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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RÉSUMÉ

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Sujet(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Nouveau-né , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Leishmaniose viscérale/diagnostic , Leishmaniose viscérale/épidémiologie , Saisons , Brésil/épidémiologie , Incidence , Modèles statistiques
3.
Cytokine ; 161: 156048, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279697

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, stimulates production of reactive oxygen species. Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is a multifunctional polypeptide. AIM: To assess ET-1 gene polymorphism (G8002A) in pediatric patients with ß-thalassemia major (ß-TM) as a potential genetic marker for vascular dysfunction and its possible relation to EMAP II, oxidative stress and vascular complications. METHODS: ß-TM patients (n = 95) without symptomatic cardiac or renal disease were compared with 95 healthy controls. Markers of hemolysis, serum ferritin, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, serum EMAP II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase and catalase were measured. ET-1 gene polymorphism (G8002A) was determined using polymerase chain reaction­restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: ß-TM patients had significantly higher EMAP II than healthy controls. EMAP II was significantly higher among patients with cardiac disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH) risk, nephropathy, poor compliance to therapy and ferritin ≥ 2500 µg/L. There were significant correlations between EMAP II and transfusion index, LDH, ferritin and oxidative stress markers. The AA genotype of ET-1 gene polymorphism (G8002A) was significantly higher among ß-TM patients than controls. The number of patients with cardiac disease, PH risk or nephropathy was significantly higher among AA genotype compared with GG and GA genotypes. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum ferritin, EMAP II, MDA, SOD and GPx were significantly higher in AA genotype. CONCLUSION: ET-1 gene polymorphism (G8002A) could be a possible genetic marker for prediction of increased susceptibility to cardiopulmonary and renal complications among pediatric patients with ß-TM.


Sujet(s)
Endothéline-1 , Protéines de liaison à l'ARN , bêta-Thalassémie , Enfant , Humains , bêta-Thalassémie/génétique , bêta-Thalassémie/complications , bêta-Thalassémie/thérapie , Endothéline-1/génétique , Ferritines , Marqueurs génétiques , Cardiopathies/complications , Polymorphisme génétique , Superoxide dismutase , Maladies du rein , Protéines de liaison à l'ARN/génétique
4.
J Surg Res ; 282: 155-159, 2023 Feb.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279708

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: Cervical spine computed tomography (CSCT) scans are used to evaluate cervical spine traumatic injuries; however, recent evidence demonstrates that adult trauma centers (ATCs) overutilize CSCT when evaluating adolescent patients. This leads to unnecessary radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to review a level 1 ATC's use of CSCT in the adolescent blunt trauma population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of a level 1 ATC's trauma database. Blunt trauma patients between the ages of 11 and 18 who receive a CSCT between January 2015 to December 2019 were included. The primary outcome was the prevalence of positive findings on CSCT scans. Data were analyzed using Fischer-Exact analysis and multivariate logistic regression where appropriate. RESULTS: Three-hundred thirty-seven of 546 (61.7%) adolescent blunt trauma patients received CSCT. Of those, 68.2% (230) were male; the mean age was 16.6 ± 1.0 y old. Twenty-eight patients (8.3%) had a positive finding on CSCT. All patients with a positive CSCT failed the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization study (NEXUS) criteria while 123 patients (36.5%) with a negative CSCT met NEXUS criteria. CONCLUSIONS: CSCT was overutilized in our trauma center. There is a low positive CSCT scan rate among adolescent patients, which aligns with the current literature. All patients with positive CSCT passed NEXUS criteria suggesting that a quality improvement project focusing on the use of the NEXUS criteria to assess the risk of cervical spine injury could potentially reduce the use of CSCT scans by nearly 40%.


Sujet(s)
Traumatismes du cou , Traumatisme du rachis , Plaies non pénétrantes , Adulte , Humains , Adolescent , Mâle , Enfant , Femelle , Études rétrospectives , Vertèbres cervicales/imagerie diagnostique , Vertèbres cervicales/traumatismes , Traumatisme du rachis/imagerie diagnostique , Plaies non pénétrantes/imagerie diagnostique , Plaies non pénétrantes/épidémiologie , Tomodensitométrie , Centres de traumatologie
5.
Gene ; 851: 146995, 2023 Jan 30.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279951

RÉSUMÉ

Whole genome sequences of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) from pediatric settings were used to assess the emerging Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR). The high throughput sequences of twenty pediatric clinical isolates of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were retrieved and were screened for prevalent Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (ARGs) and Virulent Factors (VF). The resistance data was compared with the reference strains of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. AMR studies identified sul1, sul2, dfrA7, tem-1, AH(6)-Id and APH(3″)-Ib as common ARGs. VFs were identified to understand the level of pathogenicity. The most prevalent AMR genes in the sequenced genomes were detected in phenotypically azithromycin-resistant S. Typhi. Correlation with the global genomes projected a trend of concurrent resistance to macrolides, ß lactams, fluoroquinolones (FQs), tetracyclines, ansamycins, and aminoglycosides. Traces of sulphonamide-resistance were observed indicating the emergence of a currently non-prevalent S. Typhi resistance that could be a future threat. Hence new antibiotic regimen to treat azithromycin-resistant S. Typhi should be formulated by avoiding the risks of aggravating sulphonamide resistance. The identified ARGs in genomes from paediatric isolates will aid future studies to design anti-bacterial compounds against S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A.


Sujet(s)
Salmonella typhi , Fièvre typhoïde , Humains , Enfant , Salmonella typhi/génétique , Azithromycine/pharmacologie , Fièvre typhoïde/microbiologie , Salmonella paratyphi A/génétique , Antibactériens/pharmacologie , Sulfanilamide , Génomique , Tests de sensibilité microbienne , Résistance bactérienne aux médicaments/génétique
6.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 104-111, 2023 Jan 27.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283061

RÉSUMÉ

OBJECTIVES: Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important. Several endogenous biomarkers exist for estimating GFR, yet, they have limited accuracy, especially in the paediatric population. Proenkephalin A 119-159 (PENK) is a novel and promising GFR marker, but its relation with age in children remains unknown. Also, the value of PENK has never been validated against measured GFR (mGFR) in children when compared to traditional GFR markers including serum creatinine (SCr), SCr-based estimated GFR (eGFR) and cystatin C (cysC). METHODS: Critically ill children and term-born neonates were included in this single-centre, prospective study. Iohexol-based mGFR, SCr, and cysC were determined in each patient. eGFR was calculated using the bedside Schwartz equation, incorporating SCr and height. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the correlation between mGFR and PENK, SCr, cysC and eGFR. RESULTS: For 97 patients (56 children and 41 neonates), mGFR, SCr, cysC and PENK levels were available. PENK levels were higher in young children and decreased to adult PENK reference values around two years of age. PENK levels were highly correlated with mGFR (ρ=-0.88, p<0.001), and similar to mGFR-eGFR correlation (ρ=-0.87, p<0.001). For cysC and SCr the correlation with mGFR was lower (ρ=-0.77 and ρ=-0.46, respectively. Both p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The correlation of PENK with mGFR was as good as SCr-based eGFR-mGFR correlation. To determine the added value of PENK in paediatric clinical care and prior to implementation, PENK reference values are needed and the development and validation of a paediatric PENK-based eGFR equation is necessary.


Sujet(s)
Maladie grave , Enképhalines , Débit de filtration glomérulaire , Iohexol , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Humains , Nouveau-né , Marqueurs biologiques , Créatinine , Études prospectives , Enképhalines/sang
7.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114453, 2023 Jan 01.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183790

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: Influenza is an important cause of paediatric illness across the globe. However, information about the relationships between air pollution, meteorological variability and paediatric influenza A and B infections in tropical settings is limited. METHODS: We analysed all daily reports of influenza A and B infections in children <5 years old obtained from the largest specialist women and children's hospital in Singapore. In separate negative binomial regression models, we assessed the dependence of paediatric influenza A and B infections on air quality and meteorological variability, using multivariable fractional polynomial modelling and adjusting for time-varying confounders. RESULTS: Approximately 80% of 7329 laboratory-confirmed reports were caused by influenza A. We observed positive associations between sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposure and the subsequent risk of infection with both influenza types. We observed evidence of a harvesting effect of SO2 on Influenza A but not Influenza B. Ambient temperature was associated with a decline in influenza A reports (Relative Risk at lag 5 [RRlag5]: 0.949, 95% CI: 0.916-0.983). Rainfall was positively associated with a subsequent increase in influenza A reports (RRlag3: 1.044, 95% CI: 1.017-1.071). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration was positively associated with influenza B reports (RRlag5: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.005-1.025). There was a non-linear association between CO and influenza B reports. Absolute humidity increased the ensuing risk of influenza B (RRlag5: 4.799, 95% CI: 2.277-10.118). Influenza A and B infections displayed dissimilar but predictable within-year seasonal patterns. CONCLUSIONS: We observed different independent associations between air quality and meteorological variability with paediatric influenza A and B infections. Anticipated seasonal infection peaks and variations in air quality and meteorological parameters can inform the timing of community measures aimed at reducing influenza infection risk.


Sujet(s)
Polluants atmosphériques , Pollution de l'air , Infections à Herpesviridae , Grippe humaine , Humains , Femelle , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Polluants atmosphériques/analyse , Singapour/épidémiologie , Pollution de l'air/analyse , Dioxyde d'azote/analyse , Grippe humaine/épidémiologie
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30030, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184783

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Biopsies for diagnosis before chemotherapy is common in children with malignant solid tumors. Wound healing is delayed by chemotherapy; however, the ideal interval between biopsy and chemotherapy remains unknown. We aimed to summarize the relationship between chemotherapy timing and postoperative surgical complications. PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed patients with malignant solid tumors who underwent chemotherapy after surgical biopsy at our institution between January 2014 and August 2020. The primary outcomes were postoperative surgical complications (within 30 days) and the timing of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were analyzed. The types of tumors were neuroblastoma (n = 20), hepatoblastoma (n = 10), Ewing sarcoma (n = 5), germ cell tumor (n = 3), angiosarcoma (n = 1), clear cell sarcoma (n = 1), ganglioneuroblastoma (n = 1), rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 1). The operative procedures were thoracoscopy (n = 5), laparotomy (n = 17), laparoscopy (n = 14), and superficial (n = 7). The median time [range] to chemotherapy after biopsy was 4 [0-21] days. No surgical complications occurred before chemotherapy, and two (4.7%) patients experienced complications after chemotherapy. These included postoperative hemorrhage (grade 3) and surgical site infection (grade 1). Chemotherapy was initiated 1 and 6 days after biopsy, respectively, in these cases. Complications occurred 10 and 23 days after biopsy, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rate of postoperative surgical complications related to biopsy seems acceptable, even when chemotherapy was initiated in the early postoperative period. Early initiation of chemotherapy after biopsy may be a suitable option, particularly in children with bulky or symptomatic malignant solid tumors.


Sujet(s)
Hépatoblastome , Tumeurs du foie , Neuroblastome , Enfant , Humains , Études rétrospectives , Hépatoblastome/chirurgie , Biopsie , Complications postopératoires/étiologie , Neuroblastome/chirurgie , Tumeurs du foie/chirurgie
9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30037, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184787

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumor (DT) is rare and challenging, often affects the head and neck (HN) region in children, and its appropriate treatments are under-discussed. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of 125 I seed brachytherapy for pediatric DT in HN. PROCEDURE: Seven pediatric patients with a median age of three years who suffered from DT in HN treated with 125 I brachytherapy from January 2008 to June 2018 were included. Among these, five underwent sole brachytherapy and the others combined with surgery under prescription doses ranging from 10,000 to 12,000 cGy. The rate of local control (LC), complete response (CR), and partial response (PR) was calculated after evaluation by radiological and pathological means. Radiation-associated toxicities were also evaluated. RESULTS: The LC rate was 7/7 during the follow-up time ranging from 43 to 135 months and with a mean of 57 months. No recurrent lesion was found in the patients receiving surgery combined with brachytherapy. In patients treated with sole brachytherapy, the radiological PR rate and CR rate were 4/5 and 1/5, respectively. In those reaching radiological PR, 3/4 were pathological CR. Slight acute radiation-associated toxicities were observed in all patients, and no late or severe acute toxicity was observed. CONCLUSION: 125 I brachytherapy is effective and safe in the management of pediatric DT in HN as the sole modality or combined with surgery in the long term.


Sujet(s)
Curiethérapie , Fibromatose agressive , Tumeurs de la tête et du cou , Humains , Enfant , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Curiethérapie/effets indésirables , Fibromatose agressive/radiothérapie , Études rétrospectives , Tumeurs de la tête et du cou/radiothérapie , Récidive tumorale locale/étiologie
10.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114441, 2023 Jan 01.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191620

RÉSUMÉ

Exposure to the air pollutant particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risks of respiratory diseases and enhancement of airway inflammation in children. In the context of large scale air pollution studies, it can be challenging to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as indicator of lung inflammation. Urinary CC16 (U-CC16) is a potential biomarker of increased lung permeability and toxicity, increasing following short-term PM2.5 exposure. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CC16 G38A (rs3741240) affects CC16 levels and respiratory health. Our study aimed at assessing the use of U-CC16 (incl. CC16 G38A from saliva) as potential alternative for FeNO by investigating their mutual correlation in children exposed to PM. Samples from a small-scale study conducted in 42 children from urban (n = 19) and rural (n = 23) schools examined at two time points, were analysed. When considering recent (lag1) low level exposure to PM2.5 as air pollution measurement, we found that U-CC16 was positively associated with FeNO (ß = 0.23; 95% CI [-0.01; 0.47]; p = 0.06) in an adjusted analysis using a linear mixed effects model. Further, we observed a positive association between PM2.5 and FeNO (ß = 0.56; 95% CI [0.02; 1.09]; p = 0.04) and higher FeNO in urban school children as compared to rural school children (ß = 0.72; 95% CI [0.12; 1.31]; p = 0.02). Although more investigations are needed, our results suggest that inflammatory responses evidenced by increased FeNO are accompanied by potential increased lung epithelium permeability and injury, evidenced by increased U-CC16. In future large scale studies, where FeNO measurement is less feasible, the integrated analysis of U-CC16 and CC16 G38A, using noninvasive samples, might be a suitable alternative to assess the impact of air pollution exposure on the respiratory health of children, which is critical for policy development at population level.


Sujet(s)
Polluants atmosphériques , Pollution de l'air , Enfant , Humains , , Monoxyde d'azote/analyse , Pollution de l'air/effets indésirables , Pollution de l'air/analyse , Matière particulaire/analyse , Polluants atmosphériques/toxicité , Polluants atmosphériques/analyse , Exposition environnementale/analyse
11.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP262-NP287, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337217

RÉSUMÉ

Current literature suggests that food insecurity increases child maltreatment risk. Yet, existing evidence is limited to individual-level associations among low-income, high-risk populations based on local, mostly urban data. This study aims to generalize prior findings to community-level associations in general populations, using national data including all urban-rural areas. We examined, for the first time, if food insecurity rates increase child maltreatment report (CMR) rates at the county level after controlling for potential confounders. We examined both within-community longitudinal changes (i.e., within-effects) and inter-community differences (i.e., between-effects) of food insecurity rates and their associations with CMR rates. We also examined differences by age, sex, race/ethnicity, maltreatment type, and urbanicity. We constructed longitudinal county-level data by linking multiple national databases, including all substantiated and unsubstantiated CMR records, the Map the Meal Gap's community food insecurity estimates, and Census data. The data covered over 96% of U.S. counties from 2009 to 2018. For analysis, we used within-between random effects models. Regarding between-effects, we found that in inter-community comparisons, higher food insecurity rates were significantly associated with increased CMR rates. This association was consistent by age, sex, maltreatment type, and urbanicity. For within-effects, we found that the association between longitudinal changes of food insecurity rates and CMR rates significantly differed by urbanicity. Specifically, longitudinal increases of food insecurity rates significantly increased CMR rates among large urban counties, but not among small urban and rural counties. Study findings highlight the importance of conducting further research to better understand the mechanisms through which food insecurity impact child maltreatment at both individual and community levels. Our community-level findings from general populations especially have significant implications for community-based programs and large-scale policies to achieve population-level impact on child well-being.


Sujet(s)
Maltraitance des enfants , Enfant , Humains , Insécurité alimentaire , Pauvreté , Déclaration obligatoire , Population rurale
12.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP156-NP182, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341369

RÉSUMÉ

Domestic violence, broadly defined, includes violence among children, parents, siblings, intimate partners, and other relatives. Help-seeking behaviors for domestic violence, especially among sexual minority (gay, lesbian, bisexual, and others who are not heterosexual) victims, is not well understood. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey, the current study fills a gap in the literature regarding the relationship between sexual orientation and four types of formal help-seeking among victims of violence perpetrated by a relative or an intimate partner: reporting to the police, seeking psychological care, contacting a victim services agency, and seeking medical assistance. This study additionally examined whether individual and incident level variables are related to formal domestic violence help-seeking among sexual minority victims. Results indicate that sexual orientation was significantly related to seeking psychological care and help from a victim services agency, and the relationship between individual and incident level characteristics varies by type of help-seeking among victims of domestic violence. These results suggest that sexual minority victims' decisions to access services is likely influenced by the availability of services and victims' perceptions of how they would be treated within the various systems. Future research should continue to examine the help-seeking process among sexual minority victims of domestic violence in order to develop appropriate policy responses and provide services needed by this population.


Sujet(s)
Victimes de crimes , Violence domestique , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Enfant , Femelle , Humains , Mâle , Violence domestique/psychologie , Victimes de crimes/psychologie , Comportement sexuel , Partenaire sexuel , Police
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP539-NP564, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343302

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Incest is a globally prevalent phenomenon and is defined as sexual relations between closely related family members. Despite being a criminal offense irrespective to the gender and age incest is a prevalent issue in Nepal. Incest survivors are sheltered in safe homes for specific periods and reintegrated into their families following their healing. This research aims to explore the challenges and issues involved in the reintegration of incest survivors and investigate how the interconnected perceptions of families and individuals relate to the incest survivors' successful reintegration. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in three districts of Nepal. Fourteen incest survivors, five service providers from safe homes, and 22 community members were purposefully and theoretically selected. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to collect the study data, which were subsequently coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS: The results indicate the importance of the reintegration of incest survivors, as staying in a safe home may not offer a long-term solution for these individuals. However, reintegration is challenging without acceptance and support from the survivors' families and communities, the survivors' readiness to reintegrate, and agreement from the survivors' safe homes. Factors found to influence the unsuccessful reintegration of survivors included family fragmentation, socio-economic status, family resistance, the survivor-perpetrator relationship, survivors' interests, fears, and the possibility of repeated incidents, harmful social norms and cultural practices, community intervention, and negative perceptions. CONCLUSION: This study found that factors associated with impeding the reintegration of incest survivors are found in survivors, their families, and their communities. Creating harmonious family systems, providing education on gender equality, empowering women to fight against all sorts of abuse, and governmental assurances on the implementation of legal aid, human rights, ratified conventions on child rights and women's rights may help prevention of incest, and address the reintegration challenges of incest victims.


Sujet(s)
Violence sexuelle chez l'enfant , Inceste , Enfant , Femelle , Humains , Népal , Survivants , Recherche qualitative
14.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP698-NP725, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343296

RÉSUMÉ

Exposure to community violence (ECV) poses a prevalent threat to the health and development of adolescents. Research indicates those who have more Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are at higher risk for ECV, which further exacerbates risk of negative mental and physical health impacts. Additionally, those with more ACEs are more likely to exhibit conduct problems, which has also been linked to risk for ECV. Despite the prevalence and impact of ECV, there is limited longitudinal research on the risk factors that precede this exposure as well as family-level factors that may prevent it. The current study examined conduct problems as a potential mediator between ACEs and future indirect (i.e. witnessing) ECV in adolescents. Additionally, this study included caregiver factors, such as caregiver knowledge about their adolescent, caregiver involvement, and caregiver-adolescent relationship quality as potential protective moderators. Participants included (N = 1137) caregiver-adolescent dyads identified as at-risk for child maltreatment prior to child's age four for inclusion in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Conduct problems at age 14 mediated the relationship between ACEs from ages 0-12 and indirect ECV at age 16 (standardized indirect effect = .03, p = .005). Caregiver knowledge moderated the indirect relationship (b = -.40, p = .030), and caregiver involvement moderated the direct relationship between ACEs and indirect ECV (b = -.03, p = .033). Findings expand our knowledge about the longitudinal pathways that increase risk of violence exposure over the course of adolescent development, as well as the protective benefits caregivers can offer to disrupt these pathways and reduce risk of future traumatization. Implications are discussed for interventions that aim to address and prevent trauma and adverse outcomes among youth exposed to child maltreatment, household dysfunction, and community violence.


Sujet(s)
Expériences défavorables de l'enfance , Maltraitance des enfants , Exposition à la violence , Adolescent , Enfant , Humains , Nouveau-né , Nourrisson , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Aidants , Violence
15.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP819-NP846, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343305

RÉSUMÉ

Although most parental discipline research examines the effects of discipline in children and adolescents, recent research has demonstrated that emerging adults continue to receive parental discipline. Importantly, a newly validated instrument for assessing discipline specifically during emerging adulthood has been created. Scales from this instrument include maternal and paternal approval, disappointment, and abuse, and these scales were associated with other parenting behaviors and psychological outcomes during emerging adulthood. However, a person-centered approach has not been conducted with this instrument. Given that discipline occurs at an idiographic level and that group norms inform such behaviors, a person-centered approach would identify highly informative emerging adult profiles based on patterns of discipline they receive from their parents. Thus, the current study utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) of 1110 participants attending a Southern United States university to identify emerging adult discipline profiles. These groups were then associated with parental and emerging adult psychological problems to gain an understanding of how these factors relate to different patterns of discipline across gender. Results best supported four profiles labeled as approving, distant, disappointed, and abusive. These groups reported increasingly higher parental and personal psychological problems across approving, distant, disappointed, and abusive profiles. Gender moderated some of these effects. Implications and future directions are discussed.


Sujet(s)
Maltraitance des enfants , Parents , Adulte , Adolescent , Mâle , Enfant , Humains , Parents/psychologie , Pratiques éducatives parentales/psychologie , Relations parent-enfant , Maltraitance des enfants/psychologie , Pères
16.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP183-NP211, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383473

RÉSUMÉ

Co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse occur at staggering levels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), yet little is known about the relationship between these forms of violence and a feminst-grounded conceptualization of family functioning nor how best to programmatically address these multiple forms of violence in the home. Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from 203 adult couple dyads participating in a randomized controlled trial was undertaken to (1) understand the correlation of family functioning and violence in the home in North Kivu, DRC; (2) unpack potential shared correlates of violence in the home and family functioning, such as attitudes and behaviors; and (3) describe programmatic implications for delivering violence prevention programming that seeks to address multiple forms of violence in the home. Findings suggest over half of all families reported experiencing IPV against women or use of child abuse by any caregiver. Moderate levels of family functioning were also reported, although women reported lower levels. In adjusted models, a one-point change in family functioning score was associated with a 0.12 reduction in odds of co-occurring experience of IPV and use of child abuse for women, and a 0.03 reduction in odds of co-occurring perpetration for men. A focus on improving family functioning as a primary outcome, alongside explicit targeting of harmful gender norms and skills-based approaches, may be a promising avenue to integrate approaches from different violence prevention fields while maintaining a strong dedication to intersectional feminist-grounded approaches that allows for separate, but at times combined, approaches to reducing IPV and child abuse in the home.


Sujet(s)
Maltraitance des enfants , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Adulte , Enfant , Mâle , Femelle , Humains , République démocratique du Congo , Études transversales , Violence envers le partenaire intime/prévention et contrôle , Maltraitance des enfants/prévention et contrôle , Violence
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP391-NP417, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392689

RÉSUMÉ

The context of suspected maltreatment cases is likely to influence the decision of whether or not to make a formal report. Across one pilot study (N = 368) and two experiments (Exp. 1 N = 444; Exp. 2 N =416), undergraduate students and online community participants reported their anticipated actions and beliefs when confronted with evidence of child maltreatment. Participants reviewed case dossiers built from real-world child neglect cases in which increasing levels of evidence were presented and the consequences of reporting, or not reporting, the maltreatment were made salient to the adult or child. The experiments revealed a clear difficulty in deciding whether or not to report suspected maltreatment. Highlighting the impact on either the child or the adult by describing potential consequences moved participants either closer to (child-salient) or farther from (adult-salient) a formal report. Participants were also sensitive to the amount of evidence to support a suspicion of abuse, which influenced the likelihood of a formal report. This work suggests that increasing the salience of maltreatment consequences to child victims may increase the likelihood that suspected maltreatment will be reported.


Sujet(s)
Maltraitance des enfants , Déclaration obligatoire , Adulte , Enfant , Humains , Projets pilotes
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

RÉSUMÉ

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Sujet(s)
Humains , Enfant , Ration calorique , Fonction exécutive , Sodium , Brésil , Études transversales
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RÉSUMÉ

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Sujet(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Adolescent , Adulte , Jeune adulte , Aberrations des chromosomes , Tumeurs hématologiques/génétique , Tumeurs hématologiques/épidémiologie , Pakistan/épidémiologie , Études transversales , Caryotypage
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

RÉSUMÉ

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Sujet(s)
Humains , Enfant d'âge préscolaire , Enfant , Sujet âgé , Grenadier , Staphylococcus aureus , Extraits de plantes/pharmacologie , Chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance , Escherichia coli , Anti-infectieux
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