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1.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673904

RÉSUMÉ

Various works of research into violence in relationships between young couples refer to a lack of perception of some behavior patterns such as abuse. This means that the relationship has the potential risk of developing into one of victimization should it last into adulthood. Although it has been shown that this phenomenon may occur in any sector of the population, the interest of our study rests upon determining the prevalence of the perception of violent behavior patterns in relationships between adolescent and young adult couples. We also aim to analyze the differences obtained with respect to the characteristics of the aggressors in the young Afro-Colombian population of Quibdó, Colombia. The participants in the study consisted of 540 young Afro-Colombians of both sexes between 15 and 27 years of age. The instrument used was the reduced version of the Dating Violence Questionnaire. The results show a high level of victimization through violent behavior on the part of the partner, in great measure exercised by generalist aggressors. However, a small proportion could be perceived as abuse. The implications and possible means of intervention are discussed.


Sujet(s)
Victimes de crimes , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Mâle , Femelle , Adolescent , Humains , Colombie/épidémiologie , Violence
2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 123, 2023 Jan 18.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653799

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Increased numbers of domestic abuse cases were reported at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many people experiencing abuse faced barriers to seeking support with service closures affecting the sector. Available evidence suggests women are overrepresented in the reported cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) and we aimed to learn more about how their lives were impacted by social distancing restrictions. METHODS: We conducted an online qualitative interview study, using reflexive thematic analysis. Interviews were conducted between April 2021 and March 2022. 18 women in the UK with past experiences of IPV provided informed consent and participated in this study. RESULTS: During the analysis, we identified five themes relating to the impact of lockdown restrictions on participants' lives, including: (1) Lockdown meant being confined to a place where abuse was escalating, (2) Barriers to accessing support, including "cancelled" services and missed opportunities to intervene during interactions in lockdown with frontline workers. (3) Increased feelings of fear, isolation, and loss of control, particularly during the early stages of the pandemic from the combination of abuse and pandemic-related changes to daily life. (4) Some forms of support were more accessible during the pandemic, such as provision of online psychological support and social groups. Participants also accessed new forms of support for the first time during the pandemic, in some cases sparked by posts and content on social media about abuse awareness. (5) For some, psychosocial wellbeing transformed during the pandemic, with several participants using the word "freedom" when reflecting on their experience of simultaneously escaping abuse and living through the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we explored the views of female survivors of IPV in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results highlight the importance of combined public awareness campaigns and community intervention points for victims to safely seek help during social distancing restrictions. Having the time and space to reflect on healing after escaping abuse was described by women in our study as a benefit from their lives in lockdown, which is a factor that could be incorporated into future initiatives developed to support people subjected to violence and abuse.


Sujet(s)
, Violence envers le partenaire intime , Humains , Femelle , /épidémiologie , Pandémies , , Contrôle des maladies transmissibles , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Survivants/psychologie , Royaume-Uni/épidémiologie
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 44, 2023 Jan 19.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658549

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Peripartum women are vulnerable to experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Interactions with health practitioners during maternity care provide a unique opportunity to detect and respond to women who are experiencing IPV. The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of IPV screening at an Australian maternity service. METHODS: Qualitative methodology was used in this cross-sectional study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with IPV who attended an Australian maternity service. Thematic analysis was used to identify codes and themes. RESULTS: The nine women expressed three major themes, and six sub-themes, surrounding clinician approaches (communication and support, asking about IPV, and following disclosure), system considerations (fear of child safety involvement, continuity of care, and environmental considerations), and education. All participants supported screening and highlighted beneficial or detrimental approaches to screening and care, and recommendations for improvement. CONCLUSION: This research points to the benefit of trauma-informed frameworks in hospitals to support women experiencing IPV.


Sujet(s)
Violence domestique , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Services de santé maternelle , Enfant , Femelle , Grossesse , Humains , Études transversales , Australie , Violence domestique/prévention et contrôle , Parturition , Violence envers le partenaire intime/prévention et contrôle
4.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674295

RÉSUMÉ

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem resulting in a significant impediment to equal participation, quality of life, and personal, social, and economic development. At present, a variety of screening instruments for IPV have emerged in developed countries, and some of them have been adapted to the language and culture of different countries, such as Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream (HITS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). The selection of the most appropriate IPV screening instrument for the target population and context from among those instruments has become difficult for researchers when intending to start screening. Therefore, a systemic review of IPV screening instruments is needed. This protocol describes a COSMIN-based systematic review of the measurement properties of these instruments. The aims of the systematic review are to (1) evaluate the methodological quality of studies on the measurement properties including the validity, reliability, and internal consistency of these IPV screening instruments, and (2) provide suggestions for relevant researchers in their local context for using the IPV screening instruments.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Dépistage de masse , Besoins et demandes de services de santé , Dépistage de masse/instrumentation , Qualité de vie , Reproductibilité des résultats , Revues systématiques comme sujet
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(2): 103, 2023 Jan 09.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622425

RÉSUMÉ

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to measure the frequency and types of IPV among patients with cancer and evaluate risk factors. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, conducted between January and April 2022, including 141 patients treated with cancer regardless of gender, site, or stage. We developed the study questionnaire by adapting items from the "WHO multi-country questionnaire on violence against women" and "The Women's Experiences with Battering Scale." Odds ratio (OR) and spearman tests were performed to assess the impact of several factors associated with the reported IPV. RESULTS: Median age was 50 years old, 38.3% were male cancer patients. IPV prevalence was 24.8%, we observed 5 cases of torture (3%). The most common forms of violence were placing severe restriction on certain types of food and clothing in 21%, psychological violence in 20%, exposing intimate information about the patient health status to others in 17%, ignoration in 13.5%, putting restrictions on visiting friends or families in 9.2%, verbal assault in 9.2%, physical violence in 7.9%, and 7.1% racist conducts. Financial violence was rare in 4.3%. There was no difference in the incidence of IPV between man and women. We observed a significant correlation between IPV prevalence and disease stage (19.1% M0 vs 34.6% M1, p=0.04, OR=2.2 [1-4.8]), patient's educational level (48.5% vs 17.6%, p=0.01, OR= 4.4 [1.8-10.2]), and being under ongoing cancer therapy (11.4% vs 30.9%, p=0.013, OR=3.4 [1.2-9.7]) CONCLUSION: Patients were shown to be victims of several forms of IPV regardless of gender.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Tumeurs , Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Adulte d'âge moyen , Études transversales , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Facteurs de risque , Enquêtes et questionnaires , Partenaire sexuel/psychologie , Tumeurs/épidémiologie , Prévalence
6.
J Community Health Nurs ; 40(1): 1-13, 2023.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602774

RÉSUMÉ

PURPOSE: This research was conducted to determine the exposure of pregnant women to intimate partner violence (IPV) during the Covid-19 pandemic and its influencing factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study included 456 pregnant women. The "Pregnant Information Form" and "Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy Questionnaire" were used to collect data. FINDINGS: Exposure frequency to IPV during the pandemic and curfews were 44.1% and 43.9%, respectively. A significant relationship was found between exposure to IPV and the partner having wage-earning employment, marital relationship during Covid-19, the effect of the pandemic on spousal relationships, and gravida. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IPV in pregnant women during and after the pandemic did not change significantly from IPV in pregnant women before the pandemic. CLINICAL EVIDENCE: To prevent and reduce partner violence during pregnancy, there is a need to evaluate IPV among women who apply for routine pregnancy examinations.


Sujet(s)
, Violence envers le partenaire intime , Femelle , Grossesse , Humains , Femmes enceintes , Pandémies , Études transversales , Turquie/épidémiologie , /épidémiologie , Facteurs de risque , Prévalence
7.
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 5, 2023 Jan 02.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593505

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Reproductive coercion and abuse (RCA) is a form of intimate partner violence (IPV) in which people with the capacity for pregnancy experience coercive behaviors that threaten their reproductive autonomy. Behaviors that constitute RCA include contraceptive control/sabotage, pregnancy pressure, and controlling the outcome of a pregnancy. Several areas of RCA study have emerged: associations with IPV, health outcomes resulting from RCA, and demographic and contextual factors associated with experiencing RCA. Current research in these areas is summarized and placed in a global context, including sexual and gender minority groups, use of RCA (exploring perpetration), RCA interventions, RCA in women with disabilities, and the question of whether people assigned male at birth can be RCA victims. CONCLUSION: Areas for future exploration include evolving interpretations of pregnancy intention in the setting of fewer options for abortion, RCA in people with disabilities and multiple levels of marginalization, including sexual and gender minorities; intersections between RCA and economic abuse in the context of efforts at economic justice; and community-centered approaches to intervention and prevention.


Sujet(s)
Avortement provoqué , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Grossesse , Nouveau-né , Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Coercition , Reproduction , Comportement sexuel , Violence envers le partenaire intime/prévention et contrôle , Partenaire sexuel
8.
An. psicol ; 39(1): 127-136, Ene-Abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article de Anglais | IBECS | ID: ibc-213845

RÉSUMÉ

La relación existente entre los contextos de socialización online-offline durante la adolescencia se ha convertido en un tema de investigación relevante en los últimos años, especialmente en el ámbito de la violencia de pareja. Para entender mejor este vínculo, el presente estudio analiza la relación entre la victmización en la violencia de pareja, el uso problemático de las redes sociales virtuales, el sentimiento de soledad y el clima familiar, considerando el género de los adolescentes. Participaron 1020 adolescentes procedentes de Andalucía (49% chicos, M = 16.12; DT = .99). Se realizó un análisis por conglomerados que permitió establecer dos grupos (victimizados y no victimizados), un análisis multivariado de la varianza (2x2 MANOVA) utilizando sexo y violencia de pareja como variables independientes y análisis univariados de varianza para explorer las relaciones significativas detectadas. En los resultados se observó que los/las adolescentes víctimas de violencia de pareja obtuvieron puntuaciones más elevadas que las no víctimas en la adicción a las redes sociales virtuales, sentimiento de soledad y conflicto familiar, y puntuaciones más bajas en cohesión familiar. Las chicas victimizadas mostraron en general puntuaciones más bajas que los chicos victimizados. Los resultados obtenidos aportan información relevante y útil para la prevención de la violencia de pareja y el fomento de relaciones saludables en las primeras relaciones amorosas. Además, señalan la importancia de considerar el contexto online en la investigación acerca de la violencia en la adolescencia.(AU)


The relationship between online-offline socialization contexts during adolescence has become a relevant research topic in recent years, especially in the field of intimate partner violence. To better understand this association, the present study analyzes the relationship between dating violence (DV) victimization and the problematic social networking sites use (PSNSU), the feeling of loneliness, and the family climate, taking into account the adolescents' gender. 1020 adolescents from Andalusia participated (49% boys, M = 16.12, SD = .99). A cluster analysis, which established two groups (victimized and non-victimized), multivariate analysis of variance (2x2 MANOVA) using sex and DV as independent variables, and univariate analysis of variance to explore the significant relationships detected, were performed. The results showed that adolescent victims of DV obtained higher scores than non-victims in PSNSU, feelings of loneliness, and family conflict, and lower scores in family cohesion. Victimized girls generally showed lower scores than victimized boys. The results obtained provide relevant and useful information for the prevention of DV and the promotion of healthy relationships in early dating relationships. In addition, they point out the importance of considering the online context in research on violence in adolescence.(AU)


Sujet(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Adolescent , Violence sexiste , Relations familiales , Réseautage social , Solitude , Victimes de crimes , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Psychologie , Psychologie clinique , Psychologie sociale
9.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 33(1): 48-60, Ene-Feb. 2023. tab
Article de Espagnol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214380

RÉSUMÉ

Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de la violencia en el noviazgo (VN) y su relación con los estados de depresión, ansiedad y estrés en jóvenes universitarios andaluces. Método Estudio cuantitativo descriptivo transversal en 8 universidades públicas de Andalucía. La recogida de datos se realizó de septiembre a noviembre de 2020 a través de un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía variables sociodemográficas y variables relacionadas con la VN, depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Para el análisis de los datos se realizó un descriptivo y pruebas no paramétricas a través de la U de Mann-Whitney y rho de Spearman para la relación entre variables. Resultados: Participaron 1.091 jóvenes universitarios andaluces. La VN más prevalente fue la psicológica, incluyendo conductas relacionadas con el ciberacoso, control-vigilancia y psicoemocional (68,42-42,90%), seguida de la sexual (16,68-3,57%) y por último la física (5,60-1,92%). Se mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del sexo y la VN, donde las chicas puntuaron más alto en ser víctimas de conductas relacionadas con el ciberacoso, control-vigilancia y sexual, y los chicos en perpetrar violencia de tipo psicoemocional, física y sexual. Todos los tipos de VN evidenciaron correlaciones significativas y positivas con la depresión, la ansiedad y el estrés, menos la VN física perpetrada con el estrés. Conclusiones: La alta prevalencia de VN y su relación con la salud mental muestran la importancia de realizar investigaciones en esta línea en el ámbito educativo, ya que es un espacio garante de relaciones igualitarias y promotor de la salud.(AU)


Aim: To analyze the prevalence of dating violence (DV) and its relationship with states of depression, anxiety, and stress in young Andalusian university students. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study in 8 public universities in Andalusia. Data collection was carried out from September to November 2020 through a self-administered questionnaire that included sociodemographic variables and variables related to DV, depression, anxiety, and stress. For the analysis of the data, descriptive and nonparametric tests were performed through the U Mann–Whitney and Spearman rho for the relationship between variables. Results: Thousand ninety-one young university students from Andalusia were participated. The most prevalent DV was psychological, including behaviors related to cyberbullying, control-surveillance and psychoemotional (68.42-42.90%), followed by sexual (16.68-3.57%) and finally physical (5.60-1.92%). Statistically significant differences were shown according to sex and DV, where girls scored higher in being victims of behaviors related to cyberbullying, control-surveillance and sexual, and boys in perpetrating psycho-emotional, physical and sexual violence. All types of DV showed significant and positive correlations with depression, anxiety, and stress, except physical DV perpetrated with stress. Conclusions: The high prevalence of DV and its relationship with mental health show the importance of conducting research on this line in the educational field, since it is a space that guarantees egalitarian relationships and promotes health.(AU)


Sujet(s)
Humains , Mâle , Femelle , Anxiété , Dépression , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Violence sexiste , Étudiants , Universités , Stress psychologique , Jeune adulte , Espagne
10.
Article de Anglais | IBECS | ID: ibc-214647

RÉSUMÉ

Objective: Even though previous research has identified the negative impact of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, less is known regarding the moderator factors that explain this association. In this study, we first aimed to assess whether there would be differences in terms of specific neuropsychological variables (e.g., IQ, working memory, executive functioning, and emotion decoding) between different groups of IPV perpetrators, affected or not by ADHD, and also compared with non-violent men (without ADHD). Second, we evaluated differences in dropout and recidivism among the subgroups of IPV perpetrators. Third, we assessed whether ADHD interacts with neuropsychological functioning to explain treatment compliance (dropout) and official recidivism among IPV perpetrators. Method: We administered a set of neuropsychological tests and self-reports to a group of IPV perpetrators with ADHD (n = 161), without ADHD (n = 163), and non-violent men (n = 103). Data on IPV perpetrators’ treatment compliance and official recidivism were collected after treatment. Results: Our results indicated that all the groups of IPV perpetrators presented worse performance in all cognitive domains than controls. Furthermore, ADHD IPV perpetrators also showed worse performance in all cognitive domains than IPV perpetrators without ADHD, except for emotion decoding abilities. Most importantly, the combined subtype of ADHD IPV perpetrators presented the highest rate of dropout and official recidivism. Lastly, ADHD diagnosis and neuropsychological impairments separately offered a considerable explanation of treatment compliance and recidivism but their combination did not increase the amount of explained variance. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need to implement good screening processes for correctly diagnosing IPV perpetrators and, consequently, designing more effective intervention programs. (AU)


Objetivo: Existen múltiples investigaciones que han identificado el impacto negativo del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) en la perpetración de la violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja. Sin embargo, existen menos evidencias sobre los factores moderadores que explicarían la asociación entre dichas variables. Por lo tanto, el primer objetivo de este estudio ha sido valorar si existen diferencias en variables neuropsicológicas específicas (p. ej., cociente intelectual, memoria de trabajo, funcionamiento ejecutivo y decodificación de las emociones) entre diferentes grupos de hombres que ejercen violencia contra la mujer en las relaciones de pareja (o maltratadores), afectados o no por el TDAH, y también en comparación con hombres no violentos (sin TDAH). En segundo lugar, evaluamos las diferencias en el abandono prematuro de la intervención y la reincidencia entre los subgrupos de maltratadores. En tercer lugar, calculamos si el TDAH interactuaba con el funcionamiento neuropsicológico para explicar el abandono prematuro de la intervención y la reincidencia oficial en maltratadores. Método: Administramos un conjunto de pruebas neuropsicológicas y autoinformes a un grupo de maltratadores con TDAH (n = 161), sin TDAH (n = 163) y hombres no violentos (n = 103). Tras finalizar el tratamiento se recopilaron datos sobre el cumplimiento del tratamiento de los maltratadores y la reincidencia oficial. (AU)


Sujet(s)
Humains , Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Neuropsychologie , Récidivisme
11.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613155

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: The intersections between intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) have received growing attention from the research community. However, there is limited research examining the risk factors for CAN among children of battered women who have experienced severe IPV and seek refuge in shelters. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we examined the co-occurrence of IPV and CAN and the risk factors for CAN in a sample of battered women. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We recruited 260 battered women who were staying in women's shelters in Hong Kong. METHODS: We analyzed the data collected from the risk assessment reports of battered women and focused on IPV against women, CAN, and risk assessment. RESULTS: Nearly half of the battered women had reported both IPV against themselves and CAN against their children. These women were, in general, younger, unemployed, and had been living in Hong Kong for less than seven years as new immigrants. Other risk factors for CAN in violent families included women's conflicts with their partner and abusers with higher levels of stress and approval of violence. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study of risk factors for the co-occurrence of IPV and CAN advances our understanding of the causes of violence against women and children in families with violence. Our findings suggest that additional integrated services should be offered to both battered women and their children during their stay in shelters and after shelter departure. Addressing IPV and CAN and reducing adverse consequences needs greater collaboration among the various stakeholders across the social services, health, educational, and legal sectors.


Sujet(s)
Femmes victimes de violence , Maltraitance des enfants , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Humains , Femelle , Enfant , Violence , Appréciation des risques
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 114, 2023.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629705

RÉSUMÉ

OBJETIVE: To estimate the prevalence of psychological, physical, and sexual violence perpetrated against women by their intimate partner (IP) in Quilombola communities located in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: The data is from a population-based cross-sectional study of Quilombola women conducted from 2017 to 2018. In-person interviews collected information on women's sociodemographic characteristics, behaviors, and their experience of violence perpetrated by their IP. The analysis used chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: 219 women (94.8% of the invited ones) agreed to participate in the study. 59.0% (95%CI: 5.25-65.5) reported psychological violence; 41% (95%CI: 34.5-47.5) physical violence; and 8.2% (95%CI: 4.6-11.8) sexual violence. Psychological violence was associated with having three or more sexual partners in life, when compared to those who had up to two partners (p = 0,009), and previous violence involving other people outside of family increased the chance of suffering psychological violence by an IP more than nine times (p ≤ 0.001). Regarding physical violence, the association with use of barrier contraception (p = 0.031) and having a partner with other sexual partners (p = 0.024) were protective factors for IP violence. Having 3 or more sexual partners in the last 12 months (p = 0.006), partner using illicit drugs (p = 0,006), and alcoholism in the family (p = 0,001), increased the chance of suffer physical violence by the partner. Sexual violence perpetrated by the IP was associated with miscarriage (p = 0.016), partner using drugs (p = 0.020), and gynecological symptoms (p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the high frequency of intimate partner violence in Quilombola women and highlight the importance of reducing social and race inequities for interrupting the culture of violence against women.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Population rurale , Humains , Femelle , Brésil/épidémiologie , Études transversales , Facteurs de risque , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Partenaire sexuel , Prévalence
13.
J Health Econ ; 87: 102722, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603362

RÉSUMÉ

Exploiting high-frequency data from the Italian anti-violence helpline, police reports of domestic abuse and maltreatments, and a unique geolocalized dataset on killings of women, we show that the news coverage of a femicide triggers an increase in help-seeking behavior. The effect is detectable in the period following the news and in the province where the femicide has occurred. Additionally, help-seeking increases more when the general interest and news coverage are higher. These findings are consistent with a model in which femicide news increase expectations about future intimate partner violence in case no action is taken. Our results imply that recurrent information campaigns and public discussion can foster help-seeking from survivors of gender-based violence.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Violence conjugale , Humains , Femelle , Homicide , Violence , Italie
15.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674347

RÉSUMÉ

Same-sex intimate partner violence (SSIPV) is a serious health concern and may manifest in various forms. Nevertheless, controlling behaviors of isolation are still poorly investigated. Due to their marginalized status, sexual minorities can face SSIPV-specific risk factors, such as internalized homonegativity, as well as general psychological stress factors, such as emotion dysregulation. While the literature is growing, there is still a lack of understanding of the complex pathways linking sexual minorities and minority stress to IPV and isolating controlling behavior. To fill this gap, we explored the relation between internalized homonegativity and controlling behaviors of isolation, assessing the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. In total, 120 gay and lesbian people (mean age = 33.8, SD = 11.5) involved in a same-sex relationship participated in the study. Results showed a direct and positive association between internalized homonegativity and difficulties in emotion regulation and a direct and positive association between emotion dysregulation and controlling behaviors of isolation; the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between internalized homonegativity and isolating controlling behaviors was supported as well. Emerging results can provide valuable information at the clinical level, although further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.


Sujet(s)
Homosexualité féminine , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Minorités sexuelles , Femelle , Humains , Adulte , Homosexualité féminine/psychologie , Comportement sexuel/psychologie , Partenaire sexuel/psychologie , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Émotions
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 318: 115637, 2023 Feb.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628880

RÉSUMÉ

For women in South Africa, engaging in exchange sex, including transactional sex (TS), or sex work (SW), is associated with several shared poor health outcomes; yet the practices themselves differ in meaningful ways. SW is a form of commodity exchange, while TS is grounded in gendered relationship expectations of male provision and aspects of emotional intimacy. Additionally, exchange sex types could be imagined on a "continuum of instrumentality" from relationships that do not include material support; to those characterized, but not driven by support; to those primarily motivated by material support. We use cross-sectional data from 644 women ages 18-30 enrolled in a trial addressing intimate partner violence in urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to assess whether these conceptualizations may also map onto different types or levels of risk. Using self-reports, we developed four exchange sex relationship categories corresponding to a continuum of instrumentality: no exchange-based relationship; TS with a main partner only; TS with a casual partner; and SW. Using tests of association and adjusted logistic regression models, we compared socio-economic and behavioural risk factors, and health outcomes across reported forms of exchange sex. We find little difference between women who report no exchange sex and those who report TS only with a main partner. By contrast, as compared to women not in exchange sex, women in casual TS and SW were poorer, and significantly more likely to report problematic alcohol use, past drug use, prior non-partner sexual violence, and PTSD; with aOR higher for women in SW for many outcomes. When comparing casual TS to SW, we find women in SW held more gender equitable attitudes and were more likely to report modern contraceptive use. We discuss the implications for distinguishing between TS and SW, and use of the continuum of instrumentality conceptualization for research and programming.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Adolescent , Adulte , Femelle , Humains , Mâle , Jeune adulte , Études transversales , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Facteurs de risque , Comportement sexuel , République d'Afrique du Sud/épidémiologie , Essais cliniques comme sujet
17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 236(1): 198-207, 2023 Jan 01.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519917

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant cause of injury, and in pregnant patients (PIPV) poses a risk to both mother and fetus. Characteristics and outcomes for PIPV patients have not been well described. We hypothesize that PIPV patients have higher admission rates and mortality than non-IPV pregnant trauma (PT) patients and nonpregnant female IPV patients of childbearing age. We also hypothesize differences exist between PIPV and PT patient injury patterns, allowing for targeted IPV screening. STUDY DESIGN: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database was queried from 2010 to 2014 to identify IPV in adult women patients by injury code E967.3. Patients were compared in 2 ways, PIPV vs PT and PIPV vs nonpregnant female IPV patients. Demographics, injury mechanisms, and National Trauma Data Standard injury diagnoses were surveyed. Primary outcomes were hospital admissions and mortality. Logistic regression was used to estimate risk factors of the outcomes of hospitalization and IPV victimization in pregnant injured patients. RESULTS: There were 556 PIPV patients, 73,970 PT patients, and 56,543 nonpregnant female IPV patients. When comparing PIPV to PT, more PIPV patients had Medicaid coverage or were self-pay. Suffocation, head injuries, face/neck/scalp contusions, multiple contusions, and abrasions/friction burns were more prevalent in PIPV patients. Mortality and hospital admissions were scarce among all cohorts. Predictors of IPV victimization among injured pregnant patients include multiple injuries, head injuries, face/neck/scalp contusions, abrasions/friction burns, contusions of multiple sites, and those with Medicaid or self-pay coverage. CONCLUSIONS: Among injured pregnant patients, those with multiple injuries, head injuries, contusions of the face/neck/scalp, abrasions/friction burns, and multiple contusions should undergo IPV screening. Admissions and mortality are low; therefore, prevention measures should be implemented in the emergency department to reduce repeat victimization.


Sujet(s)
Brûlures , Contusions , Traumatismes cranioencéphaliques , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Polytraumatisme , Adulte , Grossesse , États-Unis/épidémiologie , Femelle , Humains , Facteurs de risque
18.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 183: 148-158, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502937

RÉSUMÉ

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has been associated with cognitive, emotional, physical and physiological alterations, and with the presence of anxiety disorders. There is not enough research on this problem from an interdisciplinary approach despite the above. Therefore, this research compared the emotion perception and electrophysiological responses, elicited by an emotional task, in women who had experienced IPV and women who had not (WIPV). Forty-five participants (22 with and 23 without IPV experience) were presented with nine images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) database and performed a self-report using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). In parallel, electrophysiological signals (ECG and EEG) were acquired, for the analysis of emotional response. In the between-group analysis, the IPV group showed lower perceived dominance and greater central asymmetry in the alpha band than the WIPV group; additionally, the IPV group exhibited a significant positive correlation between the valence of the images and the alpha band power in central areas. In the within-group analysis, the WIPV group showed greater activation in the alpha band and alpha/beta ratio in frontal areas during the emotional elicitation, as compared to baseline. Furthermore, the ECG analysis showed that, for the IPV group, there was a decrease in the power of the high-frequency (HF) band and an increase in the power of the very-low-frequency (VLF) band of heart rate variability (HRV) during the elicitation stage. It is hypothesized that the IPV group could present higher stress levels and greater physiological activity during emotional stimuli than the WIPV group. Possible changes in emotional regulation and anxiety levels due to IPV experiences are discussed.


Sujet(s)
Émotions , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Humains , Femelle , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Autorapport , Facteurs de risque , Électrocardiographie , Électroencéphalographie
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP931-NP954, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471986

RÉSUMÉ

BACKGROUND: In the UK, around one-third of young people are exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse (IPVA) by 21 years old. However, types of IPVA victimization in this population (psychological, physical, sexual), and their relationship with impact and perpetration are poorly understood. METHODS: Participants in a UK birth cohort reported IPVA victimization and perpetration by age 21. We carried out a latent class analysis, where we categorized IPVA by types/frequency of victimization, and then assigned individuals to their most probable class. Within these classes, we then estimated rates of reported: 1) types of negative impacts (sad, upset/unhappy, anxious, depressed, affected work/studies, angry/annoyed, drank/took drugs more); 2) types/frequency of perpetration. RESULTS: Among 2130 women and 1149 men, 32% and 24% reported IPVA victimization (of which 89% and 73% reported negative impact); 21% and 16% perpetration. Victimization responses were well represented by five classes, including three apparent in both sexes: No-low victimization (characterized by low probabilities of all types of victimization; average probabilities of women and men belonging to this class were 82% and 70%); Mainly psychological (15% and 12%); Psychological and physical victimization (4% and 7%), and two classes that were specific to women: Psychological and sexual (7%); Multi-victimization (frequent victimization for all three types; 4%). In women, all types of negative impact were most common in the Psychological and sexual and Multi-victimization classes; for men, the Psychological and physical class. In women, all types of perpetration were most common for the Mainly psychological, Psychological and physical and Multi-victimization classes; in men, the Mainly psychological and Psychological and physical classes. DISCUSSION: In this study of young people, we found categories of co-occurrence of types and frequency of IPVA victimization associated with differential rates of negative impact and perpetrating IPVA. This is consistent with emerging evidence of IPVA differentiation and its variable impact in other populations.


Sujet(s)
Victimes de crimes , Violence envers le partenaire intime , Mâle , Femelle , Humains , Adolescent , Jeune adulte , Adulte , Analyse de structure latente , , Victimes de crimes/psychologie , Violence envers le partenaire intime/psychologie , Royaume-Uni/épidémiologie
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 93: 102453, 2023 Jan.
Article de Anglais | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495782

RÉSUMÉ

INTRODUCTION: The present research aims at analyzing criminological and medico-legal characteristics of intra-familiar homicides occurred in two major Italian cities (Milano and Monza) from the beginning of 2006 to the end of 2021. METHODS: Cases were identified using the Institutional database of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Milan, where all the autopsies of victims were performed. Data about these cases were obtained from autopsies findings, preliminary investigation reports, local papers and victim relatives' interviews. In this period 11,480 autopsies were performed: 392 were homicides and, among these, 94 were confirmed as intra-familiar homicides (as a result of 84 events). Cases were classified according to the classic definition of intimate partner violence (referring only to an intra-familiar context), parricides, filicides, fratricides, familicides and grannicides. Age, sex, nationality and risk factors of the victims and perpetrators, as well as methods of murder were registered for each case. Only in some cases, motives for murder were known. RESULTS: The most frequent type of intra-familiar homicides was intimate partner violence (41.5%), followed by parricides (16%, mainly matricides), filicides (10.7%) and fratricides (6.4%). 9.6% of the total number of events were familicides. Risk factors were frequently involved, in particular among perpetrators and in the group of parricides, while among siblicides they showed minimal relevance. Overall, psychiatric pathologies were the main risk factors involved (at least 23.8%), unlike extrafamiliar homicides, where previous criminal report or involvement in illicit traffics are frequently reported among perpetrators. This finding enlightens the difficulties of caring for a relative with a mental disorder, who can become dangerous for the domestic caregiver. Furthermore, the high number of physical illness and the advanced age of victims points out the tragical consequences of the lack of social support system for these categories of people. METHODS: of murder were mainly cold steel (30-31.9%) and firearms (21-22.3%). However choking/manual ligature (9-9.6%), blunt force trauma inflicted using objects found on the scenario or bare handed (16-17%) and combined methods (11-11.7%) were frequently represented confirming the expected high level of impulsivity related to this kind of crime.


Sujet(s)
Violence envers le partenaire intime , Troubles mentaux , Humains , Homicide , , Médecine légale
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