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1.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 168-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265371
2.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 159-165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265374
3.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 166-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265375
4.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 12-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265365

RESUMO

To build bridges between hypnosis and contemporary psychoanalysis, this article addresses how hypnosis, when used in psychotherapy, facilitates curative action through its relational essence. The author's extensive experience with hypnosis, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis orient the narrative toward the unconscious patient-therapist interaction, with particular attention paid to the ethics of the inherent hypnotic seduction. Whether used primarily in relief-oriented ways or geared toward more transformative therapeutic aims, powerful unconscious factors are in play for both patient and therapist and are explicated to illustrate the interactive and frequently unformulated, intersubjective factors that facilitate effective, psychotherapeutic hypnosis. Consequently, therapists attuned to such intersubjective dynamics can make use of their own internal mental activities to understand a patient's current state of mind and level of developmental functioning, and thereby subsequently formulate mutative interventions. For instance, because hypnotizability reflects the ability to play in imaginative space, the regression promoted in hypnotherapy may activate both an illusion of omnipotence and its optimal disillusionment through the relational context. This requires going beyond more traditional, procedural ways of bifurcating hypnotic interventions as being either direct or indirect and instead further distinguish hypnotic interventions in accordance with their maternal and paternal relational dimensions. Arguably, then, the skillful hypnotherapist needs to maintain a coupling interplay between the maternal, maximally receptive and the paternal, more active modes of functioning within hypnotic play space.

5.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 1-11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265366

RESUMO

In this guest editorial, the authors introduce a special issue of the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis that focuses on relational factors of hypnosis in psychotherapy. The authors have invited a number of esteemed colleagues to comment on aspects of the therapeutic relationship, and how it informs and influences the processes, techniques, and outcomes of hypnosis and therapy. In addition to summarizing each of these articles, this article analyzes the major relational themes that present across the articles.

6.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 74-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265367

RESUMO

This article explores five interwoven principles about relationship that impact on attentional focus as it relates to the practice of clinical hypnosis. It first reviews how relationship is an irreducible feature of life that greatly predates the arrival of human beings. Second, it describes brain structures that, from an evolutionary perspective, appeared relatively recently, and the neuropsychological abilities those structures confer on human relationships. Third, it links those social brain structures to trance, an inborn response to novelty that is an important feature of our adaptive learning capacity. It further suggests that narrative is a multilevel concept that is deeply embodied and constitutes the sorbate from which hypnotic interactions can draw their rich impact. Finally, the article posits that hypnosis represents a skill set through which attuned clinicians engage in co-creative dances with clients, where the choreography of their interaction attends and responds to spontaneously arising and/or deliberately seeded opportunities for adaptive change. Reconstructed descriptions of interactions with clients are provided to illustrate the application of the principles presented.

7.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 118-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265368

RESUMO

Over the years, the field of hypnosis has often given more attention to the state and procedural factors of hypnosis than the relational ones. In an attempt to address this imbalance, the 60th annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) had as its theme "Hypnosis and the Treatment Relationship." A centerpiece of this meeting was a collegial discussion among a panel of psychologists with expertise in relational hypnotherapy. The panel addressed several pertinent questions: (1) What are the healing qualities of relationship in psychotherapy? (2) What makes hypnosis relational in nature? (3) How do relational factors of hypnosis resemble healthy attachment processes and recapitulate stalled developmental maturation? (4) How does relationally informed hypnotherapy influence and strengthen the relationship, process, and outcome of psychotherapy? This article summarizes the factors that led to the creation of this panel; provides an edited transcript of this panel discussion, along with additional commentary on several key points raised; and concludes with a summary of the main themes and recommendations for further clinical practice and study.

8.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 31-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265369

RESUMO

This article develops the idea that hypnosis is an interactive phenomenon occurring in a relational matrix. A tripartite model for explicating this relational matrix is presented, which includes a discussion of transference, contemporary relationship factors, and the interaction of these to produce a sense of therapeutic alliance. These relationship factors are central to the therapeutic action of hypnosis as a vehicle to potentiate change and growth. The unique and specific contribution of each of these factors to the process of hypnotherapy and to therapeutic action is examined. Phenomenologically, this relational interaction is conceptualized as occurring in transitional space, shaped by processes of regression and attunement. From this perspective, the hypnotherapist is viewed as a kind of transitional object whose empathic presence contains and facilitates those interactive phenomena which evoke and balance the transferential and contemporary aspects of the relationship and which allow for uniquely evocative developmentally focused interventions in trance work. Several examples are presented from an ongoing case that demonstrate how these relational variables shape the hypnotherapeutic process and how they can be used for uncovering and self-examination, for structural maturation, for affect regulation, and for emerging ego mastery. The therapeutic action demonstrated relies on hypnotic interventions rooted in the various components of the relational matrix made possible by the clinician's awareness of and attunement to these and by hisor her informed and sensitive management of them and of his or her own intersubjectivity. Specific strategies are presented via these examples to effectively utilize this experience in the service of treatment goals.

9.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 95-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265370

RESUMO

This article explores how hypnotic strategies can be used within a polyvagal science framework to help create more secure attachment within the therapeutic relationship, as well as within the client in terms of ego-state relationships. Principles of safety and connection are emphasized, along with specific strategies to access the attachment circuits of the ventral vagal system, including the necessity of being present with the client without agenda. Uses of hypnosis related to safety and connection and methods to work with the center core self to facilitate empowerment, self-cohesion, and conflict-free experience are also reviewed. From an ego-state therapy perspective, a discussion of hypnosomatic approaches to connect with preverbal, nonverbal, and somatic aspects of self to accomplish developmental repair and facilitate secure attachment is also offered, along with case examples. A three-step model, which attempts to integrate polyvagal, somatic, and hypnotic approaches, is offered by the author to help structure corrective experiences for clients with trauma.

10.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 60-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265372

RESUMO

This article examines the spatial and social nature of human relationships with children and adolescents in clinical hypnosis. Beginning with the unique way in which the phenomenon of rapport is intrinsic to the therapeutic uses of hypnosis and is distinct among other therapies, the stage is set for the importance of relational hypnosis. Through the use of case vignettes that illustrate developmental imperatives, relationship factors influencing the clinical interaction are demonstrated in practice. These include transference and countertransference, safety, embodiment, novelty, creativity, respect, trust, equality, being with, loving responses, synchronicity, and empathy. Hypnotic relating exists in a framework through which absorption in play and imagination evokes the child's resources and suggestions are made. In this receptive stance the personalized suggestions lead to an environment for positive change.

11.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 138-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265373

RESUMO

It is unquestioned that reaching the hypnotic state is helped along by relational factors and that, conversely, relational experiences can be deepened through hypnosis. It is also true that deepening the experience of being in a relationship with another person is neither comfortable nor indicated for every patient or therapist. Most humans feel ambivalent about closeness. People vary in their desire for and their skill in sustaining mature intimacy. When we move along the continuum from rudimentary notions about relational factors in psychotherapy, such as rapport, to complex concepts, such as enactments, we move along a corresponding continuum of increasing need for specialized training, supervised experience, and personal therapy. The field of psychotherapy has been plagued from its inception by not knowing what to do with the tensions that emerge when two people listen to and look at each other. Avoiding relational factors may be a very human response to a very daunting matter.

12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2055: 433-452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502164

RESUMO

In response to selected stressors, cancer cells can undergo a form of regulated cell death that-in immunocompetent syngeneic hosts-is capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response specific for dead cell-associated antigens. Thus, such variant of regulated cell death manifests with robust antigenicity and adjuvanticity. As compared to their normal counterparts, malignant cells are highly antigenic per se, implying that they express a variety of antigens that are not covered by central tolerance. However, the precise modality through which cancer cells die in response to stress has a major influence on adjuvanticity. Moreover, the adjuvanticity threshold to productively drive anticancer immune responses is considerably lower in tumor-naïve hosts as compared to their tumor-bearing counterparts, largely reflecting the establishment of peripheral tolerance to malignant lesions in the latter (but not in the former). So far, no cellular biomarker or combination thereof has been found to reliably predict the ability of cancer cell death to initiate antitumor immunity. Thus, although some surrogate biomarkers of adjuvanticity can be used for screening purposes, the occurrence of bona fide immunogenic cell death (ICD) can only be ascertained in vivo. Here, we describe two methods that can be harnessed to straightforwardly determine the immunogenicity of mouse cancer cells succumbing to stress in both tumor-naïve and tumor-bearing hosts.

13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124677, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524616

RESUMO

Understanding the health implications of human exposure to mixtures of chemical contaminants is aided by analytical methods that can screen for a broad range of both expected and unexpected compounds. We performed a proof-of-concept analysis combining human breast milk, a biomonitoring matrix for determining contaminant exposure to mothers and infants, with a non-targeted method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS). A total of 172 presumably anthropogenic halogenated compounds and non-halogenated cyclic and aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in breast milk from San Diego, California through mass spectral database searches. Forty of the compounds were prioritized for confirmation based on halogenation or 100% frequency of detection, and the identities of 30 were verified using authentic standards. Thirty-four (85%) of the prioritized contaminants are not typically monitored in breast milk surveys, and 31 (77%) are regulated in at least one market worldwide, indicating breast milk may be a useful biomonitoring matrix for non-targeted analysis and the assessment of human exposure to future emerging or undiscovered contaminants.

14.
J Endocrinol ; 244(1): 25-40, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539873

RESUMO

Recent studies raise the possibility that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) may play a role in metabolism. One isoform, eEF1A2, is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. It regulates translation elongation and signal transduction. Nonetheless, eEF1A2's function in skeletal muscle glucose metabolism remains unclear. In the present study, suppression subtractive hybridisation showed a decrease in Eef1a2 transcripts in the skeletal muscle of diabetic Mongolian gerbils. This was confirmed at mRNA and protein levels in hyperglycaemic gerbils, and in db/db and high-fat diet-fed mice. Further, this downregulation was independent of Eef1a2 promoter methylation. Interestingly, adeno-associated virus-mediated eEF1A2 overexpression in skeletal muscle aggravated fasting hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and glucose intolerance in male diabetic gerbils but not in female gerbil models. The overexpression of eEF1A2 in skeletal muscle also resulted in promoted serum glucose levels and insulin resistance in male db/db mice. Up- and downregulation of eEF1A2 by lentiviral vector transfection confirmed its inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and signalling transduction in C2C12 myotubes with palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, eEF1A2 bound PKCß and increased its activation in the cytoplasm, whereas suppression of PKCß by an inhibitor attenuated eEF1A2-mediated impairment of insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant myotubes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was elevated by eEF1A2, whereas suppression of ER stress or JNK partially restored insulin sensitivity in PA-treated myotubes. Additionally, eEF1A2 inhibited lipogenesis and lipid utilisation in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Collectively, we demonstrated that eEF1A2 exacerbates insulin resistance in male murine skeletal muscle via PKCß and ER stress.

16.
J Endocrinol ; 244(1): 71-82, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557728

RESUMO

The mTOR/S6Ks signaling is one of the intracellular pathways important for metabolic control, acting both peripherally and centrally. In the hypothalamus, mTOR/S6Ks axis mediates the action of leptin and insulin and can modulate the expression of neuropeptides. We analyzed the role of different S6Ks isoforms in the hypothalamic regulation of metabolism. We observed decreased food intake and decreased expression of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) following intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of adenoviral-mediated overexpression of three different S6Ks isoforms. Moreover, mice overexpressing p70-S6K1 in undefined periventricular hypothalamic neurons presented changes in glucose metabolism, as an increase in gluconeogenesis. To further evaluate the hypothalamic role of a less-studied S6K isoform, p54-S6K2, we used a Cre-LoxP approach to specifically overexpress it in AgRP neurons. Our findings demonstrate the potential participation of S6K2 in AgRP neurons regulating feeding behavior.

17.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 88-101, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593800

RESUMO

Dysregulation of circular RNA Foxo3 (circFoxo3) has been reported to be involved in breast cancer and non-small lung cancer progression. However, little is known about the role of circFoxo3 in prostate cancer, which the present study seeks to investigate. CircFoxo3 expression was analyzed in 22 low-grade prostate cancer samples, 24 high-graded prostate cancer samples, and 18 normal prostate tissues, finding that its quantity was significantly decreased in high-graded compared to low-grade prostate cancer and normal prostate tissues. CircFoxo3 inhibited prostate cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and chemoresistance to docetaxel, which was related to circFoxo3's repression of Foxo3 and EMT. Silencing circFoxo3 expression promoted prostate cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and chemoresistance to docetaxel, as well as the positive effects of androgen on prostate cancer viability. Delivery of circfoxo3 enhanced chemosensitivity to docetaxel of prostate tumor-bearing mice and prolonged the life span of mice, while reduction with siRNAs promoted chemoresistance to docetaxel and shorted the life span of the tumor-bearing mice. Targeting circFoxo3/Foxo3/EMT may provide an applicable strategy for exploring potential prognostic and therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer.

18.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 1-13, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593801

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease associated with very poor prognosis. Most patients are older than 60 years, and in this group only 5-15% of cases survive over 5 years. Therefore, it is urgent to develop more effective targeted therapies. Inactivation of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) is a recurrent event in AML, and overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor SET is detected in ~30% of patients. The PP2A activating drug FTY720 has potent anti-leukemic effects; nevertheless, FTY720 induces cardiotoxicity at the anti-neoplastic dose. Here, we have developed a series of non-phosphorylable FTY720 analogues as a new therapeutic strategy for AML. Our results show that the lead compound CM-1231 re-activates PP2A by targeting SET-PP2A interaction, inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in AML cell lines and primary patient samples. Notably, CM-1231 did not induce cardiac toxicity, unlike FTY720, in zebrafish models, and reduced the invasion and aggressiveness of AML cells more than FTY720 in zebrafish xenograft models. In conclusion, CM-1231 is safer and more effective than FTY720; therefore, this compound could represent a novel and promising approach for treating AML patients with SET overexpression.

19.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 14-26, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600529

RESUMO

Deregulation of SOX9 in esophageal cancer has been reported. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying SOX9 during esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression remain poorly understood. Here, we independently confirmed the increased SOX9 expression in two ESCC cohorts and its correlation with poor prognosis. We demonstrated that SOX9 was required for maintaining self-renewal, motility, and chemoresistance in vitro and that ectopic expression of SOX9 promoted tumorigenicity in vivo. Screening for potential SOX9-regulated miRNAs revealed that target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and identified the downregulated miR-203a as a candidate. Mechanistically, SOX9 activation caused repression of miR-203a transcription by binding to miR-203a promoter, thus preventing the miR-203a-mediated inhibition of multiple PI3K/AKT/mTOR components, including PIK3CA, AKT2, and RPS6KB1. The association between SOX9 expression and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling was further validated in clinical samples. Moreover, rapamycin treatment attenuated the SOX9-mediated malignant phenotypes and potentiated cisplatin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. Together, these findings uncover a novel activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway by the SOX9/miR-203a axis and define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 468: 82-87, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600530

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is impacted by environmental exposures and by constitutional genetic or epigenetic susceptibilities to disease development and progression. The United States and China have distinct and diverse populations and geographic environmental exposures that contribute to unique patterns of lung cancer incidence and mortality. In this paper, the authors compare trends of incidence and mortality of lung cancer in the US and China, and the impact on lung cancer screening programs in the two countries. It is worth noting that the mortality of lung cancer in the US has decreased gradually while in China it is still increasing over recent years. While decreasing smoking prevalence and the impact of clean air legislation have helped to mitigate the trend in the US relative to China, the increasingly widespread implementation of lung cancer chest CT screening is expected to impact lung cancer incidence and mortality in both countries. Currently there are few studies to compare the environmental and genetic risk factors for US and Chinese populations with regards to lung cancer incidence and mortality. The authors discuss the impact of gender and exposure risks, mainly smoking and environmental pollutants. Of high importance is the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers that is significantly higher in China than in the United States; this is particularly notable in women. These data suggest inclusion of ambient air pollution exposure and gender into lung cancer risk prognostic models to better capture high-risk individuals, especially for non-smoking women.

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