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1.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269179

RESUMO

Abstract Importance Pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalizations are rising in the US and other countries after the emergence of Omicron variant. However data on disease severity from Omicron compared with Delta in children under 5 in the US is lacking. Objectives To compare severity of clinic outcomes in children under 5 who contracted COVID infection for the first time before and after the emergence of Omicron in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data of 79,592 children under 5 who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection for the first time, including 7,201 infected when the Omicron predominated (Omicron cohort), 63,203 infected when the Omicron predominated (Delta cohort), and another 9,188 infected when the Omicron predominated but immediately before the Omicron variant was detected in the US (Delta-2 cohort). Exposures First time infection of SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures After propensity-score matching, severity of COVID infections including emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and mechanical ventilation use in the 3-day time-window following SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared between Omicron and Delta cohorts, and between Delta-2 and Delta cohorts. Risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Among 7,201 infected children in the Omicron cohort (average age of 1.49 years), 47.4% were female, 2.4% Asian, 26.1% Black, 13.7% Hispanic, and 44.0% White. Before propensity score matching, the Omicron cohort were younger than the Delta cohort (average age 1.49 vs 1.73 years), comprised of more Black children, and had fewer comorbidities. After propensity-score matching for demographics, socio-economic determinants of health, comorbidities and medications, risks for severe clinical outcomes in the Omicron cohort were significantly lower than those in the Delta cohort: ED visits: 18.83% vs. 26.67% (risk ratio or RR: 0.71 [0.66-0.75]); hospitalizations: 1.04% vs. 3.14% (RR: 0.33 [0.26-0.43]); ICU admissions: 0.14% vs. 0.43% (RR: 0.32 [0.16-0.66]); mechanical ventilation: 0.33% vs. 1.15% (RR: 0.29 [0.18-0.46]). Control studies comparing Delta-2 to Delta cohorts show no difference. Conclusions and Relevance For children under age 5, first time SARS-CoV-2 infections occurring when the Omicron predominated (prevalence >92%) was associated with significantly less severe outcomes than first-time infections in similar children when the Delta variant predominated.

2.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268495

RESUMO

BackgroundThe Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant is rapidly spreading in the US since December 2021 and is more contagious than earlier variants. Currently, data on the severity of the disease caused by the Omicron variant compared with the Delta variant is limited. Here we compared 3-day risks of emergency department (ED) visit, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mechanical ventilation in patients who were first infected during a time period when the Omicron variant was emerging to those in patients who were first infected when the Delta variant was predominant. MethodThis is a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data of 577,938 first-time SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from a multicenter, nationwide database in the US during 9/1/2021-12/24/2021, including 14,054 who had their first infection during the 12/15/2021-12/24/2021 period when the Omicron variant emerged ("Emergent Omicron cohort") and 563,884 who had their first infection during the 9/1/2021-12/15/2021 period when the Delta variant was predominant ("Delta cohort"). After propensity-score matching the cohorts, the 3-day risks of four outcomes (ED visit, hospitalization, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation) were compared. Risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. ResultsOf 14,054 patients in the Emergent Omicron cohort (average age, 36.4 {+/-} 24.3 years), 27.7% were pediatric patients (<18 years old), 55.4% female, 1.8% Asian, 17.1% Black, 4.8% Hispanic, and 57.3% White. The Emergent Omicron cohort differed significantly from the Delta cohort in demographics, comorbidities, and socio-economic determinants of health. After propensity-score matching for demographics, socio-economic determinants of health, comorbidities, medications and vaccination status, the 3-day risks in the Emergent Omicron cohort outcomes were consistently less than half those in the Delta cohort: ED visit: 4.55% vs. 15.22% (risk ratio or RR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.28-0.33); hospitalization: 1.75% vs. 3.95% (RR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.38-0.52]); ICU admission: 0.26% vs. 0.78% (RR: 0.33, 95% CI:0.23-0.48); mechanical ventilation: 0.07% vs. 0.43% (RR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.08-0.32). In children under 5 years old, the overall risks of ED visits and hospitalization in the Emergent Omicron cohort were 3.89% and 0.96% respectively, significantly lower than 21.01% and 2.65% in the matched Delta cohort (RR for ED visit: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14-0.25; RR for hospitalization: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.68). Similar trends were observed for other pediatric age groups (5-11, 12-17 years), adults (18-64 years) and older adults ([≥] 65 years). ConclusionsFirst time SARS-CoV-2 infections occurring at a time when the Omicron variant was rapidly spreading were associated with significantly less severe outcomes than first-time infections when the Delta variant predominated.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982584

RESUMO

The shared challenges posed by the production and distribution of health-harming products have led to growing recognition of the need for policy learning and transfer across problems, populations, and social contexts. The commercial determinants of health (CDoH) can serve as a unifying concept to describe the population health consequences arising from for-profit actors and activities, along with the social structures that sustain them. Strategies to mitigate harms from CDoH have focused on behavioral change, regulation, fiscal policies, consumer and citizen activism, and litigation. While there is evidence of effective measures for each strategy, approaches that combine strategies are generally more impactful. Filling gaps in evidence can inform ways of adapting these strategies to specific populations and social contexts. Overall, CDoH are addressed most effectively not through siloed efforts to reduce consumption of health-harming products, but instead as a set of integrated strategies to reduce exposures to health-harming commercial actors and activities. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

4.
medRxiv ; 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018384

RESUMO

Background: The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant is rapidly spreading in the US since December 2021 and is more contagious than earlier variants. Currently, data on the severity of the disease caused by the Omicron variant compared with the Delta variant is limited. Here we compared 3-day risks of emergency department (ED) visit, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mechanical ventilation in patients who were first infected during a time period when the Omicron variant was emerging to those in patients who were first infected when the Delta variant was predominant. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record (EHR) data of 577,938 first-time SARS-CoV-2 infected patients from a multicenter, nationwide database in the US during 9/1/2021-12/24/2021, including 14,054 who had their first infection during the 12/15/2021-12/24/2021 period when the Omicron variant emerged ("Emergent Omicron cohort") and 563,884 who had their first infection during the 9/1/2021-12/15/2021 period when the Delta variant was predominant ("Delta cohort"). After propensity-score matching the cohorts, the 3-day risks of four outcomes (ED visit, hospitalization, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation) were compared. Risk ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: Of 14,054 patients in the Emergent Omicron cohort (average age, 36.4 ± 24.3 years), 27.7% were pediatric patients (<18 years old), 55.4% female, 1.8% Asian, 17.1% Black, 4.8% Hispanic, and 57.3% White. The Emergent Omicron cohort differed significantly from the Delta cohort in demographics, comorbidities, and socio-economic determinants of health. After propensity-score matching for demographics, socio-economic determinants of health, comorbidities, medications and vaccination status, the 3-day risks in the Emergent Omicron cohort outcomes were consistently less than half those in the Delta cohort: ED visit: 4.55% vs. 15.22% (risk ratio or RR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.28-0.33); hospitalization: 1.75% vs. 3.95% (RR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.38-0.52]); ICU admission: 0.26% vs. 0.78% (RR: 0.33, 95% CI:0.23-0.48); mechanical ventilation: 0.07% vs. 0.43% (RR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.08-0.32). In children under 5 years old, the overall risks of ED visits and hospitalization in the Emergent Omicron cohort were 3.89% and 0.96% respectively, significantly lower than 21.01% and 2.65% in the matched Delta cohort (RR for ED visit: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14-0.25; RR for hospitalization: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19-0.68). Similar trends were observed for other pediatric age groups (5-11, 12-17 years), adults (18-64 years) and older adults (≥ 65 years). Conclusions: First time SARS-CoV-2 infections occurring at a time when the Omicron variant was rapidly spreading were associated with significantly less severe outcomes than first-time infections when the Delta variant predominated.

5.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(1): 115-128, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723675

RESUMO

The commercial determinants of health (CDoH) describe the adverse health effects associated with for-profit actors and their actions. Despite efforts to advance the definition, conceptualization, and empirical analyses of CDoH, the term's practical application to mitigate these effects requires the capacity to measure the influences of specific components of CDoH and the cumulative impacts of CDoH on the health and well-being of specific populations. Building on the Global Burden of Disease Study, we begin by conceptualizing CDoH as risk factor exposures that span agency and structural influences. We identify 6 components of these influences and propose an initial set of indicators and datasets to rank exposures as high, medium, or low. These are combined into a commercial determinants of health index (CDoHi) and illustrated by 3 countries. Although now a proof of concept, comparative analysis of CDoH exposures by population, over time and space, and their associated health outcomes will become possible with further development of indicators and datasets. Expansion of the CDoHi and application to varied populations groups will enable finer targeting of interventions to reduce health harms. The measurement of improvements to health and wellness from such interventions will, in turn, inform overall efforts to address the CDoH.

6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 43-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016904

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death. DESIGN: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death. PARTICIPANTS: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from usafacts.org. INTERVENTIONS: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels. RESULTS: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comércio , Emprego , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
7.
Eval Program Plann ; 90: 101982, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391579

RESUMO

The Pre-exposure Prophylaxis, Data to Care, Implementation, and Evaluation (PrIDE) multi-site demonstration project utilized a cluster evaluation approach and identified six funding recipients that evaluated similar media evaluation questions (Baltimore, Los Angeles County, Lousiana, Michigan, New York City, and Virginia). All of the evaluated social marketing campaigns were developed in collaboration with health department staff, external marketing firms, and community advisory boards (CAB) aiming to produce changes in PrEP outcomes by reaching racial/ethnic and sexual and gender minorities. Jurisdictions demonstrated changes in PrEP awareness, knowledge, willingness to take PrEP, and/or PrEP literacy following initiation of the campaigns. In data from four sites, PrEP awareness significantly increased from 72 % at baseline to 86 % at mid-project, and to 90 % post-campaigns. The campaigns illustrate the importance of partnerships and stakeholder engagement, audience segmentation, and intentional evaluation planning. As PrEP services mature, evaluating PrEP demand and PrEP use resulting from campaigns, will be necessary. Also, future campaigns for racial/ethnic and sexual and gender minorities should identify the best channels to reach each group based on their input, disaggregate data by priority group, and determine campaign effectiveness.

8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2202-2211, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878875

RESUMO

In recent years, the concept of commercial determinants of health (CDoH) has attracted scholarly, public policy, and activist interest. To date, however, this new attention has failed to yield a clear and consistent definition, well-defined metrics for quantifying its impact, or coherent directions for research and intervention. By tracing the origins of this concept over 2 centuries of interactions between market forces and public health action and research, we propose an expanded framework and definition of CDoH. This conceptualization enables public health professionals and researchers to more fully realize the potential of the CDoH concept to yield insights that can be used to improve global and national health and reduce the stark health inequities within and between nations. It also widens the utility of CDoH from its main current use to study noncommunicable diseases to other health conditions such as infectious diseases, mental health conditions, injuries, and exposure to environmental threats. We suggest specific actions that public health professionals can take to transform the burgeoning interest in CDoH into meaningful improvements in health. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2202-2211. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306491).

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886514

RESUMO

Bold new approaches are urgently needed to overcome global health challenges. The proposed Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health (ARPA-H) is intended to provide rapid health breakthroughs. While new technologies for earlier disease detection and more effective treatment are critical, we urge equal attention be given to the wider (physical, emotional, social, political, and economic) environmental ecosystems driving the non-communicable disease (NCD) crisis in the first place. This requires an integrated, cross-sectoral vision that spans the interwoven connections affecting health across the scales of people, places, and planet. This wider "exposome" perspective considers biopsychosocial factors that promote resilience and reduce vulnerabilities of individuals and communities over time-the many variables driving health disparities. Since life course health is strongly determined by early life environments, early interventions should be prioritized as a matter of effectiveness and social justice. Here, we explore the origins of the Advanced Research Project Agency and point to its potential to build integrated solutions, with wisdom and ethical value systems as a compass. Since the planned ARPA-H is anticipated to spawn international collaborations, the imagined concept is of relevance to a broad audience of researchers. With appropriate input, the quest for health equity through personalized, precision medicine while deconstructing unacceptable structural inequities may be accelerated.

10.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-21, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Outdoor advertisements for food and drink products form a large part of the food environment and they disproportionately promote unhealthy products. However, less is known about the social patterning of such advertisements. The main aim of this study was to explore the socioeconomic patterning of food and drink advertising at bus stops in Scotland's capital city, Edinburgh. DESIGN: Bus stop advertisements were audited to identify food/drink adverts and classify them by food/drink category (i.e. 'advert category'). This data was then linked to area-based deprivation and proximity measures. Neighbourhood deprivation was measured using the bus stop x/y co-ordinates, which were converted to postcodes to identify the matching 2012 deprivation level via the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Distance to schools and leisure centres were also collected using location data. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between the promotion of advert categories and deprivation and proximity to schools/leisure centres, respectively. SETTING: Edinburgh city, United Kingdom. RESULTS: 561 food/drink advertisements were identified across 349 bus stops, with eight advertisement categories noted and included in the final analysis, including alcohol, fast food outlets and confectionary. The majority of adverts were for 'unhealthy' food and drink categories, however there was no evidence for any socioeconomic patterning of these advertisements. There was no evidence of a relationship between advertisements and proximity to schools and leisure centres. CONCLUSIONS: While there is no evidence for food and drink advertising being patterned by neighbourhood deprivation, the scale of unhealthy advertising is an area for policy evaluations and interventions on the control of such outdoor advertising.

11.
Health Promot Int ; 36(Supplement_1): i39-i52, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897446

RESUMO

The tobacco, alcohol, beverage, processed food, firearms, gambling, fossil fuel and mining industries, inter alia, are implicated in fostering negative commercial determinants of health. They do this by shaping our environments, tastes, knowledge and politics in favour of the unlimited consumption and unencumbered promotion of their deadly and dangerous products. To shift the determinants of health, emphasis should be put on preventing industry actors whose profit lies in harming health from wielding influence over the institutions and actors of global and national governance. The tobacco control experience and the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) provide a unique, comprehensive and fully substantiated guide for how this may be done. Just as the tobacco industry was a pathfinder for other harmful industries in developing tactics for expanding the depth and reach of the market for their deadly products, the WHO FCTC experience is the obvious pathfinder for countering the commercial determinants of health across all sectors and industries. Although they are desirable for countering negative commercial determinants of health, the WHO FCTC's lesson is not that commercially driven epidemics must be tackled with legally binding treaties. Rather, given the challenges to treaty-making, the key lessons are those that show how it is possible to address the harms of other commodities, even in a treaty's absence. What is needed is the national implementation of measures providing for intersectoral governance and protection from industry interference which will then assist in unlocking measures for reducing the supply of and demand for unhealthy commodities.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Tabaco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Fam Bus Rev ; 34(4): 365-384, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931108

RESUMO

We depict Hollywood celebrity couples as business families who participate in the project-based movie production industry, which is a temporary and disaggregated form of organization where skilled individuals are linked to one another through contractual and social relationships. Appearing in Hollywood movies generates celebrity capital, which can be converted into economic capital through involvement in endorsements and other rent-generating activities. Finding projects is facilitated by membership in high-quality social networks, and we consider celebrity marriage as a means of merging two individuals' social networks, which can be mutually beneficial for both parties. We develop and test three hypotheses about the quality of social networks prior to and after marriage and analyze their impact upon celebrities' postmarriage career performance. We contribute to the family business literature by exploring hybridized and adaptive forms of business family in contemporary project industries, which has the potential to enlarge family business scholars' research horizons.

13.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13301, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935291

RESUMO

Most babies in France are fed with infant formula and then commercial complementary foods, many of which are ultra-processed and harmful to health. Internationally, there is opposition by the baby food industry to the introduction of public health policies that would limit the marketing and consumption of such products. Our aim was to identify the key baby food industry actors, describe their history and corporate political activity (CPA) in France. We sourced publicly available information, which we triangulated with data from 10 semi-structured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken simultaneously to data collection, guided by an existing classification of the CPA of the food industry. The baby food industry in France has shaped the science on infant and young child nutrition and nurtured long-established relationships with health professionals. This corporate science and these relationships helped baby food companies to portray themselves as experts on child-related topics. The baby food industry has also engaged with a broad range of civil society organisations, particularly through the concept of the first 1000 days of life, and during the covid-19 pandemic. We found evidence, although limited, that the baby food industry directly lobbied the French government. Since its early development in France in the 19th century, the baby food industry used its CPA to promote its products and protect and sustain its market. Our findings can be used to recognise, anticipate and address the CPA of this industry, and to minimise any negative influence it may have on babies' and mother's health.

14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6175-6187, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910008

RESUMO

Food insecurity is a worldwide public health problem. In Brazil, the configuration of a Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) policy has gained prominence in the government agenda since 1980. We highlight the creation of the National Council for Food and Nutrition Security (CONSEA) aiming at articulation between sectors and social participation. This article examines the role of CONSEA in coordinating FNS policy in Brazil from 2006 to 2016. The research was based on the approaches of historical institutionalism and used the dynamics of action and the CONSEA agenda as axes of analysis. The methodological strategies carried out were: bibliographic review, document analysis and semi-structured interviews. It was observed that CONSEA was marked by an expressive performance by civil society and variable participation of government representatives. Regarding the agenda, conflicting topics were much debated, but had little impact on the adoption of legal and normative measures. It is concluded that the strengthening of CONSEA, combined with the confrontation of economic interests, adequate financing and the performance of the State in social protection, are essential for overcoming challenges, implementing the FNS policy and promoting the health of the population.


Assuntos
Governo , Política Pública , Brasil , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Saúde Pública
15.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932579

RESUMO

This research examines the entrepreneurship gender gap by offering an additional novel explanation for the higher share of men in entrepreneurial activity focusing on intergenerational parental role. Participants (N = 1288) aged 18-81, including 259 actual entrepreneurs, completed questionnaires about entrepreneurship tendency, personality traits and socioeconomic background. The gender gap in actual entrepreneurship continues a significant difference in entrepreneurial tendency, which is developed in the first and the second stages of the entrepreneurial trajectory. When women reach the third stage of entrepreneurial development, the execution stage, they have already acquired a self-perception of an incapable and incommensurate entrepreneurial personality. The results indicate that role modeling behavioral channel significantly accounts for the gender gap in entrepreneurial personality. The results suggest that both parents contribute to women's' inferior perception of entrepreneurial personality and that their contribution affects all four aspects of the entrepreneurial tendency. It appears that the impact of fathers' role modeling is larger than that of mothers, and furthermore fathers transfer other entrepreneurial role models from their side in the family.


Assuntos
Empreendedorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Pais/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948884

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate how social network marketing affects consumers' sustainable purchase behavior (CSPB) while considering the role of Eco-friendly attitude. The statistical population of the study included Iranian users of online social networks with at least one online purchasing experience. An online questionnaire was distributed on Instagram, Telegram, and WhatsApp platforms as the most popular networks in the country. By use of convenience sampling, commonly used in quantitative studies to overcome bias, 450 out of 475 returned questionnaires were acceptable, showing a response rate of 94.7%. The results indicated that an increase in Eco-friendly attitude positively increases the effect of word of mouth on consumers' sustainable purchase behavior. Meanwhile, Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) revealed that to reach a 50% level of consumers' sustainable purchase behavior, six essential necessary conditions are required: an eco-friendly consumers' attitude at no less than 50%, the trend at no less than 57.1%, word of mouth at no less than 45.5%, interaction at no less than 42.9%, customization at no less than 35.3% and entertainment at no less than 26.7%. Furthermore, the Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis (IPMA) was investigated as a strategic tool. The results of IPMA showed that "buy products that use biodegradable material in packaging", "buy those products that are picked up and recycled", and "buy biodegradable products even if they belong to a less well-known company" show desirable performance and high importance and there is a great opportunity for expansion in this area.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Marketing , Rede Social
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948951

RESUMO

The built environment contributes to an individual's health, and rural geographies face unique challenges for healthy eating and active living. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity environments in rural communities with high obesity prevalence. One community within each of six high obesity prevalence counties in a rural Midwest state completed the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) and the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA). Data were collected by trained community members and study staff. All communities had at least one grocery store and five had at least one convenience store. Grocery stores had higher mean total NEMS-S scores than convenience stores (26.6 vs. 6.0, p < 0.001), and higher scores for availability (18.7 vs. 5.3, p < 0.001) and quality (5.4 vs. 0, p < 0.001) of healthful foods (higher scores are preferable). The mean RALA town-wide assessment score across communities was 56.5 + 15.6 out of a possible 100 points. The mean RALA program and policy assessment score was 40.8 + 20.4 out of a possible 100 points. While grocery stores and schools are important for enhancing food and physical environments in rural areas, many opportunities exist for improvements to impact behaviors and address obesity.


Assuntos
Comércio , População Rural , Exercício Físico , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia
18.
Health Promot Pract ; : 15248399211064640, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963368

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that problematic adolescent social media use is associated with poor mental health. To respond to increased adolescent mental health concerns, health promoters increasingly rely on social media initiatives to promote their resources, programs, and services. This creates a paradoxical situation where social-media-linked adverse mental health outcomes are addressed using the same tools and platforms that can contribute to the development of such issues. It also highlights several areas of needed critical assessment in health promotion usage of social media platform features and products, such as addictive platform design, targeted marketing tools, data collection practices, impacts on underserved groups, and conflicts of interest. To advance subsequent action on these tensions, we offer three recommendations for health promoters that build upon existing scholarship and initiatives, including adapting ethical guidelines for health promoters using social media, adopting conflicts of interest policies, and promoting interdisciplinary scholarship.

19.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-14, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352441

RESUMO

Introducción: El etiquetado nutricional es una herramienta gráfica para notificar al consumidor sobre las propiedades nutricionales de un alimento lo que facilita su selección. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la influencia del etiquetado nutricional y los factores socioeconómicos, culturales, demográficos, publicitarios en la selección de alimentos en un grupo de padres de niños entre 5-11 años en dos unidades educativas públicas y privadas de Quito. Métodos: Con diseño mixto, cuantitativo- transversal y cualitativa interpretativa se analizó una muestra de opiniones de 240 padres en las Unidades Educativas (UE) Nueva Aurora (Privada) y 235 padres en la UE Julio María Matovelle (Pública) de Quito. Se realizaron tres grupos focales, grabados y transcriptos de forma textual y se aplicó un cuestionario. El paquete esta-dístico usado fue SPSS v24.0. Resultados: Hubo mayor consumo de alimentos procesados en la UE Privada n=79/240 (32.9%). Selección por fácil preparación (39.2% UE Privada y 46.4% UE Pública). El 54.2 % y 57 % de los padres ven publicidad en la televisión. El conocimiento del etiquetado fue superior en la UE privada (94.9%; n=223). Asociación entre edad [OR: 2.3; IC 95%: 1.08-5.04] instrucción [OR: 3.95; IC 95%: 2.12-7.37], exposición a la publicidad [OR: 0.62; IC 95%: 0.36-1.05] y conocimientos (P<0.05). La actitud se asoció con el nivel de instrucción [OR: 2.57; IC 95%: 1.62-4.09] e ingresos (P<0.05). Análisis cualitativo: grado de conocimiento y publicidad elevados, con un impacto importante en la selección de los alimentos. Conclusiones: El conocimiento sobre el etiquetado nutricional fue elevado; pero no fue el principal factor para seleccionar alimentos. El tiempo de preparación y el sabor fueron más importantes que las especificaciones nutricionales


Introduction: Nutrition labeling is a graphic tool to notify consumers about the nutritional properties of a food, which facilitates their selection. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of nutri-tional labeling and socioeconomic, cultural, demographic, and advertising factors on food selection in a group of parents of children between 5-11 years old in two public and private educational units in Quito. Methods: With a mixed, quantitative-transversal and qualitative interpretative design, a sample of opin-ions of 240 parents in the Educational Units (EU) Nueva Aurora (Fiscal) and 235 parents in the EU Julio María Matovelle (Private) of Quito was analyzed. Three focus groups were carried out, recorded and transcribed textually, and a questionnaire was administered. The statistical package used was SPSS v24.0. Results: There was a higher consumption of processed foods in the private EU n = 79/240 (32.9%). Selection for easy preparation (39.2% Private EU and 46.4% Public EU). 54.2% and 57% of parents see advertising on television. Knowledge of labeling was higher in the private EU (94.9%; n = 223). Association between age [OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.08-5.04] instruction [OR: 3.95; 95% CI: 2.12-7.37], exposure to advertising [OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.36-1.05] and knowledge (P <0.05). Attitude was associated with educational level [OR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.62-4.09] and admissions (P <0.05). Qualitative analysis: high degree of knowledge and publicity, with a significant impact on food selection. Conclusions: Knowledge about nutritional labeling was high, but it was not the main factor in selecting food. Prep time and flavor were more important than nutritional specifications.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Dietoterapia , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil , Publicidade de Alimentos , Ciências da Nutrição , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9323

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the shortcomings of health systems worldwide and the need to address the factors underpinning these flaws. In this webinar, we discuss the role of private sector and commercial determinants of health (#CDoH) in this global health crisis. Through their different perspectives, the panelists explore the role of private sector in the pandemic, the relationship between CDoH and COVID-19 on national and global levels and discuss the implications for global health. TIMESTAMPS: 00:00 | Welcome and Objective 02:35 | Opening Remarks 07:00 | COVID-19 as Commercial Determinant of Health 19:58 | Unhealthy Commodity Industries' Response to COVID-19 38:00 | Moderated Discussion and Q&A


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/economia , Sistemas Públicos de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Estratégias de Saúde Globais , Capitalismo , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde , Racismo , Equidade em Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena , Grupos de Risco , Teste para COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Promoção da Saúde , Setor Privado/economia , Indústria do Tabaco
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