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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 43-49, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016904

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death. DESIGN: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death. PARTICIPANTS: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from usafacts.org. INTERVENTIONS: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels. RESULTS: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comércio , Emprego , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948951

RESUMO

The built environment contributes to an individual's health, and rural geographies face unique challenges for healthy eating and active living. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity environments in rural communities with high obesity prevalence. One community within each of six high obesity prevalence counties in a rural Midwest state completed the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) and the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA). Data were collected by trained community members and study staff. All communities had at least one grocery store and five had at least one convenience store. Grocery stores had higher mean total NEMS-S scores than convenience stores (26.6 vs. 6.0, p < 0.001), and higher scores for availability (18.7 vs. 5.3, p < 0.001) and quality (5.4 vs. 0, p < 0.001) of healthful foods (higher scores are preferable). The mean RALA town-wide assessment score across communities was 56.5 + 15.6 out of a possible 100 points. The mean RALA program and policy assessment score was 40.8 + 20.4 out of a possible 100 points. While grocery stores and schools are important for enhancing food and physical environments in rural areas, many opportunities exist for improvements to impact behaviors and address obesity.


Assuntos
Comércio , População Rural , Exercício Físico , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48488

RESUMO

One of the most important questions the global health community should consider in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is how the private sector has impacted the public health response to the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48493

RESUMO

A Organização Panamericana da Saúde (OPAS) acaba de lançar um novo documento, intitulado “Marco de Referência sobre a Dimensão Comercial dos Determinantes Sociais da Saúde na agenda de enfrentamento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis”. Trata-se de uma publicação construída a partir da colaboração de vários especialistas, sobre um tema ainda novo, mas fundamental: os chamados determinantes comerciais da saúde (DCS)


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735499

RESUMO

When emerging technologies transform an organization's way of working, explorative business process management (BPM) becomes a new challenge. Although digital innovations can boost process efficacy and business productivity, employees do not necessarily accept the implied work changes. We therefore looked at the increased digitalization efforts during the COVID-19 lockdowns, during which employees were forced to drastically rethink work by heavily depending on technology for communication and almost all business tasks. This global setting allowed us to scrutinize disruptive work changes and how employees can cope with disruptive work adaptations. We also looked into the explorative skillset needed to adapt to these changes. To theorize about an explorative BPM acceptance model, eleven hypotheses were supported based on a solid theoretical foundation. We followed a quantitative research design using partial least squares for structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) at the university administration settings in two regions, including purposive sampling. Data analysis covered both a measurement model assessment and structural model assessment. Our findings reveal that employees' perceived work modalities, feeling creative and feeling flexible are more promising features than perceived influence and attitude related to explorative work and skill development. We also offer novel insights into explorative business process management (BPM) skills, and which skills are more productive in uncertain or dynamic working conditions. This research is a learning path for managers struggling with flexible or competitive business environments, and more specifically to facilitate employee willingness.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Emprego , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Criatividade , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Organizacionais , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634889

RESUMO

Fisher et al have published a thought-provoking article exploring the complex relationship between universal health coverage (UHC) and equity. This commentary builds on two of the lessons they highlight: the importance of ideas in determining how exactly UHC advances equity, and the political difficulties of addressing the commercial determinants of health. I argue that equity in UHC can be advanced through interventions that address popular prejudices against public health systems, greater emphasis on structural and commercial drivers of ill-health in health professionals' training, and by ensuring meaningful public participation in decision-making about the institutionalisation and management of UHC. These strategies are important for ensuring that the political, power-laden nature of concepts such as "universality", "health" and "care" are explicitly acknowledged and publicly debated - rather than continuing the current trend of allowing technocrats to reduce UHC to a matter of efficiently and expeditiously financing curative healthcare services.

7.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692391

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Idoso , Saúde Global , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Transfusion ; 61(10): 2814-2824, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510475

RESUMO

In March 2020, there were no treatment options for COVID-19. Passive immune therapy including anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG) was a logical candidate for COVID-19 therapeutic trials, given past success treating emerging pathogens with endogenous neutralizing antibodies. We established a plasma collection protocol for persons recovered from COVID-19. To speed recruitment in the first U.S. hotspot, Seattle, Washington, federal and state public health agencies collaborated with Bloodworks Northwest to collect convalescent plasma (CP) for manufacturing hIVIG. During March-December 2020, we identified and recruited prospective CP donors via letters to persons recovered from COVID-19 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prospective donors were pre-screened and administered a medical history survey. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers were classified as qualifying (≥1:80) or non-qualifying (<1:80) for enrollment based on a live virus neutralization assay. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify characteristics of donors associated with qualifying versus nonqualifying NAb titers. Overall, 21,359 letters resulted in 3207 inquiries, 2159 prescreenings with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 573 donors (27% of all pre-screenings with confirmed infection) who provided a screening plasma donation. Of 573 donors screened, 254 (44%) provided plasma with qualifying NAb titers, resulting in 1284 units for hIVIG manufacture. In a multivariable model, after adjusting for other factors, time (60 days) from COVID-19 symptom onset to screening was associated with lower odds of qualifying NAb (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94). The collaboration facilitated a rapid response to develop and provide hIVIG for clinical trials and CP for transfusion. Only 1 in 12 donor inquiries resulted in a qualifying plasma donation. Challenges included recruitment and the relatively low percentage of persons with high NAb titers and limited screening capacity. This resource-intensive collaboration may not be scalable but informs preparedness and response strategies for plasma collection in future epidemics. Operational readiness plans with templates for screening, consent, and data collection forms are recommended.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , COVID-19/terapia , Saúde Pública , Parcerias Público-Privadas , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMO

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Empreendedorismo , Conscientização , Autocontrole/psicologia , Motivação , Emprego/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability, price, and affordability of cardiovascular, diabetes, and global medicines in Abuja, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involving 27 private pharmacies, 13 public pharmacies, and 25 private hospital pharmacies in Abuja was conducted using the standardized World Health Organization/Health Action International methodology. The availability percentage for each pharmacy sector and each medicine was analyzed. The median price ratio (MPR) (ratio of the median price to the international reference prices) of the medicines were evaluated accordingly. Affordability was assessed by calculating the number of days' wages the lowest-paid unskilled government worker required to purchase a month worth of the standard treatment for a chronic condition. RESULTS: The availability of cardiovascular (CV) medicines ranged from 28.4% (in private hospital pharmacies) to 59.9% (in private pharmacies). There was mixed variability in the mean availability of Originator Brands (OBs) and Lowest Priced Generics (LPGs) anti-diabetic drugs with the highest availability being OBs 36% and LPGs 40.2%, in private pharmacies and public pharmacies, respectively. The availability of global drugs ranged from 49.7% in private hospitals to 68.8% in private pharmacies. Two cardiovascular and four global medicines had greater than 80% availability across the pharmaceutical sectors. The median price ratio for OBs and LPGs was 9.60 and 1.72 for procurement, it was 8.08 and 2.60 in private pharmacies, 13.56 and 2.66 in public hospitals, and 16.38 and 7.89 in private hospitals. The percentage markup on LPG was 49.4% in public hospitals, 51.4% in private pharmacies, and 323% in private hospitals. Only nine medicines in both public hospitals and private pharmacies and two in the private hospital pharmacies required less than the daily wage of the lowest-paid government worker. CONCLUSION: The availability of cardiovascular, diabetes, and global medicines was below 80% across the different pharmaceutical sectors in Abuja and the medicines were unaffordable. Although the prices were generally exorbitant, private pharmacies offered the best options in terms of availability, pricing, and affordability of medicines. Therefore, the results of this study emphasize the pertinence of enforcing policies that facilitate the availability, pricing, and affordability of cardiovascular, diabetes, and global medicines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/economia , Comércio/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371927

RESUMO

The availability, purchase and consumption of foods high in fat, sugars and salt and low in fibre are linked to the high health and economic burden of noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, in Europe. Therefore, assessing the quality of the food offer is key as feedback to decision makers, as well as to identify good practices and areas of the food supply still requiring urgent action. We combined detailed market share and sales data with nutrition composition data to evaluate the nutritional quality of 14 packaged food and soft drinks categories sold across 22 European countries over the 2015-2018 period. Our analysis shows great variability of the nutritional composition within and among packaged food and soft drinks categories across European countries. Our estimates of the market-share weighted mean, a measure that integrates possible changes in nutrient content with the amount of a product sold to consumers, as well as daily per capita nutrient sale estimates, suggest a small but statistically significant progress in certain food categories only. Overall, the amounts of sugars, saturated fat, salt and fibre being sold to European citizens through these products is not improving to an extent to meet public health objectives.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comércio/tendências , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Gorduras na Dieta/economia , Fibras na Dieta/economia , Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Embalagem de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais/tendências , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009702, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annually, about 2.7 million snakebite envenomings occur globally. Alongside antivenom, patients usually require additional care to treat envenoming symptoms and antivenom side effects. Efforts are underway to improve snakebite care, but evidence from the ground to inform this is scarce. This study, therefore, investigated the availability, affordability, and stock-outs of antivenom and commodities for supportive snakebite care in health facilities across Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used an adaptation of the standardised World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International methodology. Data on commodity availability, prices and stock-outs were collected in July-August 2020 from public (n = 85), private (n = 36), and private not-for-profit (n = 12) facilities in Kenya. Stock-outs were measured retrospectively for a twelve-month period, enabling a comparison of a pre-COVID-19 period to stock-outs during COVID-19. Affordability was calculated using the wage of a lowest-paid government worker (LPGW) and the impoverishment approach. Accessibility was assessed combining the WHO availability target (≥80%) and LPGW affordability (<1 day's wage) measures. Overall availability of snakebite commodities was low (43.0%). Antivenom was available at 44.7% of public- and 19.4% of private facilities. Stock-outs of any snakebite commodity were common in the public- (18.6%) and private (11.7%) sectors, and had worsened during COVID-19 (10.6% versus 17.0% public sector, 8.4% versus 11.7% private sector). Affordability was not an issue in the public sector, while in the private sector the median cost of one vial of antivenom was 14.4 days' wage for an LPGW. Five commodities in the public sector and two in the private sector were deemed accessible. CONCLUSIONS: Access to snakebite care is problematic in Kenya and seemed to have worsened during COVID-19. To improve access, efforts should focus on ensuring availability at both lower- and higher-level facilities, and improving the supply chain to reduce stock-outs. Including antivenom into Universal Health Coverage benefits packages would further facilitate accessibility.


Assuntos
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Antivenenos/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Setor Privado/economia , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/economia , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/economia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445006

RESUMO

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá , Comércio/economia , Comércio/normas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Programas Governamentais , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Pandemias , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(7): 557-564, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Explore workplace control frequencies and factors associated with US food retail workers' safety perceptions during COVID-19. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey captured working conditions and safety perceptions among a large, national sample of US food retail workers from July to October 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 40.3% reported feeling "not so" or "not protected" by COVID-19 controls. Administrative controls were more commonly reported (56.8% reported ≥5 controls) than engineering (19.5% reported ≥3). Fomite-related controls were more common than those reducing interpersonal contact. After adjustment, organizational safety climate (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.53, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.89), and perceived strict prevention measure enforcement (PR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.78) were associated with safety perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Many workers do not feel well-protected by COVID-19 controls. Safety climate and control enforcement are associated with workers' COVID-19 safety perceptions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Pandemias , Segurança , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 201: 111514, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139222

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), generating high numbers of COVID-19 related infected individuals and deaths, is still circulating in 2021 with new variants of the coronavirus, such that the state of emergency remains in manifold countries. Currently, there is still a lack of a full understanding of the factors determining the COVID-19 diffusion that clarify the causes of the variability of infections across different provinces and regions within countries. The main goal of this study is to explain new and main determinants underlying the diffusion of COVID-19 in society. This study focuses on international trade because this factor, in a globalized world, can synthetize different drivers of virus spread, such as mobility patterns, economic potentialities, and social interactions of an investigated areas. A case study research is performed on 107 provinces of Italy, one of the first countries to experience a rapid increase in confirmed cases and deaths. Statistical analyses from March 2020 to February 2021 suggest that total import and export of provinces has a high association with confirmed cases over time (average r > 0.78, p-value <.001). Overall, then, this study suggests total import and export as complex indicator of COVID-19 transmission dynamics that outclasses other common parameters used to justify the COVID-19 spread, given by economic, demographic, environmental, and climate factors. In addition, this study proposes, for the first time, a time-dependent correlation analysis between trade data and COVID-19 infection cases to explain the relation between confirmed cases and social interactions that are a main source of the diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent negative impact in society. These novel findings have main theoretical and practical implications directed to include a new parameter in modelling of the diffusion of COVID-19 pandemic to support effective policy responses of crisis management directed to constrain the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and similar infectious diseases in society.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Comércio , Demografia , Humanos , Internacionalidade , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 282: 114105, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139479

RESUMO

During the first seven months of the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 175,000 crowdfunding campaigns were established in the US for coronavirus-related needs using the platform GoFundMe. Though charitable crowdfunding has been popular in recent years, the widespread creation of COVID-19 related campaigns points to potential shifts in how the platform is being used, and the volume of needs users have brought to the site during a profound economic, social, and epidemiological crisis. This study offers a systematic examination of the scope and impacts of COVID-19 related crowdfunding in the early months of the pandemic and assesses how existing social and health inequities shaped crowdfunding use and outcomes. Using data collected from all US-based GoFundMe campaigns mentioning COVID or coronavirus, we used descriptive analysis and a series of negative binomial and linear models to assess the contributions of demographic factors and COVID-19 impacts to campaign creation and outcome. We find significant evidence of growing inequalities in outcomes for campaigners. We find that crowdfunding provides substantially higher benefits in wealthier counties with higher levels of education. People from these areas are more likely to initiate campaigns in response to adverse health and economic impacts of COVID-19, and they also receive more funding compared to people living in areas with lower income and education. Modeling also indicates differential outcomes based on the racial and ethnic composition of county population, though without more detail about who is creating and funding campaigns we cannot explain causality. A targeted qualitative analysis of the top earning COVID-19 campaigns offers further evidence of how user privilege and corporate practices contribute to highly unequal outcomes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how a market-oriented digital technology used to respond to large-scale crisis can exacerbate inequalities and further benefit already privileged groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Crowdsourcing , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Public Health ; 195: 152-157, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The retail food industry, a major essential business, is among the very few thriving sectors during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such prosperity on the store side does not guarantee a sufficient food supply for all populations. This study aims to understand if people's risk perception and food security status shaped their food procurement behaviors during the early outbreak of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Extended from the theory of risk perception, food consumers may behave differently during a disastrous event in terms of store patronization. The study evaluates how food procurement behaviors are affected by perceived risk aversion, resource scarcity, and consumers' food security status. METHODS: The study examines how people with different food security statuses made grocery shopping decisions at the risk of epidemic exposure based on a nationwide survey of 2590 participants in the U.S. during the early break of the pandemic in April 2020. The study uses a moderated mediation analysis on in-store shopping frequency and food expenditure. RESULTS: People having a food-secure status before the pandemic spent significantly more as a result of the reduced shopping frequency (i.e., the secure-insecure subgroup ß = -0.18, P < .01; the secure-secure subgroup ß = -0.35, P < .01). The increase in food expenditure was insignificant for people who were food-insecure before the pandemic (i.e., the insecure-insecure subgroup, ß = -0.01, P > .05; the insecure-secure subgroup, ß = -0.11, P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The study reports that in general people reduced the frequency of grocery shopping trips to avoid epidemic exposure while increasing the food expenditure per trip. The increase in food expenditure was not statistically significant among the food-insecure populations likely due to their budget constraints.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/psicologia , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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