Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.713
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150777, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619197

RESUMO

In a changing climate and in social context, tools and databases with high spatiotemporal resolution are needed for increasing the knowledge on the relationship between meteorological events and flood impacts; hence, analysis of high-resolution spatiotemporal databases with detailed information on the frequency, intensity, and impact of floods is necessary. However, the methodological nature of flood databases hinders relating specific flood events to the weather events that cause them; hence, methodologies for classifying flood cases according to the synoptic patterns that generate them are also necessary. Knowing which synoptic patterns are likely to generate risk situations allows for a probabilistic approach with high spatial resolution regarding the timing of occurrence, affected area, and expected damage from floods. To achieve these objectives, we use the SMC-Flood Database, a high-resolution spatiotemporal flood database covering the 1960-2015 period for all municipalities along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. To relate floods with the synoptic conditions that generated them, we used a multivariate analysis method on the corrected daily anomalies of the surface pressure fields, 850 hPa temperature, and 500 hPa geopotential height, all of which were obtained from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project V2. Results show that 12 atmospheric synoptic patterns can statistically explain the 3608 flood cases that occurred in the study area between 1960 and 2015. These flood cases were classified into 847 atmospherically induced flood events. These results reduce the uncertainty during decision making because of the classification of potential risk situations. The Mediterranean Basin is a region where floods have serious socioeconomic impacts; hence, this work helps improving prevention measures and providing information for policymakers, mainly regarding land use planning and early warning systems.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Inundações , Cidades , Clima , Incerteza
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150772, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619207

RESUMO

The flood storage of lakes and reservoirs plays an important role in flood regulation and control in floodplains. However, the flood storage capacity of lakes and reservoirs is ineffectively quantified at the basin scale due to the limited access to in-situ data and poor quality of optical satellite images in flooding seasons. To address this, taking a typical floodplain basin (the Poyang Lake basin) in the Yangtze as a study case, radar satellite data combined with measured bathymetry and digital elevation model data were utilized to reconstruct the time series of the water inundation area and water storage change of all lakes and reservoirs larger than 1 km2 during the once-in-a-generation flood event that occurred in 2020 (termed as the 2020 flood event hereafter). Results show that the flood storage capacity of Poyang Lake can reach the maximum at 12.18 Gt, and that for other lakes and reservoirs within the basin is approximately 2.95 Gt. It indicates a total flood-storage capacity of 15.13 Gt for the basin-scale lakes and reservoirs, approximately accounting for 45.02% of the terrestrial water storage change of the basin. The storage capacity of Poyang Lake was approximately four times larger than the entirety of other lakes and reservoirs in the basin despite that its maximum water inundation area is in the proportion of 2.58 times other water bodies. This finding indicates that the Poyang Lake provided the dominant contribution to flood storage among all the lakes and reservoirs in the basin. This study introduced a remote sensing approach to quantify the flood storage capacity of basin-scale lakes and reservoirs at high spatial and temporal resolutions during the flood event, which could fill the insufficiently-quantified knowledge about dynamics of lakes and reservoirs in areas lacking full-covered in-situ data records. This study also helps to offer a quantitative basis to improve flood forecasting and control for the public authority, stakeholders, and decision-makers.


Assuntos
Inundações , Lagos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Estações do Ano , Água
3.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627815

RESUMO

Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 2010, much research has been conducted on the cardiotoxic effects of oil on fish. Sensitive life history stages, such as the embryonic period, have been targeted to elucidate the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the developing cardiovascular systems of fish. However, much of this research has focused on rapidly developing pelagic species, with little emphasis on estuarine species with longer embryological periods. Moreover, previous studies have used heart rate as the primary endpoint to measure cardiac performance in embryos and larvae; an endpoint that on its own may overlook impairment in cardiac performance. This study aims to fill these knowledge gaps and provide a more holistic approach for assessing the effects of PAHs on cardiac function by exposing sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) embryos to two oil doses (150 and 300 µg/L tPAH nominally) throughout embryonic development and measuring cardiac responses through the identification of cardiotoxic phenotypes (pericardial edema) as well as calculation of cardiac output at 4 days post fertilization. Results of this study show significant increases in pericardial edema at both oil doses relative to controls as well as significantly reduced cardiac output - driven by reductions in ventricular stroke volume. This study is one of the first to assess cardiac output in embryonic fish exposed to oil and methods described here allow for more physiologically relevant measures of cardiac performance in early life stages through established and non-invasive measures.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Peixes Listrados , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150613, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648830

RESUMO

Mining activities can affect the environment either by the tailings releasing or dams failures. The impact of the tailings can last decades and cause chronic effects due to their toxicity. The Fundão dam collapse, a relevant environmental disaster, occurred in November 2015 in Southeastern Brazil. Tailing rich in metals reached the Doce River and arrived in the Atlantic Ocean. Previous studies revealed the acute impact of the tailings in the marine planktonic community near the Doce River mouth. The current study aims to characterize the structure of planktonic assemblages in the impacted area after four years of the disaster. Sampling occurred in November 2018, January, April, and July 2019 at 32 stations located at the marine coastal area near the Doce River mouth. Our study detected high metal concentrations in the surface waters during January 2019, when the lowest diversity and abundance of phytoplankton, lowest zooplankton diversity, and low ichthyoplankton abundance were recorded. The zooplanktonic community was structured by environmental parameters and ichthyoplankton assemblages in November 2018, January and April 2019. Nutrients and metals, mainly iron from the tailing carried by the Doce River waters to the marine environment changed the plankton community, confirming the impact of the Fundão Dam collapse in the coastal area near the Doce River mouth. The phytoplankton community, influenced by the nutrients and to a lesser extent metals concentrations, was not decisive in the zooplankton community structure. The environmental variability was driven by the meteoceanographic conditions and the Doce River flow. There was a high correlation between the zooplanktonic community and ichthyoplanktonic assemblage and the environmental factors and metals. These relations indicate the impact of the tailings from the collapse of the Fundão Dam on these communities, even after four years of the Mariana disaster.


Assuntos
Desastres , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plâncton , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150936, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678365

RESUMO

Aquatic ecosystems are highly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. However, it remains unclear how the microbiome responds to press disturbance events in these ecosystems. We examined the impact of the world's largest mining disaster (Brazil, 2015) on sediment microbiomes in two disturbed rivers compared to an undisturbed river during 390 days post-disturbance. The diversity and structure of the virulome and microbiome, and of antibiotic and metal resistomes, consistently differed between the disturbed and undisturbed rivers, particularly at day 7 post-disturbance. 684 different ARGs were predicted, 38% were exclusive to the disturbed rivers. Critical antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), e.g., mcr and ereA2, were significantly more common in the disturbed microbiomes. 401 different ARGs were associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), 95% occurred in the disturbed rivers. While plasmids were the most common MGEs with a broad spectrum of ARGs, spanning 16 antibiotic classes, integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and integrons disseminated ARGs associated with aminoglycoside and tetracycline, and aminoglycoside and beta-lactam, respectively. A significant increase in the relative abundance of class 1 integrons, ICEs, and pathogens was identified at day 7 in the disturbed microbiomes, 72-, 14- and 3- fold higher, respectively, compared with the undisturbed river. Mobile ARGs associated with ESKAPEE group pathogens, while metal resistance genes and virulence factor genes in nonpathogenic hosts predominated in all microbiomes. Network analysis showed highly interconnected ARGs in the disturbed communities, including genes targeting antibiotics of last resort. Interactions between copper and beta-lactam/aminoglycoside/macrolide resistance genes, mostly mobile and critical, were also uncovered. We conclude that the mud tsunami resulted in resistome expansion, enrichment of pathogens, and increases in promiscuous and mobile ARGs. From a One Health perspective, mining companies need to move toward more environmentally friendly and socially responsible mining practices to reduce risks associated with pathogens and critical and mobile ARGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Macrolídeos , Tsunamis
6.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 348-352, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether aiding Wuhan experience of nurses was associated with adverse mental health outcome one year after the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: In this study, 100 nurses with and 100 nurses without aiding Wuhan experience a year ago were enrolled from February 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021 in Zhejiang Province, China. Depression, anxiety, insomnia, distress and psychological resilience of participants was assessed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 100 participants from 112 aiding Wuhan nurses completed the survey, with a response rate of 89.3%. Another 100 nurses from the same hospitals without aiding Wuhan experience were enrolled as controls. In both groups, a considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (46.0% for the aiding Wuhan group vs. 49.0% for the controls, similarly hereinafter), anxiety (40.0% vs. 38.0%), and PTSD (61.0% vs. 56.0%). Aiding Wuhan nurses were more likely to suffer from insomnia (41.0% vs. 29.0%, P = 0.041). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that aiding Wuhan experience was not associated with depression (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.22; 95%CI, 0.05-1.01), anxiety (AOR 0.53; 95%CI, 0.12-2.43), insomnia (AOR 1.52; 95%CI, 0.76-3.02), PTSD (AOR 0.50; 95%CI, 0.19-1.34), or resilience (AOR 1.59; 95%CI, 0.78-3.26). Resilience was negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicated that aiding Wuhan experience a year ago did not cause additional adverse mental health outcomes in nurses, expect for insomnia. The psychological status of nurses in general calls for more attention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151289, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717994

RESUMO

Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are one of the major natural hazards in certain populated mountainous areas, e.g., the Himalayan region, which may lead to catastrophic consequences including substantial loss of lives. Evaluating the potential socio-economic impact of GLOFs is essential for risk mitigation and enhancing community resilience. Yet in most of the cases, this is confronted with the challenges of limited availability of data and inaccessibility to most of the glacial lakes in the high-altitude areas. This study aims to exploit open data from different sources and high-performance hydrodynamic modelling to develop a new framework for GLOF exposure and impact assessment. In the new framework, different GLOF scenarios are created using a simple dam breach model. A high-performance hydrodynamic model is then adopted to simulate the resulting flood hydrodynamics. Necessary socio-economic information is collected and processed from multiple sources including OpenStreetMap, Google Earth, and global data products to support exposure analysis. Established depth-damage curves are used to assess the GLOF damage extents to different exposed objects and an existing fatality estimating procedure is adopted to assess the potential loss of lives. The evaluation framework is applied to the Tsho Rolpa glacial lake in Nepal. From the results, the worst GLOF scenario as considered can potentially inundate 1647 buildings, impact 5038 people and hit 123 key facilities including schools, hospitals, airports, hydropower plants, etc. It may substantially damage 900 buildings, 10.63 km2 of agricultural land and 50.9 km roads and may potentially lead to 45 deaths even if warning is available.


Assuntos
Inundações , Lagos , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Camada de Gelo , Nepal
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151340, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728208

RESUMO

Temporal and spatial variabilities in concentrations of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloid (As) associated with the Fundão dam tailings were evaluated in water, sediment and biota from freshwater (tributary, river, lakes and lagoons), marine and coastal (mangroves and beaches) ecosystems affected by the Mariana dam disaster (southeastern Brazil). In freshwater shrimps and fishes, temporal increases in the concentrations of most elements analyzed were observed. This finding was clearly associated with temporal increases in the concentrations of As and metals observed in both water and sediment. In turn, freshwater plankton showed only a temporal increase in Hg concentration, which was also associated with an increased concentration of this metal in the abiotic matrices. In marine fishes, temporal increases were only observed for Cu, Fe and Pb concentrations. Also, temporal increase was observed for Fe concentration in marine plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and shrimps. Marine phytoplankton also showed a temporal increase in Hg concentration. All these findings were clearly associated with temporal increases in the concentrations of these metals in marine sediments. Mangrove crabs showed temporal increases in Hg and Cd, which were associated with temporal increases in water Hg and sediment Cd concentrations, respectively. In turn, beach crabs displayed temporal increases in Mn and Zn, which were associated with temporal increases in the concentrations of these metals in sediments, especially for Mn. In summary, all environmental matrices evaluated in the present study were shown to be contaminated with metals and metalloid associated with the Fundão dam tailings. Additionally, findings reported in the present study relative to the spatial variabilities observed in the whole aquatic area affected by the Fundão dam failure clearly reinforce the need of incorporating biological diversity in monitoring programs aiming to assess environmental health of aquatic systems, considering that patterns of metals and metalloid contamination levels may vary among taxa.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biota , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Metais Pesados/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114011, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735830

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Logging and wildfire can reduce the height of the forest canopy and the distance to the understorey vegetation below. These conditions may increase the likelihood of high severity wildfire (canopy scorch or consumption), which may explain the greater prevalence of high severity wildfire in some recently logged or burnt forests. However, the effects of these structural characteristics on wildfire severity have not clearly been demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess how the structure of forests affected by logging and wildfire influence the probability of high severity wildfire. METHODS: We used terrestrial laser scanning to measure the connectivity of canopy and understorey vegetation in forests at various stages of recovery after logging and wildfire (approximately 0-80 years since disturbance). These sites were subsequently burnt by mixed severity wildfire during the 2019-20 'Black Summer' fire season in south-eastern Australia. We assessed how these forest structure metrics affected the probability of high severity wildfire. RESULTS: The probability of high severity fire decreased as the canopy base height increased, and the distance between the canopy base and understorey increased. High severity wildfire was less likely in forests with taller understoreys and greater canopy or understorey cover, but these effects were not considered causal. Fire weather was the strongest driver of wildfire severity, which was also affected by topography. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a link between forest structure characteristics, that are strongly shaped by antecedent logging and fire, and fire severity. They also indicate that vertical fuel structure should be incorporated into assessments of fire risk.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Florestas , Humanos , Lasers
10.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114025, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737125

RESUMO

Previous studies have highlighted ecosystem-based management (EBM) related pro-environmental behaviors. EBM is based on the engagement of local communities in disaster-affected areas. However, few studies have explored the association between residents' health conditions and their perceptions of and capacities for EBM in post-disaster community development. Residents' health and psychological well-being is essential to maintaining their EBM-related motivations. Thus, this article investigated whether the awareness of personal health and Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) can be reflected in pro-environmental behaviors in the health belief model (HBM) in post-disaster contexts. As part of a case study in a disaster-affected rural community in Japan's Miyagi prefecture, a survey was conducted and the hypotheses were tested using a structural equation model (SEM). The Great East Japan Earthquakes and Tsunami in 2011 affected the study site, in the Maehama community, the Camellia Forest Project was initiated following this disaster as part of the ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) and ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) initiatives for post-disaster development. The empirical results confirmed the indirect influence of Eco-DRR factors and health perceptions on pro-environmental behaviors. In particular, the analysis showed that among HBM's perceived factors, perceived benefits of health promotion, Eco-DRR perceptions, social cohesion were positively associated with residents' ordinary green management. It also showed that green self-efficacy positively affected ordinary green management. Mowing/weeding experience was a significant representative cue to action and had a positive effect on residents' green management. Thus, this article shows that practicing a healthy lifestyle through green management, integrating Eco-DRR development benefits the sustainability and environmental health of resilient communities.


Assuntos
Desastres , População Rural , Ecossistema , Humanos , Japão , Tsunamis
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151382, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740655

RESUMO

In recent decades, the frequency of torrential rain coupled with various complex flood patterns increased. Since floods are changeable and unpredictable, deeper understanding of flood incidents is necessary for better watershed management. The primary objective of this research is to investigate and characterize annual flood patterns embedded in a river catchment located in west of Japan. To fulfill this aim, we proposed a method based on information and complexity principles to examine the annual variation of flood patterns embedded in a riverine system. The key strength of the proposed approach is being established on two fundamental pillars: (1) word pattern; gives an image about the detected flood patterns, i.e., simple flood occurs within one day or severe flood persists for two days or more, and (2) information-complexity indices that report the frequency and randomness of the detected patterns. Information content was quantified using Mean Information Gain (MIG), whereas Effective Measure Complexity (EMC) and Fluctuation Complexity (FC) were indices used to define the complexity in the studied records. The results show that the proposed method is very powerful in detecting hidden patterns. Furthermore, we succeed in capturing the stations that exhibited the same flood patterns. The main finding of the first pillar of this approach revealed that flood events were fundamentally triggered by precipitation occurred during East Asian monsoon and tropical cyclones. Alternatively, the information-complexity pillar was a powerful tool in capturing different internal structures of flood patterns. Hence, higher MIG values indicated higher degree of randomness. On the other hand, higher EMC values reflected the length of flood events, while higher FC values showed higher number of separated flood events. Overall, this study discusses the competence of a new approach capable to capture hidden patterns in dataset and can be extended to numerous applications that investigate system behavior.


Assuntos
Inundações , Rios , Japão
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151351, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740667

RESUMO

Integrating disruptive technologies within smart cities improves the infrastructure needed to potentially deal with disasters. This paper provides a perspective review of disruptive technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), image processing, artificial intelligence (AI), big data and smartphone applications which are in use and have been proposed for future improvements in disaster management of urban regions. The key focus of this paper is exploring ways in which smart cities could be established to harness the potential of disruptive technologies and improve post-disaster management. The key questions explored are a) what are the gaps or barriers to the utilization of disruptive technologies in the area of disaster management and b) How can the existing methods of disaster management be improved through the application of disruptive technologies. To respond to these questions, a novel framework based on integrated approaches based on big data analytics and AI is proposed for developing disaster management solutions using disruptive technologies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tecnologia Disruptiva , Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Ciência de Dados
13.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 114052, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741950

RESUMO

Climate change and the accumulation of surface fuel are leading to global changes in the occurrence of increasingly severe fires. In light of current budgetary constraints, prescribed fire can be a very cost-efficient tool for both reducing wildfire hazards and managing fire-prone landscapes. However, despite its widespread use in some countries, social and administrative constraints arise when applied at the European or larger scales. Science-based knowledge concerning fire behavior, fuel load reduction, and tree impacts is required to support the use of prescribed fire. Spatial ignition patterns can increase or decrease the spread rate, flame length, and flame residence time according to the objectives of a prescribed fire. This work aims to analyze fire behavior using different fire ignition patterns (strip-heading fire, flanking fire, and spot-heading fire) and meteorological and fuel conditions. Seventy-seven observations or sampling units using twenty-three prescribed fires were established for fire monitoring. Non-linear models based on environmental variables were fitted for the spread rate and flame length. Our study proposes a novel way of sharing scientific knowledge in relation to the most common distances between ignition lines and ignition points used in the southern Iberian Peninsula. The spread rate and flame length can be increased in strip-heading fire, by more than 3.5-fold and more than 1.95-fold, respectively, by modifying only the distance between ignition lines. Flanking fire could lead to a decrease in the spread rate by approximately half. Although spot-heading fire can reduce the spread rate by more than 78% and flame length by more than 41%, the highest distances between points could increase the flame residence time by 39-132%. This research seeks to achieve a trade-off between fire intensity and the impacts of fire on trees, soil, and surface roots.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Pinus , Incêndios Florestais , Florestas , Árvores
14.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114116, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794049

RESUMO

Water footprint (WF) quantifies the impact of paddy field evapotranspiration (ET) and non-point source pollution on water resources and is an evaluation index for water sustainability. However, it is difficult to measure accurately using the existing method, which is based on parameter assumption without considering the field water conditions. In this study, a generic and physically based method for blue, green, and grey water accounting in paddy rice cultivation is introduced. We conducted field experiments using the common flood irrigation (CFI) and water-saving irrigation (SWI) modes in Nanjing, East China. By tracing the sources of ET and the migration process of multiple pollutants (TN, TP, NH4+-N, and NO3--N), the characteristics of blue-green water consumption and the actual amount of water required to dilute pollutants at different growth stages of rice under CFI and SWI were analyzed. The WF of paddy rice was 1000 m3/t (49% WFgreen, 17% WFblue, 34% WFgrey) and 910 m3/t (50% WFgreen, 10% WFblue, 40% WFgrey) for CFI and SWI, respectively. The WF for paddy rice production was reduced by approximately 9% under SWI compared to CFI, with declines of 47% for WFblue and 8% for WFgreen. The SWI mode changed the ratio of blue to green water fluxes in field water by reducing irrigation during non-critical periods, and green water was used preferentially to enhance its utility. This conceptual method is the first to describe the formation mechanism of blue, green, and grey WFs in paddy systems. It can be extended to different scales and agro-ecosystems that show the influence of crop cultivation on water resources.


Assuntos
Oryza , Água , Agricultura , China , Ecossistema , Inundações , Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Carne , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiologia
16.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 59-68, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536027

RESUMO

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogenic and threatening virus in shrimp culture for which there is no effective control strategy. Finding antiviral lead compounds for the development of anti-WSSV drugs is urgent and necessary; in this study, esculin from 12 monomeric compounds exhibited an excellent anti-WSSV activity. The results showed that esculin increased the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps by 59% and reduced the virus copy number in vivo over 90% at 100 µM. In the pre-treatment and post-treatment experiments, esculin could prevent and treat WSSV infection. Compared with the control group, the virus copy number decreased by 30% after 6 h of esculin pre-incubation with WSSV particles and inhibited horizontal transmission of WSSV to a certain extent. Considering that the antiviral activity of esculin was stable in the aquacultural water for 2 days, we evaluated the dosing pattern of continuous medication changes. Obviously, the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps was 0% at 108 h when no esculin exchange was made, while at 120 h the survival rate was over 40% at continuous medicine changes. In addition, esculin significantly increased the expression of antimicrobial peptides and thus improved the ability of shrimp to resist WSSV. Overall, our findings suggest that esculin has the potential to be developed into an anti-WSSV medicine.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Esculina/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes , Penaeidae , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Animais , Aquicultura , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 185-202, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794674

RESUMO

Prevention of emerging infections in children is a dynamic arena where substantial medical advances have enabled intervention and prevention of infection outbreaks. This article discusses 5 infections causing significant morbidity and mortality across Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Avian influenza and the Middle East respiratory syndrome are highly contagious zoonoses spread through aerosol and droplets, affecting predominantly Asia. Dengue infection and chikungunya are endemic mosquito-borne viruses in tropical regions across Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Ebola is a highly contagious virus spread through human-to-human contact. The latest information in clinical manifestations, infection, prevention control, chemoprophylaxis, vaccination, and public health measures is reviewed.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África , Animais , Ásia , Aves , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , América Latina , Vacinação/métodos
18.
Surg Clin North Am ; 102(1): 169-180, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800385

RESUMO

Mass casualty incidents are increasingly common. They are defined by large numbers of patients arriving nearly simultaneously, overwhelming available resources needed for optimal care. They require rapid mobilization of resources to provide optimal outcomes and limit disability and death. Because the mechanism of injury in a mass casualty incident is often traumatic in nature, surgeons should be aware of the critical role they play in planning and response. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is a notable, resulting in a sustained surge of critically ill patients. Initial response requires local mobilization of resources; large-scale events potentially require a national response.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Recursos em Saúde , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Triagem
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149834, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525746

RESUMO

A viral outbreak is a global challenge that affects public health and safety. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading globally, affecting millions of people worldwide, and led to significant loss of lives and deterioration of the global economy. The current adverse effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic demands finding new detection methods for future viral outbreaks. The environment's transmission pathways include and are not limited to air, surface water, and wastewater environments. The wastewater surveillance, known as wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), can potentially monitor viral outbreaks and provide a complementary clinical testing method. Another investigated outbreak surveillance technique that has not been yet implemented in a sufficient number of studies is the surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the air. Artificial intelligence (AI) and its related machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) technologies are currently emerging techniques for detecting viral outbreaks using global data. To date, there are no reports that illustrate the potential of using WBE with AI to detect viral outbreaks. This study investigates the transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment and provides current updates on the surveillance of viral outbreaks using WBE, viral air sampling, and AI. It also proposes a novel framework based on an ensemble of ML and DL algorithms to provide a beneficial supportive tool for decision-makers. The framework exploits available data from reliable sources to discover meaningful insights and knowledge that allows researchers and practitioners to build efficient methods and protocols that accurately monitor and detect viral outbreaks. The proposed framework could provide early detection of viruses, forecast risk maps and vulnerable areas, and estimate the number of infected citizens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Inteligência Artificial , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
20.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(1): 309-330, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902993

RESUMO

The tunnel collapse is one of the most frequent and harmful geological hazards during the construction of highway rock tunnels. As for reducing the occurrence probability of tunnel collapse, a new dynamic risk assessment methodology for the tunnel collapse was established, which combines the Cloud model (CM), the Membership function, and the Bayesian network (BN). During the preparation phase, tunnel collapse risk factors are identified and an index system is constructed. Then, the proposed novel assessment method is used to evaluate the probability of tunnel collapse risk for on-site construction. The probability of tunnel collapse risk in the dynamic process of construction can provide real-time guidance for tunnel construction. Moreover, a typical case study of the Yutangxi tunnel is performed, which belongs to the Pu-Yan Highway Project (Fujian, China). The results show that the dynamic evaluation model is well validated and applied. The risk value of tunnel collapse in a construction cycle is predicted successfully, and on-site construction is guided to reduce the occurrence of tunnel collapse. Besides, it also proves the feasibility of the dynamic evaluation method and its application potential.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...