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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 11, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983545

RESUMO

Nanomaterials (NMs) have received considerable attention in the field of agrochemicals due to their special properties, such as small particle size, surface structure, solubility and chemical composition. The application of NMs and nanotechnology in agrochemicals dramatically overcomes the defects of conventional agrochemicals, including low bioavailability, easy photolysis, and organic solvent pollution, etc. In this review, we describe advances in the application of NMs in chemical pesticides and fertilizers, which are the two earliest and most researched areas of NMs in agrochemicals. Besides, this article concerns with the new applications of NMs in other agrochemicals, such as bio-pesticides, nucleic acid pesticides, plant growth regulators (PGRs), and pheromone. We also discuss challenges and the industrialization trend of NMs in the field of agrochemicals. Constructing nano-agrochemical delivery system via NMs and nanotechnology facilitates the improvement of the stability and dispersion of active ingredients, promotes the precise delivery of agrochemicals, reduces residual pollution and decreases labor cost in different application scenarios, which is potential to maintain the sustainability of agricultural systems and improve food security by increasing the efficacy of agricultural inputs.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of food and beverage advertising on bus shelters in a deprived area of the UK, to identify the healthfulness of advertised products, and any differences by level of deprivation. The study also sought to assess the creative strategies used and extent of appeal to young people. DESIGN: Images of bus shelter advertisements were collected via in person photography (in 2019) and Google Street View (photos recorded in 2018). Food and beverage advertisements were grouped into one of seventeen food categories and classified as healthy/less healthy using the UK Nutrient Profile Model. The deprivation level of the advertisement location was identified using the UK Index of Multiple Deprivation. SETTING: Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland in South Teesside. PARTICIPANTS: N/A. RESULTS: Eight hundred and thirty-two advertisements were identified, almost half (48·9 %) of which were for foods or beverages. Of food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts, 35·1 % were less healthy. Most food advertisements (98·9 %) used at least one of the persuasive creative strategies. Food advertisements were found to be of appeal to children under 18 years of age (71·9 %). No differences in healthiness of advertised foods were found by level of deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Food advertising is extensive on bus shelters in parts of the UK, and a substantial proportion of this advertising is classified as less healthy and would not be permitted to be advertised around television programming for children. Bus shelter advertising should be considered part of the UK policy deliberations around restricting less healthy food marketing exposure.

3.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To categorize and quantify how states planned to use policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of SNAP-Ed annual plans from all 50 states, District of Columbia, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands between fiscal years 2014 and 2016. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2016, the percentage of states that included PSEs as a statewide goal increased from 25% to 47%, and the percentage that planned to implement at least 1 PSE increased from 56% to 98%. Among states that planned to implement PSEs in 2016, the 3 most common settings were places in which people learn (92%), live (90%), and work (83%). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The increased planned use of PSEs in SNAP-Ed was considerable and encouraging as PSEs are important to use in conjunction with direct education and social marketing to improve nutrition and prevent obesity.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984602

RESUMO

Emotional eating is commonly defined as the tendency to (over)eat in response to emotion. Insofar as it involves the (over)consumption of high-calorie palatable foods, emotional eating is a maladaptive behavior that can lead to eating disorders, and ultimately to metabolic disorders and obesity. Emotional eating is associated with eating disorder subtypes and with abnormalities in emotion processing at a behavioral level. However, not enough is known about the neural pathways involved in both emotion processing and food intake. In this review, we provide an overview of recent neuroimaging studies, highlighting the brain correlates between emotions and eating behavior that may be involved in emotional eating. Interaction between neural and neuro-endocrine pathways (HPA axis) may be involved. In addition to behavioral interventions, there is a need for a holistic approach encompassing both neural and physiological levels to prevent emotional eating. Based on recent imaging, this review indicates that more attention should be paid to prefrontal areas, the insular and orbitofrontal cortices, and reward pathways, in addition to regions that play a major role in both the cognitive control of emotions and eating behavior. Identifying these brain regions could allow for neuromodulation interventions, including neurofeedback training, which deserves further investigation.

5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 115, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the food and physical activity environments in Brazilian public and private schools, and develop indicators to evaluate them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with data from a questionnaire on school characteristics of the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey, answered by principals or coordinators, referring to 3040 public and private schools throughout the country. The variables related to food and physical activity environments were described in isolation, and an indicator was developed for each environment, with scores ranging from 0 to 100. The frequency and mean score of each variable were described according to the administrative sphere (public or private). RESULTS: The public sector showed a predominance of school meals offer (97.8%), whereas the private sector, of canteens (89.8%). Both had a similar frequency of alternative food outlets in the surroundings. Private schools provided all markers of healthy and unhealthy eating in canteens more frequently. Public schools scored higher in "Food and beverage availability" (64.9) than private schools (55.8). The characteristics of physical activity environments showed that sports courts and sports or games equipment were common in public (69.2% and 90.7%, respectively) and private schools (94.1% and 99.8%, respectively), though at a significantly higher frequency in the second group. Private schools scored higher in "Structures and materials availability" than public schools (63.3 and 41.6, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Public schools provide a more favorable food environment, whereas private schools, a physical activity environment.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Refeições
6.
Br Dent J ; 232(1): 4, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031718
7.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108693, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775303

RESUMO

At this point in time, the evidence of a link between well-done meat intake and the incidence of cancer is stronger than it was 20 years ago. Several cohort and case-control studies have confirmed this evidence, and have shown a higher odd ratio and increased exposure to heterocyclic amines (HCAs) among those who frequently consume red meat. However, in most epidemiological studies, dietary assessment, combined with analytical data, is used to estimate the intake of HCAs, which has many inconsistencies. In addition, there is a lack of findings indicating a substantial correlation between various factors, like types of raw meat, types of meat products, and cooking methods that directly or indirectly influence the occurrence of cancer. Although numerous mitigation strategies have been developed to reduce HCAs levels in meat, there is still a high prevalence of carcinogenesis caused by HCAs in humans. The aim of this review is to summarise conflicting reports, address shortcomings and identify emerging trends of cutting-edge research related to HCAs.


Assuntos
Aminas/efeitos adversos , Culinária/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118722, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952184

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing technology that will have a significant impact on product development in the next few years. The technology is already being employed in cutting-edge cosmetic and healthcare products. Nanotechnology and nanoparticles have a strong potential for product and process innovation in the food industrial sector. This is already being demonstrated by food product availability made using nanotechnology. Nanotechnologies will have an impact on food security, packaging materials, delivery systems, bioavailability, and new disease detection materials in the food production chain, contributing to the UN Millennium Development Goals targets. Food products using nanoparticles are already gaining traction into the market, with an emphasis on online sales. This means that pre- and post-marketing regulatory frameworks and risk assessments must meet certain standards. There are potential advantages of nanotechnologies for agriculture, consumers and the food industry at large as they are with other new and growing technologies. However, little is understood about the safety implications of applying nanotechnologies to agriculture and incorporating nanoparticles into food. As a result, policymakers and scientists must move quickly, as regulatory systems appear to require change, and scientists should contribute to these adaptations. Their combined efforts should make it easier to reduce health and environmental impacts while also promoting the economic growth of nanotechnologies in the food supply chain. This review highlighted the benefits of a number of nano enabled agrochemicals/materials, the potential health impacts as well as the risk assessment and risk management for nanoparticles in the agriculture and food production chain.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Nanotecnologia , Agricultura , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
Appetite ; 168: 105691, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509544

RESUMO

Traditional food marketing stimulates adolescents' consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. These dietary behaviours may track into adulthood and lead to weight gain, obesity and related non-communicable diseases. While social media use in adolescents has proliferated, little is known about the content of food marketing within these platforms, and how this impacts adolescents' dietary behaviours. This paper aimed to obtain expert insights on factors involved in the association between social media food marketing (SMFM) and adolescent dietary behaviours, and to explore their views on key priorities, challenges and strategies for future SMFM research and policies. One-on-one semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with experts from Western Europe, Australia and North America, in the fields of public health (policy), nutrition science, social media marketing, adolescent medicine, clinical psychology, behavioural sciences, communication, food industry, social influencing, and social marketing. The experts' collective responses identified that the line between food content posted by social media users and food companies is blurred. Adolescents' processing of SMFM may be mostly implicit, involving social comparison, emotional engagement, and attaching symbolic meanings to foods. Mediating factors and adolescent-specific and SMFM-specific moderating factors potentially influencing adolescents' response to SMFM were summarized in a Social Ecological model. Experts agreed that there is limited scientific evidence on adolescent-targeted SMFM and there are no strict regulations in place to protect adolescents from unhealthy SMFM, while adolescents are active social media users who are cognitively vulnerable to implicit marketing tactics. Adolescent-targeted SMFM should be controlled by encouraging healthy food marketing or limiting junk food marketing. Also, prioritizing both quantitative research on SMFM exposure and its impact, and qualitative research to obtain adolescents' perspectives, is crucial to advocate for regulatory changes regarding adolescent-targeted SMFM content.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Alimentos , Humanos , Marketing , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Marketing Social
10.
Appetite ; 168: 105695, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534591

RESUMO

This study explored the important attributes of the local food retail environments that residents from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, used in recommending where to purchase fresh produce, including fruits and vegetables, in the Ottawa area. Drawing upon an approach originating in marketing and consumer research, qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyze 79 discussions from three social media platforms that occurred between 2015 and 2018. We identified three patterns of conversations about food shopping, characterized by participants describing important factors of their local retail food environments that shaped their recommendations for different retail food establishments: 1) Pleasant represented discussions where having a pleasurable food shopping experience was the main discussion point. 2) Thrifty discussions were marked primarily by economical management and discussed food shopping in pragmatic terms. 3) Compromise represented a group where discussions described needing to find a middle ground between affordability and quality. While not without limitations, our study was the first exploration of whether social media data could be useful for qualitatively evaluating local retail food environments. Our findings add to the conclusions of other researchers that social media data does not compromise on the breadth of views captured and can parallel findings from traditional methods. These findings have implications for nutrition researchers and practitioners who we encourage to consider social media discussion data in their work.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Ontário , Verduras
11.
Appetite ; 168: 105759, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662601

RESUMO

Individuals can apply different healthy eating strategies to help them make healthy eating choices. Previous research showed that individuals differ in their preferred strategy, but also that a mix of strategies is often applied by a single person across contexts. The current research investigated the extent to which differences within an individual across contexts (i.e., meal moments, social environment and physical environment) predicted openness to healthy eating strategies in addition to personal predictors that differ between individuals (i.e., intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, physical opportunity and social opportunity). A representative sample of the Dutch adult population was recruited (N = 892). The within-individual (contextual) predictors were measured nine times just before a meal moment over a period of three weeks, by means of a smartphone application. The between-individual (personal) predictors were administered with a baseline questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis distinguished three healthy eating strategies: Increasing healthy foods, Limiting unhealthy foods and consuming Light products. A random intercept model, in which within-individual predictors and between-individual predictors were entered successively, showed that context matters for openness to all three strategies, but is most important for increasing healthy foods and least important for light products. Individuals are most open to increase healthy foods at dinner as compared to breakfast, whereas the opposite is true for limiting unhealthy foods and consuming light products. Eating at home is beneficial for openness to all three strategies and eating with others positively influences openness to increase healthy foods but has no effect on the other strategies. Insights gained from this research increase our understanding of an individual's openness to apply healthy eating strategies.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Refeições , Motivação , Meio Social
12.
Appetite ; 168: 105765, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687823

RESUMO

Over 90% of adolescents have at least one social media account, and their presence on social media continues to grow. Food and beverage brands capitalize on this trend by marketing their products on social media to adolescents. Depending on the nutrition value of the products being marketed, social media advertisements' influence may contribute to the risk of developing unfavorable health outcomes such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. This review aimed to investigate social media's food and beverage advertisements' role in influencing adolescents' food choices by appraising published literature. A systematic literature review was conducted reporting on social media's role in adolescents' food choices. Articles were searched through CINAHL and PubMed from scholarly journals between 2015 and 2020, using the search terms: social media use, food advertisements, adolescents, and food choices. Eligible articles were selected based on inclusion criteria. PRISMA guidelines were followed, and study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The analysis was conducted using narrative analysis to identify key findings. Of the 234 records, six articles met inclusion criteria. The studies revealed two major findings: adolescents were more likely to recall unhealthy food and celebrity influence was a common component of the advertisements. This review suggests that food and beverage companies use social media for marketing their products by targeting the adolescent population. The use of celebrities and influencers and the promotion of "unhealthy" products appear to be commonly used tactics. With these findings, healthcare professionals should consider screening adolescents routinely for social media use and current eating habits and educating the adolescents, parents, and families about health risk. Additionally, implementing legislation and policies may be beneficial in preventing this exposure.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Dieta Saudável , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Marketing
13.
Appetite ; 168: 105791, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774965

RESUMO

The detrimental impact of currently disproportionate amounts of digital food advertising for processed foods high in sugar, salt, and fat (HSSF) on children's food intake and dietary health is well-documented. The potential of digital healthy food advertising to encourage healthy eating in children is much less researched. A pre-test post-test control group design was used to compare the effect of specifically designed, television-style advertisements for healthy food versus toys on 172 three-to seven-year-old children's exclusively healthy food intake (vegetable, fruit, whole-grain) in five nurseries in Germany. Within- and between-group comparisons demonstrated the effectiveness of healthy food advertising exposure to increase children's healthy food intake. Three exposures to a 1-min-advertisement for healthy food were sufficient to increase children's healthy food intake by as much as three portions. Children in the control condition ate less healthy foods following viewing of a control advertisement (a matched toy advertisement). We concluded that digital healthy food advertising is likely to increase children's healthy food intake sufficiently to help children meet daily recommended amounts of vegetables, fruit, or whole-grain bread, and that this encouragement may be required as decreases in healthy food intake were found when healthy foods were merely available.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Berçários para Lactentes , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods , Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Televisão
14.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126901, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700186

RESUMO

In the light of intensification of cropping practices and changing climatic conditions, nourishing a growing global population requires optimizing environmental sustainability and reducing ecosystem impacts of food production. The use of microbiological systems to ameliorate the agricultural production in a sustainable and eco-friendly way is widespread accepted as a future key-technology. However, the multitude of interaction possibilities between the numerous beneficial microbes and plants in their habitat calls for systematic analysis and management of the rhizospheric microbiome. This review exploits present and future strategies for rhizospheric microbiome management with the aim to generate a comprehensive understanding of the known tools and techniques. Significant information on the structure and dynamics of rhizospheric microbiota of isolated microbial communities is now available. These microbial communities have beneficial effects including increased plant growth, essential nutrient acquisition, pathogens tolerance, and increased abiotic as well as biotic stress tolerance such as drought, temperature, salinity and antagonistic activities against the phyto-pathogens. A better and comprehensive understanding of the various effects and microbial interactions can be gained by application of molecular approaches as extraction of DNA/RNA and other biochemical markers to analyze microbial soil diversity. Novel techniques like interactome network analysis and split-ubiquitin system framework will enable to gain more insight into communication and interactions between the proteins from microbes and plants. The aim of the analysis tasks leads to the novel approach of Rhizosphere microbiome engineering. The capability of forming the rhizospheric microbiome in a defined way will allow combining several microbes (e.g. bacteria and fungi) for a given environment (soil type and climatic zone) in order to exert beneficial influences on specific plants. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers and farmers to understand and manage interactions of plant-microbiomes within modern farming systems, and is clearly a multi-domain approach and can be mastered only jointly by microbiology, mathematics and information technology. These innovations will open up a new avenue for designing and implementing intensive farming microbiome management approaches to maximize resource productivity and stress tolerance of agro-ecosystems, which in return will create value to the increasing worldwide population, for both food production and consumption.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/tendências , Bioengenharia/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Interações Microbianas , Microbiologia do Solo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127494, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687999

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are one of the most widely used types of pesticide that play an important role in the production process due to their effects on preventing pathogen infection and increasing yield. However, in the early development and application of OPPs, their toxicological effects and the issue of environmental pollution were not considered. With the long-term overuse of OPPs, their hazards to the ecological environment (including soil and water) and animal health have attracted increasing attention. Therefore, this review first clarified the classification, characteristics, applications of various OPPs, and the government's restriction requirements on various OPPs. Second, the toxicological effects and metabolic mechanisms of OPPs and their metabolites were introduced in organisms. Finally, the existing methods of degrading OPPs were summarized, and the challenges and further addressing strategy of OPPs in the sustainable development of agriculture, the environment, and ecology were prospected. However, methods to solve the environmental and ecological problems caused by OPPs from the three aspects of use source, use process, and degradation methods were proposed, which provided a theoretical basis for addressing the stability of the ecological environment and improving the structure of the pesticide industry in the future.

16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0199421, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851721

RESUMO

The capacity of bacteria to form biofilms is an important trait for their survival and persistence. Biofilms occur naturally in soil and aquatic environments, are associated with animals ranging from insects to humans and are also found in built environments. They are typically encountered as a challenge in healthcare, food industry, and water supply ecosystems. In contrast, they are known to play a key role in the industrial production of commercially valuable products, environmental remediation processes, and in microbe-catalysed electrochemical systems for energy and resource recovery from wastewater. While there are many recent articles on biofilm control and removal, review articles on promoting biofilm growth for biotechnological applications are unavailable. Biofilm formation is a tightly regulated response to perturbations in the external environment. The multi-stage process, mediated by an assortment of proteins and signaling systems, involves the attachment of bacterial cells to a surface followed by their aggregation in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms can be promoted by altering the external environment in a controlled manner, supplying molecules that trigger the aggregation of cells and engineering genes associated with biofilm development. This mini-review synthesizes findings from studies that have described such strategies and highlights areas needing research attention.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the sustainability performance of food systems, consumption- as well as production-side changes are needed. OBJECTIVE: To this end, we assessed multiple sustainability impacts of six consumer strategies for Switzerland. DESIGN: Two strategies encompassed dietary changes: following a pescetarian diet and adhering to the national dietary guidelines. Two strategies employed alternative farming systems: increasing the share of organic production and, in addition, applying the circularity principle of avoiding feed-food competition by limiting livestock feed to low-opportunity-cost biomass. A fifth strategy reduced food waste. The sixth strategy increased the share of domestic produce. For all strategies, we assessed greenhouse gas emissions, land use, nitrogen surplus, social risks, diet quality, and diet costs. RESULTS: The strategies revealed trade-offs between impact categories, unless combined in a synergistic way. While dietary changes towards more plant-based diets reduced environmental impacts (up-to 51%) and increased diet quality (up-to 57%), they increased social risks due to increased sourcing from contexts with potentially bad labour conditions (up-to 19%). Further, when the share of organic produce was increased, land use and dietary costs were increased (up-to 33% and 42%, respectively). The effect on land use could however be reversed when circularity principles were introduced in addition to the organic production standard, resulting in reductions for all environmental indicators (up-to 75%). Reducing food waste and increasing the share of domestic produce led to better sustainability performance as well, but at lower orders of magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Combining all proposed strategies could lead to substantial favorable changes on all impact categories assessed, but would require a thorough transformation of the current food system. Yet, also the sum of individual consumers each following only one of the strategies proposed makes up an important contribution towards improving the sustainability performance of the Swiss food system.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23438, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873236

RESUMO

Mycotoxins represent a major concern for human and animal health because of their harmful effects and high occurrence in food and feed. Rapid immunoanalytical methods greatly contribute to strengthening the safety of our food supply by efficiently monitoring chemical contaminants, so high-affinity and specific antibodies have been generated for almost all internationally regulated mycotoxins. The only exception is patulin, a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum for which such a target has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, no point-of-need tests commonly used in food immunodiagnostics are commercially available for patulin. In the present study, three functionalized derivatives conforming to generally accepted rules in hapten design were firstly tested to generate suitable antibodies for the sensitive immunodetection of patulin. However, these conventional bioconjugates were unable to elicit the desired immune response, so an alternative strategy that takes advantage of the high electrophilic reactivity of patulin was explored. Patulin was reacted with 4-bromothiophenol, and the obtained adduct was used to produce antibodies with nanomolar affinity values. These results demonstrated for the first time that targeting the adduct resulting from the reaction of patulin with a thiol-containing compound is a promising approach for developing user-friendly immunoanalytical techniques for this elusive mycotoxin.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare three strategies for reducing population health burden of osteoarthritis (OA): improved pharmacological treatment of OA-related pain, improved access to joint replacement surgery, and prevention of OA by reducing obesity and overweight. METHODS: We applied a validated computer microsimulation model of OA in Canada. The model simulated a Canadian-representative open population aged 20 years and older. Variables in the model included demographics, body mass index, OA diagnosis, OA treatment, mortality, and health-related quality of life. Model parameters were derived from analyses of national surveys, population-based administrative data, a hospital-based cohort study, and the literature. We compared 8 what-if intervention scenarios in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) relative to base-case, over a wide range of time horizons. RESULTS: Reductions in DALYs depended on the type of intervention, magnitude of the intervention, and the time horizon. Medical interventions (a targeted increase in the use of painkillers) tended to produce effects quickly and were, therefore, most effective over a short time horizon (a decade). Surgical interventions (increased access to joint replacement) were most effective over a medium time horizon (two decades or longer). Preventive interventions required a substantial change in BMI to generate a significant impact, but produced more reduction in DALYs than treatment strategies over a very long time horizon (several decades). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based modeling study we assessed the potential impact of three different burden reduction strategies in OA. Data generated by our model may help inform the implementation of strategies to reduce the burden of OA in Canada and elsewhere.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34880927

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional habits, lifestyle, anxiety, and coping strategies. Background: Anxiety is an underestimated and often undiagnosed subclinical disorder that burdens the general public of modern societies and increases illness suscentibility. Methods: The study group consisted of 693 individuals living in Peloponnese, Greece. A standardized questionnaire that consists of the dietary habits and lifestyle questionnaire, the trait Anxiety STAI-X-2 questionnaire and the brief-COPE questionnaire, was used. Principal components analysis identified the factors from the questionnaires, and stepwise multivariate regression analysis investigated their relationships. Results: Weekly consumption of fruits, tomatoes, salads and lettuce, together with Εmotional/Ιnstrumental support, Denial/Behavioural disengagement, substance use and self-blame, was the most important predictors of anxiety scores. Positive reframing/Humour and Acceptance/Planning are also associated with the Positive STAI factor and decreased anxiety scores. Conclusion: Healthy nutritional habits, comprised of consumption of salads and fruits, together with adaptive coping strategies, such as Positive reframing/Humour and Active problem solving, may provide the most profound improvement in the anxiety levels of a healthy population in Peloponnese, Greece.

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