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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012642, 2023 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37824273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants born preterm are at increased risk of early hypernatraemia (above-normal blood sodium levels) and late hyponatraemia (below-normal blood sodium levels). There are concerns that imbalances of sodium intake may impact neonatal morbidities, growth and developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of higher versus lower sodium supplementation in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL in February 2023; and MEDLINE, Embase and trials registries in March and April 2022. We checked reference lists of included studies and systematic reviews where subject matter related to the intervention or population examined in this review. We compared early (< 7 days following birth), late (≥ 7 days following birth), and early and late sodium supplementation, separately. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster-randomised controlled trials that compared nutritional supplementation that included higher versus lower sodium supplementation in parenteral or enteral intake, or both. Eligible participants were preterm infants born before 37 weeks' gestational age or with a birth weight less than 2500 grams, or both. We excluded studies that had prespecified differential water intakes between groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine studies in total. However, we were unable to extract data from one study (20 infants); some studies contributed to more than one comparison. Eight studies (241 infants) were available for quantitative meta-analysis. Four studies (103 infants) compared early higher versus lower sodium intake, and four studies (138 infants) compared late higher versus lower sodium intake. Two studies (103 infants) compared intermediate sodium supplementation (≥ 3 mmol/kg/day to < 5 mmol/kg/day) versus no supplementation, and two studies (52 infants) compared higher sodium supplementation (≥ 5 mmol/kg/day) versus no supplementation. We assessed only two studies (63 infants) as low risk of bias. Early (less than seven days following birth) higher versus lower sodium intake Early higher versus lower sodium intake may not affect mortality (risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 2.72; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 83 infants; low-certainty evidence). Neurodevelopmental follow-up was not reported. Early higher versus lower sodium intake may lead to a similar incidence of hyponatraemia < 130 mmol/L (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.13; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 83 infants; low-certainty evidence) but an increased incidence of hypernatraemia ≥ 150 mmol/L (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.65; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 103 infants; risk difference (RD) 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.34; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome 6, 95% CI 3 to 100; low-certainty evidence). Postnatal growth failure was not reported. The evidence is uncertain for an effect on necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.60, 95% CI 0.23 to 90.84; 1 study, 46 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Chronic lung disease at 36 weeks was not reported. Late (seven days or more following birth) higher versus lower sodium intake Late higher versus lower sodium intake may not affect mortality (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.20; 1 study, 49 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Neurodevelopmental follow-up was not reported. Late higher versus lower sodium intake may reduce the incidence of hyponatraemia < 130 mmol/L (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.50; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 69 infants; RD -0.42, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.24; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome 2, 95% CI 2 to 4; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is uncertain for an effect on hypernatraemia ≥ 150 mmol/L (RR 7.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 144.81; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 69 infants; very low-certainty evidence). A single small study reported that later higher versus lower sodium intake may reduce the incidence of postnatal growth failure (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.69; 1 study; 29 infants; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is uncertain for an effect on necrotising enterocolitis (RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.00 to 1.25; 1 study, 49 infants; very low-certainty evidence) and chronic lung disease (RR 2.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 5.20; 1 study, 49 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Early and late (day 1 to 28 after birth) higher versus lower sodium intake for preterm infants Early and late higher versus lower sodium intake may not have an effect on hypernatraemia ≥ 150 mmol/L (RR 2.50, 95% CI 0.63 to 10.00; 1 study, 20 infants; very low-certainty evidence). No other outcomes were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Early (< 7 days following birth) higher sodium supplementation may result in an increased incidence of hypernatraemia and may result in a similar incidence of hyponatraemia compared to lower supplementation. We are uncertain if there are any effects on mortality or neonatal morbidity. Growth and longer-term development outcomes were largely unreported in trials of early sodium supplementation. Late (≥ 7 days following birth) higher sodium supplementation may reduce the incidence of hyponatraemia. We are uncertain if late higher intake affects the incidence of hypernatraemia compared to lower supplementation. Late higher sodium intake may reduce postnatal growth failure. We are uncertain if late higher sodium intake affects mortality, other neonatal morbidities or longer-term development. We are uncertain if early and late higher versus lower sodium supplementation affects outcomes.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Pneumopatias , Sódio na Dieta , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Sódio , Transtornos do Crescimento , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
2.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 23(1): 201, 2023 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multifaceted condition that impacts individuals across various age, racial, and socioeconomic demographics, hence rendering them susceptible to a range of health complications and an increased risk of premature mortality. The frequency of obesity among adolescent females in Iran has exhibited an increase from 6 to 9%, while among boys, it has risen from 2 to 7%. Due to the increasing prevalence and advancements in technology, the primary objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a smartphone-based app that would serve as an educational tool for parents about the matter of childhood overweight and obesity. Additionally, the app aimed to enhance parents' capacity to effectively address and manage their children's weight-related concerns. METHODS: The design of the present study is of an applied-developmental type. In the first phase, the content of related smartphone-based app was determined based on the needs identified in similar studies and the findings of a researcher-made questionnaire. The versions of the app were designed in the android studio 3 programming environment, using the Java 8 programming language and SQLite database. Then, in order to evaluate the app's usability, ease of access, and different features, the standard usability evaluation questionnaire and the user satisfaction questionnaire (QUIS) were completed by the users. RESULTS: The developed app has five main sections: the main page, recommendation section (with eight parts), charts over the time, child psychology, and reminders for each user. The designed app was given to 20 people including nutritionists and parents with children under 18 years of age for conducting usability evaluation. According to the scores of participants about the usability evaluation of the app, it can be concluded that groups participating in the study could use the program, and they rated the app at a "good" level. Overall performance of the app, screen capabilities, terms and information of the program, learnability, and general features are scored higher than 7.5 out of 9. CONCLUSION: By using this app, people can become familiar with the causes and symptoms of weight imbalance and manage their weight as best as possible. This app can be considered as a model for designing and creating similar broader systems and programs for the prevention, management, treatment and care of diseases, which aim to help control diseases as much as possible and increase the quality of life and reduce complications for be patients.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Obesidade Pediátrica , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Smartphone , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Nurs Crit Care ; 2023 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caring for bereaved families is an important aspect of the nursing role in critical care. Memory making practices are one way in which dying, death and bereavement can be acknowledged and supported within critical care. Memory making was introduced into the care of stillborn babies and neonatal deaths to improve parents' experiences of bereavement, and has since become common practice in adult critical care. AIMS: The aim of this qualitative thematic synthesis was to explore families' experiences of memory making in critical care, with a view of gaining greater understanding of the ways in which memory making impacts bereaved families. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was developed, and five databases were searched (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Embase and ASSIA). Seven qualitative studies were included: four were conducted in adult and three in paediatric critical care settings in which memory making was initiated between 2014 and 2020. Memory making practices included, patient diaries, general keepsakes, word clouds and photography. RESULTS: The thematic synthesis generated four main themes to describe families' experience of memory making in critical care: 'connection', 'compassion', 'engagement and creation' and 'continuation'. CONCLUSIONS: Memory making is a meaningful activity for families whose loved one dies in critical care; it brings focus and meaning during a devastating process in a highly technical environment. Families rely heavily on nursing staff for support and guidance. The creation of memories and/or keepsakes can have a positive impact on the bereavement experience for families and can facilitate a continuing bond with their loved one. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Memory making is a worthwhile practice to support and guide family bereavement within critical care. It can provide structure and purpose during an emotionally challenging transition, by supporting families to focus on a meaningful activity during a devasting time.

4.
J Pediatr ; 264: 113763, 2023 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of inconsistency between pictures on baby diaper packaging and safe infant sleep recommendations (SISRs) in Europe. STUDY DESIGN: We attempted to identify all packaging of baby diapers sold in 11 European countries for infants weighing less than 5 kg through internet searches from July 2022 through February 2023. For each type of package, we extracted whether there was a picture depicting a baby, whether the baby was sleeping, and whether the picture of the sleeping baby was inconsistent with ≥1 of 3 SISRs: (i) nonsupine sleeping position, (ii) soft objects or loose bedding, or (iii) sharing a sleep surface with another person. Data were aggregated at the country level, and a random-effects meta-analysis of proportions was used to obtain summary estimates. The outcome was the summary estimate of the proportion of pictures that were inconsistent with SISRs. RESULTS: We identified 631 baby diaper packaging types of which 49% (95% CI: 42-57; n = 311) displayed a picture of a sleeping baby. Among those 311 packages, 79% (95% CI 73-84) were inconsistent with ≥1 SISR, including a nonsupine sleeping position, 45% (95% CI 39-51), soft objects or loose bedding such as pillows or blankets, 51% (95% CI 46-57), and sharing a sleep surface with another person, 10% (95% CI 4-18). CONCLUSIONS: Pictures on baby diaper packaging in Europe are often inconsistent with SISRs. The prevention of sudden unexpected death in infancy requires action from manufacturers and legislators to stop parents' exposure to misleading images that may lead to dangerous practices.

5.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 15(5): 545-561, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37827976

RESUMO

Allergic diseases are increasing both in morbidity and mortality. Genetic, environmental, and dietary factors may all be involved in this increase. Nutrition during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and early life may play a particularly important role in preventing allergic diseases. Based on current systematic reviews, the intake of specific nutrients has failed to prevent allergic disease. Prevention strategies have shifted their focus to the overall diet which can be described using diet diversity. Infant and maternal diet diversity in pregnancy has been associated with reduced allergy outcomes in childhood. Overall, diet also seems to have a marked effect on the microbiome compared to single foods. Factors that may negate the allergy-preventative effect of overall diet diversity include the addition of emulsifiers, advanced glycation end-product content, and overuse of commercial baby foods. There is a need to perform randomized controlled trials using overall dietary intake to support international food allergy guidelines. These studies should ideally be conducted by multi-professional teams.

6.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 37(4): 340-347, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia is a known risk for sudden unexpected infant death. The practice of hat placement at birth to prevent transient hypothermia may not be necessary and sets an early standard for clothing infants that may lead to hyperthermia postnatally. OBJECTIVE: To examine the elimination of hats on thermoregulation (eg, hypothermia, <97.6°F) in full-term newborns with no abnormalities within 24 hours of birth. METHODS: In 2018, an institution guideline discontinued the use of hats at birth. Subsequently, newborn body temperatures were respectively extracted from electronic health records and data were compared from 482 infants (>38 weeks' gestation and newborn birth weight >2500 g) prior to ( n = 257) and following ( n = 225) the practice change. Body temperatures prior to and after the practice change to eliminate hats use were compared. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed: (1) in the proportion of infants experiencing hypothermia with or without hat use, respectively, 23.7% compared with 31.1% ( P = .09) and (2) in the odds of an infant experiencing hypothermia when adjusting for relevant covariates (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% confidence interval 0.89-2.32; P = .14). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the use of hats on infants at birth had no measurable impact on newborn thermoregulation.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Feminino , Gravidez , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perinatal , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Idade Gestacional
7.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1252495, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37732007

RESUMO

Pediatric solid organ transplant is a life-saving procedure for children with end-stage organ failure. Viral infections are a common complication following pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT), which can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk of viral infections due to their immunosuppressed state. The most commonly encountered viruses include cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), adenoviruses, and BK polyomavirus. Prevention strategies include vaccination prior to transplantation, post-transplant prophylaxis with antiviral agents, and preemptive therapy. Treatment options vary depending on the virus and may include antiviral therapy and sometimes immunosuppression modification. This review provides a Quick Algorithmic overview of prevention and treatment strategies for viral infectious diseases in pediatric solid organ transplant recipient.

8.
World Psychiatry ; 22(3): 366-387, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713568

RESUMO

Populations with common physical diseases - such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders - experience substantially higher rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) than the general population. On the other hand, people living with MDD have a greater risk for many physical diseases. This high level of comorbidity is associated with worse outcomes, reduced adherence to treatment, increased mortality, and greater health care utilization and costs. Comorbidity can also result in a range of clinical challenges, such as a more complicated therapeutic alliance, issues pertaining to adaptive health behaviors, drug-drug interactions and adverse events induced by medications used for physical and mental disorders. Potential explanations for the high prevalence of the above comorbidity involve shared genetic and biological pathways. These latter include inflammation, the gut microbiome, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, and brain structure and function. Furthermore, MDD and physical diseases have in common several antecedents related to social factors (e.g., socioeconomic status), lifestyle variables (e.g., physical activity, diet, sleep), and stressful live events (e.g., childhood trauma). Pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies are effective treatments for comorbid MDD, and the introduction of lifestyle interventions as well as collaborative care models and digital technologies provide promising strategies for improving management. This paper aims to provide a detailed overview of the epidemiology of the comorbidity of MDD and specific physical diseases, including prevalence and bidirectional risk; of shared biological pathways potentially implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD and common physical diseases; of socio-environmental factors that serve as both shared risk and protective factors; and of management of MDD and physical diseases, including prevention and treatment. We conclude with future directions and emerging research related to optimal care of people with comorbid MDD and physical diseases.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(4): 965-974, 2023 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37669757

RESUMO

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) is a frequent condition that, if left untreated, can lead to neurological disability and death. We assessed the prevalence of NH and associated neonatal and maternal risk factors in 362 mothers and 365 newborns in a semi-rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition, we explored the knowledge and practices of mothers regarding this condition. We collected demographic data, anthropometric data, and obstetric and medical anamneses. We examined newborns at birth and at 24, 48, and 72 hours and measured bilirubin at birth in umbilical cord and capillary blood and thereafter in capillary blood. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, ABO group, Rhesus factor, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, Hemoglobin S (HbS), and malaria were assessed in mothers and newborns. Among 296 newborns (all time points available), 5.7% developed NH (95% CI: 3.4-9.0) between 24 and 72 hours according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guidelines. There was a significantly higher risk in newborns with G6PD deficiency (homo- and hemizygous adjusted Odd Ratio [aOR]: 21.0, 95% CI: 4.1-105.9), preterm births (aOR: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.4-26.9), newborns with excessive birth weight loss (aOR: 5.8, 95% CI: 1.4-23.2), and hyperbilirubinemia at birth (aOR: 14.8, 95% CI: 2.7-79.6). Newborns with feto-maternal ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency had significantly higher bilirubin at birth than others. More than 60% of mothers had adequate knowledge of NH, but compliance with phototherapy in the absence of symptoms was low. Although risk factors for NH are common in this area, prevalence was not high, suggesting a need for better case definition. Implementation of point-of-care devices for diagnosis and awareness programs on risk prevention could help reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with hyperbilirubinemia in these areas.

10.
Foods ; 12(18)2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761048

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a bacterial pathogen responsible for listeriosis, a foodborne illness associated with high rates of mortality (20-30%) and hospitalisation. It is particularly dangerous among vulnerable groups, such as newborns, pregnant women and the elderly. The persistence of this organism in food-associated environments for months to years has been linked to several devastating listeriosis outbreaks. It may also result in significant costs to food businesses and economies. Currently, the mechanisms that facilitate LM persistence are poorly understood. Unravelling the enigma of what drives listerial persistence will be critical for developing more targeted control and prevention strategies. One prevailing hypothesis is that persistent strains exhibit stronger biofilm production on abiotic surfaces in food-associated environments. This review aims to (i) provide a comprehensive overview of the research on the relationship between listerial persistence and biofilm formation from phenotypic and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies; (ii) to highlight the ongoing challenges in determining the role biofilm development plays in persistence, if any; and (iii) to propose future research directions for overcoming these challenges.

11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(18)2023 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761782

RESUMO

Preconception care (PCC) is the provision of biomedical, behavioural, and social health interventions to women and couples before they fall pregnant. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed PCC recommendations in 2013, which were included in the South African maternity care guidelines in 2016. The purpose of PCC is to lessen behaviours and environmental factors leading to maternal ill-health, thus reducing maternal and perinatal mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To determine the implementation of PCC recommendations at health facilities in the selected districts of Limpopo Province and the associated factors. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory design was used. Nonprobability, purposive sampling was used to sample 29 professional nurses (PNs), and 51 women of childbearing age (WCBA) (19-35 years) from clinics and community health centres (CHCs). Data were collected through in-depth interviews with the professional nurses and focus group discussions with the WCBA. Data analysis was performed through open coding. Measures of trustworthiness were adhered to. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from relevant stakeholders, participation was voluntary and participants signed a consent form prior to data collection. RESULTS: The findings of the study revealed that there was partial implementation of the PCC recommendations in the selected districts of Limpopo Province, PCC provision was dependent on clients' initiation, a knowledge gap regarding PCC recommendations was identified from the professional nurses, and a lack of awareness regarding PCC from the WCBA. CONCLUSION: The preconception period is an important determinant of the pregnancy outcome; therefore, focus should be redirected to the pre-pregnancy period and not only to when the woman is already pregnant. However, to achieve this, professional nurses and WCBA should be empowered regarding PCC and its benefits.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 11(18)2023 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37761718

RESUMO

(1) Background: Routine episiotomy is not recommended by international guidelines; however, it occurs at a high rate in Vietnam. (2) Methods: A process to reduce unnecessary episiotomies was developed and implemented as part of the Centers of Excellence for Breastfeeding initiative, which aims to deliver high-quality breastfeeding and early essential newborn care services within a supportive policy environment. The aim of this project report is to outline the steps undertaken to reduce episiotomies, the experience in pilot hospitals, and the process towards changing policy. (3) Results: During the 14 months following the change in episiotomy policy, pilot hospital records showed no infant death or injury. Monthly monitoring data from four pilot hospitals showed that the prevalence of episiotomy was substantially lower than the average in national hospitals in Vietnam. Facilitators to reducing the episiotomy rate include the incentive of Centers of Excellence for Breastfeeding designation and supportive hospital leadership. Challenges include the ambiguity of Vietnam's national guideline on episiotomy and lack of routine monitoring on the episiotomy rate and indications. (4) Discussion: Our experience suggests that through training and routine monitoring hospitals can apply a policy of selective episiotomy and reduce the practice, particularly among multiparous women, and improve breastfeeding rates.(5) Conclusions: Sharing our experience of implementing this process and offering four areas for action will hopefully contribute to expanded use of mother-friendly, evidence-based care as policy and routine practice in Vietnam and similar settings.

13.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; : 1-10, 2023 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768195

RESUMO

Parents who have a baby receiving care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) likely all experience emotional distress and are at elevated risk of experiencing trauma. The NICU environment is a potential source of traumatic stress for parents and often the risk for neonatal death is substantial. While the stressors facing parents are considerable, the effects can be minimized through implementation of trauma-informed care. The Family Guidance Tool was developed to help parents and healthcare professionals in a NICU setting utilize a strengths-based approach to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding while encouraging the family to be the guide. This practical tool shows promise to mitigate stress often experienced by parents in a NICU setting.

14.
Arch Pediatr ; 30(7): 483-485, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37704526

RESUMO

AIM: To assess advice given to parents who wish to travel to high altitudes with an infant and to provide guidance on this topic. METHOD: Using an anonymous self-report survey online, we collected information on the advice provided by practitioners, who practice in mountain environments, to parents who wish to travel to altitude with an infant. General practitioners and pediatricians working in the French Alps were asked about the maximum allowable altitude for different ages and the specific recommendations given. RESULTS: A total of 104 practitioners (39% general practitioners) responded to the study. Overall, to spend 1 day at altitude, practitioners recommended a median altitude of 1200, 1500, 1600, and 2000 m for infants under 1, 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Their main recommendations for infant protection focused on cold protection, increased hydration, and increased humidity level in the ambient air. Prevention of sudden infant death syndrome was essential according to the respondents. For infants with upper airway infection, most of the participants (90%, n = 94) recommended against traveling to altitude. CONCLUSION: This survey revealed a certain consensus about the maximum travel altitude to be recommended for infants.


Assuntos
Altitude , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Lactente , Autorrelato , Consenso , Umidade
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 78, 2023 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37620861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human rabies outbreak transmitted by bats continues to be a relevant public health problem not only in the Amazon region. The disease has affected one of the areas with the greatest poverty in southeastern Brazil, a region inhabited by the Maxakali indigenous people. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe four cases of rabies among indigenous children that occurred in the indigenous village of Pradinho, municipality of Bertópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cases were notified between April and May 2022, all of whom died on average eight days after the first symptoms. All cases were observed in rural residents under 12 years of age. The probable form of exposure was through bat bites. The predominant symptoms were prostration, fever, dyspnea, sialorrhea, tachycardia, and altered level of consciousness. Half of the cases underwent late and/or incomplete post-exposure rabies prophylaxis, however, the other half underwent pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis, with only one case completing the scheme and another undergoing the adapted Milwaukee Protocol (Recife Protocol). All cases ended in death. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first rabies outbreak among indigenous people in Brazil. Among the manifested clinical forms in the series, there was a disease atypical presentation in at least one case. We suggest active surveillance and an intercultural educational campaign to prevent new cases.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Raiva , Humanos , Criança , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Pública
16.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1484, 2023 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37537548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for innovative approaches to adolescent obesity treatment, particularly among individuals from racially and ethnically marginalized backgrounds, who face increased risk of obesity and its associated morbidity and mortality. There is a particular dearth of research on the long-term efficacy of adolescent obesity treatments. Further, research and clinical practice guidelines consistently recommend parents' inclusion in their adolescents' obesity treatment, yet the most effective strategy to engage parents in adolescent obesity treatment remains unclear. Towards that end, this investigation will conduct a fully-powered, randomized clinical trial to examine the efficacy of two distinct approaches to involving parents in their adolescents' obesity treatment. METHODS: Participants will be 210 12-16 year old adolescents (body mass index [BMI]≥85th percentile) and parents (BMI≥25 kg/m2) with overweight or obesity. Dyads will be randomized to one of two 4-month treatments: 1) TEENS+Parents as Coaches (PAC), engaging parents as helpers in their child's weight management via parent skills training based on authoritative parenting, or 2) TEENS+Parent Weight Loss (PWL), engaging parents in their own behavioral weight management. All adolescents will participate in the TEENS+ protocol, which includes nutrition education with dietary goals, supervised physical activity, and behavioral support, and integrates motivational interviewing to enhance treatment engagement. Assessments of anthropometrics, dietary intake, physical activity, parenting and home environment variables will be completed at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 months with the primary endpoint at 12-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: Results of this investigation have the potential to significantly advance science in this area and ultimately inform clinical practice guidelines related to the role of parents in adolescent obesity treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03851796. Registered: February 22, 2019.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pais/educação , Terapia Comportamental , Sobrepeso/terapia
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD015311, 2023 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37646367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the early 2010s, there has been a push to enhance the capacity to effectively treat wasting in children through community-based service delivery models and thus reduce morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of identification and treatment of moderate and severe wasting in children aged five years or under by lay health workers working in the community compared with health providers working in health facilities. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, two other databases, and two ongoing trials registers to 24 September 2021. We also screened the reference lists of related systematic reviews and all included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies in children aged five years or under with moderate wasting (defined as weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) below -2 but no lower than ≥ -3, or mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) below 125 mm but no lower than 115 mm, and no nutritional oedema) or severe wasting (WHZ below -3 or MUAC below 115 mm or nutritional oedema). Eligible interventions were: • identification by lay health workers (LHWs) of children with wasting (intervention 1); • identification by LHWs of children with wasting and medical complications needing referral (intervention 2); and • identification by LHWs of children with wasting without medical complications needing referral (intervention 3). Eligible comparators were: • identification and treatment of wasting by health professionals such as nurses or doctors (at health facilities); and • identification and treatment of wasting by health facility-based teams, including health professionals and LHWs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool (RoB 2) and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines. We used a random-effects model to meta-analyse data, producing risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes in trials with individual allocation, adjusted RRs for dichotomous outcomes in trials with cluster allocation (using the generic inverse variance method in Review Manager 5), and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included two RCTs and five non-RCTs. Six studies were from African countries, and one was from Pakistan. Six studies included children with severe wasting, and one included children with moderate wasting. All studies offered home-based ready-to-use therapeutic food treatment and monitoring. Children received antibiotics in three studies, vitamins or micronutrients in three studies, and deworming treatment in two studies. In three studies, the comparison arm involved LHWs screening children for malnutrition and referring them to health facilities for diagnosis and treatment. All the non-randomised studies had a high overall risk of bias. Interventions 1 and 2 Identification and referral for treatment by LHWs, compared with treatment by health professionals following self-referral, may result in little or no difference in the percentage of children who recover from moderate or severe wasting (MD 1.00%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.53 to 4.53; 1 RCT, 29,475 households; low certainty). Intervention 3 Compared with treatment by health professionals following identification by LHWs, identification and treatment of severe wasting in children by LHWs: • may slightly reduce improvement from severe wasting (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 1 RCT, 789 participants; low certainty); • may slightly increase non-response to treatment (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.01; 1 RCT, 789 participants; low certainty); • may result in little or no difference in the number of children with WHZ above -2 on discharge (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.18; 1 RCT, 789 participants; low certainty); • probably results in little or no difference in the number of children with WHZ between -3 and -2 on discharge (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.36; 1 RCT, 789 participants; moderate certainty); • probably results in little or no difference in the number of children with WHZ below -3 (severe wasting) on discharge (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.75 to 2.04; 1 RCT, 789 participants; moderate certainty); • probably results in little or no difference in the number of children with MUAC equal to or greater than 115 mm on discharge (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.06; 1 RCT, 789 participants; moderate certainty); • results in little or no difference in weight gain per day (mean weight gain 0.50 g/kg/day higher, 95% CI 1.74 lower to 2.74 higher; 1 RCT, 571 participants; high certainty); • probably has little or no effect on relapse of severe wasting (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.54; 1 RCT, 649 participants; moderate certainty); • may have little or no effect on mortality among children with severe wasting (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.04 to 5.98; 1 RCT, 829 participants; low certainty); • probably has little or no effect on the transfer of children with severe wasting to inpatient care (RR 3.71, 95% CI 0.36 to 38.23; 1 RCT, 829 participants; moderate certainty); and • probably has little or no effect on the default of children with severe wasting (RR 1.48, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.40; 1 RCT, 829 participants; moderate certainty). The evidence was very uncertain for total MUAC gain, MUAC gain per day, total weight gain, treatment coverage, and transfer to another LHW site or health facility. No studies examined sustained recovery, deterioration to severe wasting, appropriate identification of children with wasting or oedema, appropriate referral of children with moderate or severe wasting, adherence, or adverse effects and other harms. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Identification and treatment of severe wasting in children who do not require inpatient care by LHWs, compared with treatment by health professionals, may lead to similar or slightly poorer outcomes. We found only two RCTs, and the evidence from non-randomised studies was of very low certainty for all outcomes due to serious risks of bias and imprecision. No studies included children aged under 6 months. Future studies must address these methodological issues.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Saúde da Criança , Criança , Humanos , Família , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária
18.
Children (Basel) ; 10(8)2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37628364

RESUMO

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of infant mortality across the United States and the world. There are multiple environmental and behavioral determinants of sudden infant death which are modifiable risk factors and potential targets for intervention. In this increasingly digital era, health education and communication on SIDS have taken many forms, which extend to social media. Current published studies on coverage of infant safe sleep practices are scant and were published well before the newly revised guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics that review ways to prevent infant sleep-related deaths based on evidence-based SIDS-reduction measures. In this Perspective: Review of a Pediatric Field, the current state of published knowledge and coverage on a range of infant safe sleep considerations across social media are reviewed. We delineate gaps in the knowledge and practice as well as the central differences between the 2016 and 2022 AAP Safe Sleep guidelines. We also present recommendations for further research and practice which support coverage of future content on the revised guidelines across social media as the basis to present the most up-to-date and evidence-based information for reducing sudden infant death from sleep-related causes. Tapping into the potential of social media as a learning modality in health promotion also contributes towards the larger goal of the World Health Organization, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and Healthy People 2030 to reduce infant mortality on both global and national levels.

19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1226387, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37635957

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that can manifest with skeletal malformations, ambiguous genitalia, and menstrual disorders caused by cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations affecting electron transfer to all microsomal cytochrome P450 and some non-P450 enzymes involved in cholesterol, sterol, and drug metabolism. With the advancement of molecular biology and medical genetics, increasing numbers of PORD cases were reported, and the clinical spectrum of PORD was extended with studies on underlying mechanisms of phenotype-genotype correlations and optimum treatment. However, diagnostic challenges and management dilemma still exists because of unawareness of the condition, the overlapping manifestations with other disorders, and no clear guidelines for treatment. Delayed diagnosis and management may result in improper sex assignment, loss of reproductive capacity because of surgical removal of ruptured ovarian macro-cysts, and life-threatening conditions such as airway obstruction and adrenal crisis. The clinical outcomes and prognosis, which are influenced by specific POR mutations, the presence of additional genetic or environmental factors, and management, include early death due to developmental malformations or adrenal crisis, bilateral oophorectomies after spontaneous rupture of ovarian macro-cysts, genital ambiguity, abnormal pubertal development, and nearly normal phenotype with successful pregnancy outcomes by assisted reproduction. Thus, timely diagnosis including prenatal diagnosis with invasive and non-invasive techniques and appropriate management is essential to improve patients' outcomes. However, even in cases with conclusive diagnosis, comprehensive assessment is needed to avoid severe complications, such as chromosomal test to help sex assignment and evaluation of adrenal function to detect partial adrenal insufficiency. In recent years, it has been noted that proper hormone replacement therapy can lead to decrease or resolve of ovarian macro-cysts, and healthy babies can be delivered by in vitro fertilization and frozen embryo transfer following adequate control of multiple hormonal imbalances. Treatment may be complicated with adverse effects on drug metabolism caused by POR mutations. Unique challenges occur in female PORD patients such as ovarian macro-cysts prone to spontaneous rupture, masculinized genitalia without progression after birth, more frequently affected pubertal development, and impaired fertility. Thus, this review focuses only on 46, XX PORD patients to summarize the potential molecular pathogenesis, differential diagnosis of classic and non-classic PORD, and tailoring therapy to maintain health, avoid severe complications, and promote fertility.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler , Cistos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/genética , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/terapia , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler/diagnóstico , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler/genética , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler/terapia , Ruptura Espontânea , Cariótipo , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/terapia
20.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(2): 58329, 02/08/2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510292

RESUMO

Na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança-Neofoi proposto o uso da chupeta na Unidade Neonatal (UN) de modo terapêutico, e sempre com supervisão de um profissional de saúde. Mas observa-se que o aparato conhecido como "Luva Chupeta" fabricado com o uso de uma luva de látex está sendo utilizado como alternativa para acalentar o recém-nascido (RN). Apesar de poucos estudos, é evidente que esse dispositivo deve ser contraindicado na UN, uma vez que pode provocar alergia ao látex, transmitir infecções, provocar acidentes graves como aspiração laringotraqueal do algodão devido ao rompimento da luva de látex, e dependendo do tamanho do material, obstruir as vias aéreas, e levar a óbito. Além do mais, o dispositivo pode interferir negativamente no crescimento e no desenvolvimento craniofacial e causar prejuízos associados à amamentação e na saúde materno infantil. A substituição da "Luva Chupeta" por outras estratégias, até mesmo pela chupeta convencional ou ortodôntica, para lidar com a dor e situações de estresse do RN deve ser decisiva para evitar os riscos de acidentes graves. O Protocolo de uso de bicos, Protocolo de manejo da dor do RN, adoção do Método Canguru na UN para promoção do desenvolvimento e comportamento do RN, e a capacitação/monitoramento das práticas adotas pela Equipe Materno Infantil, quanto ao cuidado ofertado são alternativas mais complexas, mas que devem ser analisadas por aqueles que desejam oferecer confiabilidade aos seus processos institucionais. (AU)


In the Baby-Friendly Hospital-Neo Initiative, the use of pacifiers in the Neonatal Unit (UN) was proposed in a therapeutic way, and always under the supervision of a health professional. However, it should be noted that the device known as "Pacifier Glove" manufactured using a latex glove is being used as an alternative to cherish the newborn. Despite few studies, it is clear that this device should be contraindicated in the UN, since it can cause allergy to latex, transmit infections, cause serious accidents such as laryngotracheal aspiration of cotton due to the rupture of the latex glove, and depending on the size of the material, obstruct the airways, and lead to death. Furthermore, the device may interfere with craniofacial growth and development and cause harm associated with breastfeeding and maternal and child health. The substitution of the "Pacifier Glove" for other strategies, even for the conventional or orthodontic pacifier, to deal with the pain and stress situations of the baby should be avoided to avoid the risk of serious accidents.The teat use protocol, the baby's pain management protocol, the adoption of the Kangaroo Method in the neonatal unit to promote the baby's development and behavior, and the training/monitoring of the practices adopted by the Maternal and Child Team, regarding the care offered, are alternatives more complex, but which must be analyzed by those who wish to offer reliability to their institutional processes. (AU)


En la Iniciativa Hospital Amigo del Niño-Neo, se propuso terapéuticamente el uso del chupete en la Unidad Neonatal (UN), y siempre bajo la supervisión de un profesional de la salud. Pero se observa que el dispositivo conocido como "chupete Gluva", fabricado con el uso de un guante de látex, está siendo utilizado como una alternativa para cuidar al recién nacido (NB). A pesar de los pocos estudios, es evidente que este dispositivo debe estar contraindicado en la NU, ya que puede causar alergia al látex, transmitir infecciones, ocasionar accidentes graves como aspiración laringotraqueal de algodón por rotura del guante de látex, y dependiendo de la El tamaño del material obstruye las vías respiratorias y provoca la muerte. Además, el dispositivo puede interferir negativamente con el crecimiento y desarrollo craneofacial y causar daños asociados con la lactancia materna y la salud maternoinfantil. La sustitución del "Dummy Glove" por otras estrategias, incluso el chupete convencional u ortodóncico, para hacer frente a las situaciones de dolor y estrés del RN debe ser determinante para evitar el riesgo de accidentes graves. El Protocolo de Uso del Pezón, el Protocolo de Manejo del Dolor del RN, la adopción del Método Canguro en la NU para promover el desarrollo y comportamiento del RN, y la capacitación/seguimiento de las prácticas adoptadas por el Equipo Materno Infantil, en cuanto a los cuidados ofrecidos, son más alternativas eficientes, complejas, pero que deben ser analizadas por quienes deseen brindar confiabilidad a sus procesos institucionales. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chupetas/efeitos adversos , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , Luvas Protetoras , Hipersensibilidade ao Látex , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
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