness at the primary-care physician level in 50% of cases. The mean BSCVA at presentation was 1.4 logMAR (0.3 to 3 logMAR). The most common cataract morphology was that of zonular cataract (31.48%; 17/54). Strabismus and abnormal eye movements were observed in 27.7% (15/54) and 33.3% (18/54) of eyes, respectively. Various systemic associations were periventricular leukomalacia (12/30), Down's syndrome (6/30), seizure disorder (6/30), cardiac valvular anomalies (6/30), Marfan's syndrome (4/30), hypothyroidism (4/30), rubella (3/20), cytomegalovirus (3/20), cerebral palsy (2/30), nephrotic syndrome (2/30), Type 1 diabetes mellitus (1/30), microcephaly (1/30), cryptogenic West syndrome (1/30), congenital rubella syndrome (1/30), and Tourette syndrome (1/30). The mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) at 2-year follow-up improved to 1.0 logMAR (0 to 3 logMAR). No postoperative complications were reported at the final follow-up. Around 70% of the parents reported improvement in their child's psychomotor skills. Conclusion: Intellectually impaired pediatric patients with cataract should be operated upon whenever there is a presence of infrastructure, and unnecessary delay in surgery should be avoided by referring the patient to higher centers. Even though objective improvement in visual acuity was suboptimal, there was definitely an improvement in the psychomotor skills of the patients.


Subject(s)
Extraction de cataracte , Comorbidité , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Humains , Extraction de cataracte/effets indésirables , Rubéole/épidémiologie , Rubéole/chirurgie , Strabisme/épidémiologie , Strabisme/chirurgie , Résultat thérapeutique , Nourrisson , Adolescent
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(1)2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593076

ABSTRACT

An adolescent girl came with swelling of both thighs with difficulty in walking for a few months. Based on clinical, and radiological evaluation and nerve conduction studies, she was diagnosed to be having bilateral hips Charcot's arthropathy due to hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type 4. Other common causes of Charcot arthropathy were ruled out. The patient was conservatively managed and parents were educated about preventive measures. Through this case report, we want to highlight the myriad number of manifestations and clinical presentations of a child presenting with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type 4.


Subject(s)
Arthropathie nerveuse , Neuropathies héréditaires sensitives et autonomes , Neuropathies périphériques , Femelle , Adolescent , Humains , Enfant , Neuropathies périphériques/complications , Radiographie , Arthropathie nerveuse/imagerie diagnostique , Arthropathie nerveuse/étiologie , Articulation de la hanche/imagerie diagnostique
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 52, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593316

ABSTRACT

Dialysis patients are at risk of both thromboembolic and bleeding events, while thromboembolism prevention and treatment may confer a risk of major bleeding. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a great concern which can result in high subsequent mortality rates. Our object was to clarify whether hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) confer different incidence of GI bleeding, and further assist individualized decision-making on dialysis modalities. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study which included all incident dialysis patients above 18 years old derived from the National Health Insurance database from 1998 to 2013 in Taiwan. 6296 matched pairs of HD and PD patients were identified. A propensity score matching method was used to minimize the selection bias. The adjusted hazard ratio for GI bleeding was 1.13 times higher in the HD group than in the PD group, and data from the unmatched cohort and the stratified analysis led to similar results. Among subgroup analysis, we found that the use of anticoagulants will induce a much higher incidence of GI bleeding in HD patients as compared to in PD patients. We concluded that PD is associated with a lower GI bleeding risk than HD, and is especially preferred when anticoagulation is needed.


Subject(s)
Défaillance rénale chronique , Dialyse rénale , Humains , Adolescent , Dialyse rénale/méthodes , Études rétrospectives , Défaillance rénale chronique/complications , Hémorragie gastro-intestinale/étiologie , Hémorragie gastro-intestinale/complications , Hospitalisation , Facteurs de risque
17.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 18(1): 1, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among youth is a longstanding global health concern that has dramatically risen in the era of highly toxic and unregulated drugs, including opioids. It is crucial to ensure that youth using unregulated opioids have access to evidence-based interventions, and yet, youth encounter critical gaps in the quality of such interventions. This study aims to address these gaps by identifying opportunities to improve the quality of opioid use services from the perspective of service providers, a perspective that has received scant attention. METHODS: This community-based participatory study was conducted in four communities in British Columbia (Canada), a province that declared a public health overdose emergency in 2016. Human-centered co-design workshops were held to understand service providers' (n = 41) experiences, needs, and ideas for improving the quality of youth opioid use services/treatments in their community. Multi-site qualitative analysis was used to develop overarching experiences and needs themes that were further contextualized in each local community. A blended deductive and inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the ideas data. RESULTS: Three overarching themes were identified, reflecting service providers' goals to respond to youth in a timely and developmentally appropriate manner. However, this was significantly limited by organizational and systems-level barriers, revealing service providers' priorities for intra- and inter-organizational support and collaboration and systems-level innovation. Across communities, service providers identified 209 individual ideas to address these prioritized needs and improve the quality of youth opioid use services/treatments. CONCLUSION: These themes demonstrate a multi-level tension between macro-level systems and the meso-level organization of youth opioid use services, which undermine the quality of individual-level care service providers can deliver. These findings underscore the need for a coordinated multi-level response, such as developing youth-specific standards (macro-level), increasing inter-organizational activities and collaboration (meso-level), and creating programs that are specific to youths' needs (micro-level).


Subject(s)
Mauvais usage des médicaments prescrits , Troubles liés aux opiacés , Humains , Adolescent , Colombie-Britannique , Analgésiques morphiniques/usage thérapeutique , Troubles liés aux opiacés/thérapie , Groupes de population
18.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 3, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between diet, symptoms and health related quality of life in children and young people with Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not clearly understood. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to explore the evidence for a relationship between nutritional status, dietary intake, arthritis symptoms, disease activity and health-related quality of life in children and young people with JIA considering both observational and interventional studies separately. METHOD: The databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane were searched in October 2019, updated in September 2020 and October 2021. Searches were restricted to English language, human and age (2-18 years old). Studies were included if they measured the effect of dietary supplements, vitamins or minerals, or diet in general, on quality of life and/ or arthritis symptom management. Two researchers independently screened titles and abstracts. Full texts were sourced for relevant articles. PRISMA guidelines were used for extracting data. For variables (vitamin D and disease activity), a random-effects meta-analysis model was performed. Two authors using a standardized data extraction form, extracted data independently. RESULTS: 11,793 papers were identified through database searching, 26 studies met our inclusion criteria with 1621 participants. Overall studies quality were fair to good. Results from controlled trial and case control studies with total 146 JIA patients, found that Ɯ-3 PUFA improved the mean active joint count (p < 0.001), Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS-27) (p < 0.001) and immune system (≤ 0.05). Furthermore, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs have a negative correlation with CRP (C-reactive protein) and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) (p < 0.05). Improvement in JIA symptoms were observed in one case, one pilot and one exploratory study with overall 9 JIA patients after receiving Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) which contains protein and what is required for a complete nutrition, A clinical trial study found Kre-Celazine nutrition (composed of a proprietary alkali buffered, creatine monohydrate and fatty acids mixture) in 16 JIA patients improved symptoms of JIA. No association was found between vitamin D and disease activity from three studies. Height and weight values in relation to healthy controls varied across studies (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: We were only able to include small studies, of lower design hierarchy, mainly pilot studies. We found some evidence of lower height and weight across studies in JIA, but were unable to confirm an association between diet, symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and young people with JIA. Well-designed, carefully measured and controlled interventional studies of dietary patterns in combination with important contributing factors such as medication and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, are required to determine the impact of diet in improving symptoms and growth patterns in children and young people with JIA, with an aim to improve the quality of their life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO [CRD42019145587].


Subject(s)
Arthrite juvénile , Enfant , Humains , Adolescent , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Arthrite juvénile/complications , État nutritionnel , Qualité de vie , Vitamines/usage thérapeutique , Vitamine D/usage thérapeutique , Consommation alimentaire , Études observationnelles comme sujet
19.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 1, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although procrastination has been widely studied in adults, comparatively little work has focused on adolescent procrastination, especially in the Pacific region. As a contribution to knowledge and diversification of population sampling, therefore, we examined procrastination in a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents from New Caledonia. Specifically, we examined gender and ethnic differences in procrastination, as well as sociodemographic and ethnic identity predictors of procrastination. METHODS: 927 adolescents (474 boys, 453 girls; age M = 13.2 years) completed measures of procrastination and ethnic identity, and reported their ethnicity (Kanak vs. Polynesian vs. European). Sociodemographic data (sex, age, area of residence and socioeconomic status) were also collected. RESULTS: An analysis of variance indicated significant ethnic (Kanak and Polynesian adolescents had higher procrastination than European adolescents) and sex differences (girls had higher procrastination than boys), but no significant interaction. Regression analysis showed that higher procrastination was significantly associated with sex, ethnicity, age, and the interaction between ethnicity and ethnic identity. Moderation analysis showed that ethnic identity moderated the relationship between ethnicity and procrastination, but only in Kanak adolescents. CONCLUSION: Relatively high levels of procrastination were observed in Kanak and Polynesian adolescents, and in girls. These findings, while preliminary, may have important implications for academic attainment in the New Caledonian context.


Subject(s)
, Procrastination , Adulte , Humains , Adolescent , Mâle , Femelle , Nouvelle-Calédonie/épidémiologie
20.
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 4, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is increased in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors, with the prevalence depending on cancer diagnosis, treatment, and patient factors. Prior studies are limited by sample size and type of cancer included. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of POI in female AYA survivors of non-gynecologic cancers, using a population-based approach. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study comprises 21,666 females, 15-39 years old, diagnosed with a single non-gynecologic cancer in Ontario, Canada from 1995 to 2015. Through health administrative data linkage, participants were followed until their 40th birthday, December 31, 2018, bilateral oophorectomy, loss of health insurance eligibility or death. Each cancer survivor was matched to 5 females who were not diagnosed with cancer (unexposed, n = 108,330). Women with bilateral oophorectomy or a prior menopause diagnosis were excluded. POI was identified through use of the ICD-9 code for menopause (ICD9-627). Modified Poisson regression models were used to calculate the adjusted relative risk (aRR) of POI for AYA cancer survivors compared to unexposed individuals, adjusted for income, parity, age, and immigration status. RESULTS: The occurrence of POI was higher in survivors of AYA cancer versus unexposed patients (5.4% vs. 2.2%). Survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of POI relative to unexposed patients (aRR 2.49; 95% CI 2.32-2.67). Risk varied by type of cancer: breast (4.32; 3.84-4.86), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (3.77; 2.88-4.94), Hodgkin's lymphoma (2.37; 1.91-2.96), leukemia (14.64; 10.50-20.42), thyroid (1.26; 1.09-1.46) and melanoma (1.04; 0.82-1.32). Risk varied by age at time of cancer diagnosis, with a higher risk among females diagnosed at age 30-39 years (3.07; 2.80-3.35) than aged 15-29 years (1.75; 1.55-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: AYA survivors of non-gynecologic cancers are at an increased risk of POI, particularly survivors of lymphomas, leukemia, breast, and thyroid cancer. The risk of POI is increased for those diagnosed with cancer at an older age. These results should inform reproductive counseling of female AYAs diagnosed with cancer.


Premature ovarian insufficiency is the onset of premature menopause in individuals less than 40-years-old. Previous research has shown that there is a higher risk of premature ovarian insufficiency in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors, due to the toxicity of cancer treatments on reproductive organs. Prior research was limited in its applicability by having small sample sizes, only including childhood cancer, excluding young adults, and studying fewer types of cancer. This study was conducted using a large population-based approach, on all females aged 15­39 years old with cancer in Ontario, Canada from 1995 to 2015. We found that there was nearly a 2.5 times greater risk of premature ovarian insufficiency in cancer survivors compared patients without cancer. Compared to patients without cancer, this risk was highest for survivors of leukemia (14 times higher risk), followed by breast cancer (4 times higher risk), lymphomas (2­4 times higher risk), and thyroid cancer (1.2 times higher risk). There is no increased risk in melanoma survivors. The risk was higher in individuals diagnosed with cancer at a later age (30­39 years), with a risk 3 times higher than the population without cancer, while a younger age of diagnosis (15­29 years) carries a risk only 1.75 times higher than the population without cancer. These results should help improve healthcare provider and patient understanding of the risk of premature ovarian insuficiency in young cancer survivors, and guide counseling at the time of cancer diagnosis and during survivorship on future reproductive function.


Subject(s)
Leucémies , Tumeurs , Insuffisance ovarienne primitive , Grossesse , Humains , Femelle , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Études de cohortes , Études rétrospectives , Tumeurs/complications , Survivants , Insuffisance ovarienne primitive/épidémiologie , Insuffisance ovarienne primitive/étiologie , Leucémies/complications , Ontario/épidémiologie
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