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1.
Int J Food Sci ; 2022: 4881494, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368803

RESUMO

According to the Moroccan Court of Auditors, the meats are prepared in slaughterhouses that do not meet the basic conditions required by Moroccan standards. This survey is being conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of handlers regarding the salubrity and hygiene of meat and to evaluate the bacteriological load of work surfaces in a slaughterhouse located in the Marrakech region. A total of 100 people working at the slaughterhouse participated in the study. The average values concerning the attitude and practice of the carcass handlers were, respectively, very satisfactory (65.7%) and acceptable (53.44%), while the average value of knowledge was generally low (39%). Bacterial load was assessed by the serial dilution method using the standard procedure. Seventy samples were taken from the hands of manipulators, knives, clothes, hooks, door handles, floor, and walls over an area of between 20 and 100 cm2. The total number of aerobic mesophiles (TAVCs), Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp was determined for each sample. Escherichia coli was the predominant isolate (42%), while Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the least bacterial isolates with 16% and 14%, respectively. Walls and knives were the most contaminated by E. coli at 90%. This survey reveals the importance of developing formal training for all slaughterhouse handlers regarding meat hygiene and safety during carcass processing to develop their knowledge and practices. Bacteriological results indicate a need to improve the available slaughter facilities and develop an appropriate slaughter process strategy to minimize the risk of carcass contamination.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916494

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine how transfer efficiency of MS-2 coliphage from toilet seat to hands and fingertip to lip differs according to the suspension of the inoculum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hands were sampled after lifting a toilet seat which was inoculated with MS-2 on the underneath side. MS-2 was suspended in a spectrum of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous solutions. Transfer efficiencies were greatest with the ASTM tripartite soil load (3.02% ± 4.03) and lowest with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (1.10% ± 0.81) for hand-to-toilet seat contacts. Finger-to-lip transfer rates were significantly different (p < 0.05) depending on suspension matrix, with PBS yielding the highest transfer (52.53% ± 4.48%) and tryptose soy broth (TSB) the lowest (23.15% ± 24.27%). Quantitative microbial risk assessment was used to estimate probability of infection from adenovirus and norovirus from finger contact with a toilet seat. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest transfer as well as the largest variation of transfer were measured for finger-to-lip contacts as opposed to toilet seat-to-finger contacts. These factors influence the estimation of probability of infection from micro-activity i.e., toilet seat adjustment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT: Viruses may be transferred from various human excreta with differing transfer efficiencies, depending on the protein content.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955026

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the importance and performance level of knowledge about sanitary management among foodservice employees in childcare centers that were registered at Center for Children's Food Service Management in Chungju city according to their work duration, type of childcare center, and number of enrolled children. The self-administered questionnaire was conducted to examine food safety attributes of sanitary management at 150 childcare centers without qualified dietitians registered at Center for Children's Food Service Management of Chungju city. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions about perceived importance and performance regarding sanitation management (personal hygiene, ingredient control, temperature control of food, facility, equipment, and utensils sanitation) using IPA (importance-performance analysis). The results show that overall mean scores of the importance and performance of sanitary knowledge were 4.71 and 4.67 out of 5, respectively. 'Checking the center temperature at 75 °C for 1 min in the thickest part of meat (3 times or more check for each serving)' (p = 0.047) and 'Keeping preserved meals (at least 100 g of each menu) for 144 h. with -18 °C or less' (p < 0.001) show significantly lower scores of performance than those of importance. The results of importance and performance for sanitary management according to work duration of foodservice employees show that those who have worked more than 10 years had the highest scores of importance and performance for overall sanitary management among them. For the types of childcare centers, the overall performance scores of national/public employees for sanitary management were lower than those of private or home type (p < 0.001). Additionally, the result showed that the overall importance (p < 0.001) and performance scores (p < 0.001) of employees for sanitary management in centers with <50 children were higher than those in centers with ≥50 children. This result should provide more useful information to develop food safety programs for employees and sustainable foodservice management in childcare centers.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Serviços de Alimentação , Criança , Creches , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , República da Coreia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805701

RESUMO

Background: Food safety incorporates the handling, preparation, and storage of food materials in ways that prevent foodborne illness. We aimed to investigate the typical food safety practices in a Bangladeshi slum context and to explore if stunting among school-age children was associated with various components of food safety. Method: We analysed the MAL-ED birth cohort data from the Bangladesh site. A total of 265 healthy children were enrolled in the study; we could follow up and collect food safety-related data from 187 participants. Results: The average age of the children was 6.5 years (standard deviation or SD 0.04) and 49% of them were female. About 26% of the children were stunted. In our bivariate analysis, caregivers' handwashing practice after using the toilet, treatment of drinking water, presence of insects/pests in the cooking area, and child's eating ready-made/street food more than three times per day were significantly associated with stunting. After adjusting for pertinent factors, treatment of drinking water (adjusted odds ratio or AOR = 2.50, 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.03, 6.05), and child's eating ready-made/street food more than three times/day (AOR = 2.34, 95%CI: 1.06, 5.15) remained significantly associated with stunting. Conclusions: Diverse aspects of food safety practices have a substantial association with stunting among school-age children living in an unhygienic slum environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Áreas de Pobreza , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12227, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851096

RESUMO

Particular attention is devoted to pharmaceutical residues in sewage sludge caused by their potential ecotoxicological effects. Diclofenac, ibuprofen and carbamazepine, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, ß-estradiol, were analysed in four types of fertilizers, based on sewage sludge commercial products, in compliance with Polish requirements. The release of active pharmaceutical compounds from fertilizers to water the phase after 24 h and 27 days was analysed. Solid-water partition coefficients (Kd) and partitioning coefficient values normalized on organic carbon content (log KOC) were evaluated. The environmental risk to terrestrial ecosystems, due to the application of fertilizers onto soils, was estimated. Cumulative mass of pharmaceuticals emitted to water from fertilizers ranged from 0.4 to 30.8 µg/kg after 24 h contact. The greatest amount of the material that was released, over 70%, was observed for carbamazepine. No presence of compounds except ibuprofen was observed after 27 days of testing. The highest environmental risk in fertilizers is due to carbamazepine, risk quotation, RQ = 0.93 and diclofenac RQ = 0.17. The values of risk quotation estimated for soil were below RQ = 0.01. This fact means that no risk to terrestrial ecosystems is expected to occur. The important decrease of the concentrations of active compounds after passing from sewage sludge to fertilizers [and] to fertilized soil could be observed.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carbamazepina , Diclofenaco , Ecossistema , Etinilestradiol/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Ibuprofeno , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Esgotos/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270847, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857721

RESUMO

Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services confers significant health and economic benefits, especially for children, but only if those services can be delivered on a consistent basis. The challenge of sustainable, school-based WASH service delivery has been widely documented, particularly in resource-constrained contexts. We conducted a systematic review of published research that identifies drivers of, or tests solutions to, this challenge within low- and middle-income countries (PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020199163). Authors in the first group employ cross-sectional research designs and interrogate previously implemented school WASH interventions. Most conclude that dysfunctional accountability and information sharing mechanisms drive school WASH service delivery failures. By contrast, most of the interventions developed and tested experimentally by authors in the second group focus on increasing the financial and material resources available to schools for WASH service delivery. Overall, these authors find negligible impact of such infusions of cash, infrastructure, and supplies across a variety of sustainability outcome metrics. Taken together, the evidence suggests that sustainable service delivery depends on three simultaneously necessary components: resources, information, and accountability. Drawing upon theory and evidence from social psychology, public management, and political science, we identify priority knowledge gaps that can meaningfully improve the design of effective interventions. We also highlight the importance of both interdisciplinary collaboration and local expertise in designing WASH programming that aligns with sociocultural and institutional norms, and is thus more likely to generate sustainable impact.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene , Água
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 358: 127440, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680088

RESUMO

The limited efficiency of nitrogen removal has traditionally hindered wide application of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) technology. Here, the nitrogen removal characteristics of a sequencing batch reactor were studied by adopting a strategy of a step-feeding mode, synergistic regional oxygen limitation, and a mixed carbon source. The changes of the microbial population succession and nitrogen metabolism functional genes were analyzed. This strategy provided a favorable level of dissolved oxygen and continuous carbon sources for driving the denitrification process. The total nitrogen removal efficiency and SND rate reached 92.60% and 96.49%, respectively, by regulating the ratio of sodium acetate to starch in the step feed to 5:1. This procedure increased the relative abundance of denitrifying functional genes and induced the growth of a variety of traditional denitrifying bacteria and aerobic denitrifying bacteria participating in the process of nitrogen removal. Overall, this work offers a new strategy for achieving efficient SND.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxigênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(7): e1391-e1395, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that educational programs in conjunction with provision of free or low-cost safety equipment increases the likelihood of parents changing behaviors at home. This project surveyed caregivers in the pediatric emergency department (ED) about safety behaviors before and after provision of education and safety equipment related to medication storage, firearm storage, and drowning. METHODS: A convenience sample of families presenting to the ED for any complaint with a child of any age were approached for participation in this feasibility study. Exclusion criteria included patients presenting for a high acuity problem (Emergency Severity Index 1 or 2) and non-English-speaking caregivers. Enrollment, surveys, and educational intervention were performed by the graduate student investigator from the School of Public Health. Participants were surveyed regarding presence of firearms and medications within the home and their storage practices. Additional questions included relationship to the patient, number and age of children younger than 18 years in the home, and zip code of residence. Educational handouts were reviewed, and participants were provided with a medication lock box, trigger lock, toilet lock, and/or pool watcher tag as indicated by answers given to the survey questions. Process measures were collected for number of products given out, number of children potentially affected by the intervention, and time spent by the investigator. Follow-up calls assessed use of the products provided. RESULTS: The student investigator spent a total of 180 hours and enrolled 357 caregivers accounting for 843 children. Fifty-seven percent of the participants answered the follow-up phone call. Only 9% initially reported that they stored medications in a locked or latched place. Medication lock boxes were given to 316 participants. On follow-up, 88% of those who received a lock box reported using it to store medications and 86% reported satisfaction with the lock box and how it worked. Of the 161 participants who admitted to gun ownership, 45% reported storing their guns locked and unloaded. Of those who reported unsafe manners of gun storage, 96% also reported unsafe manners of medication storage. Although only 161 participants endorsed gun ownership, 236 participants took a gun lock when offered. At follow-up, 66% of participants had used the gun lock and 67% of participants who took the gun lock reported satisfaction with the device. For water safety, 195 toilet latches and 275 drowning prevention lanyards were provided. On follow-up, 48% of those who had received a toilet latch were using it and 62% reported satisfaction with the device. Data were not collected on use of or satisfaction with the drowning prevention lanyards. CONCLUSIONS: Families often report unsafe home storage of medications and firearms, which together account for a large amount of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics. Drowning risk for young children is ubiquitous in the home setting, and low rates of use of home safety devices indicates need for further education and outreach on making the home environment safe. Despite relying on self-reported behaviors and the risk of reporting bias skewing the data, the behaviors reported in the preintervention survey were still very unsafe, suggesting that children may have a much higher risk of injury in the actual home environments. The ED is traditionally thought of as a place to receive care when injuries happen, but any encounter with families should be seen as an opportunity for injury prevention messaging. Partnering with a local school of public health and other community resources can result in the establishment of a low-cost, consistent, and effective injury prevention program in the pediatric ED that reaches a large number of individuals without the added burden of additional tasks that take time away from already busy ED providers and staff.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Armas de Fogo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Segurança , Autorrelato
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-5, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687876

RESUMO

The human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) is a life-saving immune biological essential for all category III animal exposures. It provides neutralizing antibodies at the site of exposure until the body can produce vaccine-mediated antibodies. We conducted this study to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of an HRIG being used presently for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and to strengthen the existing evidence for its further usage. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 123 subjects with category III animal exposures at the KIMS Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore, India. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with wound toilet, a single application of HRIG, and a full course of anti-rabies vaccination were provided to all the study subjects. The volume of HRIG was calculated according to the body weight, and all the wounds were infiltrated as was anatomically feasible. All the study subjects were followed up for immediate and delayed adverse events (AE), both local and systemic. Subsequently, all the subjects were followed up for 6 months to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of PEP. The incidence of AEs was 11.4% including local pain, erythema, itching, headache, body ache, fever, and malaise. All AEs were mild and subsided without any complications. All the study subjects were healthy and alive after 6 months following the administration of HRIG, along with a full course of anti-rabies vaccine. Our study provides evidence of safety and clinical efficacy of HRIG for category III animal exposures and supports its continued usage.

10.
Waste Manag ; 149: 42-52, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714435

RESUMO

The Himalayan dry toilet system prevalent in the northwestern Himalaya is a traditional practice of converting human faeces into a compost-like soil amendment. The current study evaluated night-soil compost (NSC) for agricultural use by assessing the compost quality, safety, and microbiome properties. Based on the fertility and clean indices determined by the fertility and heavy metal parameters, NSC was categorized as good quality compost with high fertilizing potential and moderate concentration of heavy metals. With respect to pathogens, the faecal coliform levels in the NSC were categorized as safe according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. The bacterial community structure based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed a diverse taxonomy with 14 phyla and 54 genera in NSC. Compared to publicly available 16S rRNA gene amplicon data, NSC exhibited predominant phyla (Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes) similar to human faeces, cattle manure, food waste compost, vermicompost, and activated sludge. However, statistically, NSC was distinct at the genus level from all other groups. Additionally, pathogenic bacteria with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in the NSC metagenome were determined by performing a standalone BLASTN against the PATRIC database. The analysis revealed 139 pathogenic strains with most pathogens susceptible to antibiotics, indicating lower AMR in the predicted strains. The phytotoxicity of NSC with Pisum sativum var. AS-10 seeds showed a germination index of > 85%, indicating NSC's non-harmful effects on seed germination and root growth. Overall, NSC from Himalayan dry toilets can be used as a soil amendment for food and non-food plants.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Alimentos , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155777, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545164

RESUMO

Implementation of resource recovery technologies is becoming increasingly important, as humans are exhausting the world's natural resources. Recovering nutrients and water from wastewater treatment systems will play an important role in changing the current trends towards a circular economy. However, guidance is still needed to determine the most appropriate way to do this. In this study two decision-support tools, sanitation planning software (Santiago) and life cycle assessment (LCA), were applied to identify appropriate technologies and their environmental impacts. As a case study, current and alternative scenarios for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Campo Grande, west-central Brazil, were used. Among 12 scenarios provided by Santiago for efficient nutrient recovery, eight were selected for further assessment. The current WWTP system (UASB reactors) resulted in the highest negative impacts in two of nine assessment categories (freshwater and marine eutrophication), due to nutrient discharge to water. A source separation scenario with urine stored in a urine bank and co-composting of feces showed best overall performance. Electricity consumption played a crucial role for impacts in several categories, while water consumption was not significantly affected by choice of toilet. One Santiago scenario matched the most appropriate scenario with the best environmental performance, but the other seven scenarios were not as beneficial, indicating a need for some adjustments in the software. These results highlight the importance of performing LCA to compare alternative scenarios, even when using a tool designed to identify locally appropriate technologies. The results also indicate that the current wastewater treatment system has reasonable environmental performance, but could be improved if measures were taken to recover energy and reuse water.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Saneamento , Software , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água
12.
ACS ES T Water ; 2(5): 667-689, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603040

RESUMO

WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) has become the most crucial amenity in the past decade for every individual on the planet. In the UN agenda for 2030, which created 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), SDGs 3, 4, and 6 directly correlate with WASH practices and management for creating a good health hygiene environment for all. The dearth of WASH facilities has created barriers for averting the transmission of COVID-19, motivating the concept of WASH as the primary step of precaution and prevention, which includes WASH practices, communication for literacy, and positive behavioral changes primarily in developing and low-income countries. This Review deals with the complex concept of correlation of WASH and SDGs 3, 4, and 6 while defining elaborate WASH practices, including the prominence of clean water, the need for sanitation facilities, and health hygiene for good health and immunity for preparedness for and during epidemics and pandemics. Certain risk factors explain the sectors in which the gaps exist, creating a gap for implementation of WASH practices in epidemics and pandemics across the globe. Further, COVID-19 surge succession is presented along with data of different variants that have occurred. The need of WASH understanding is required using different tools (audio-visual, social media, print media, and mass media) and strategies (communication, advocacy, and positive behavioral changes) for every individual as an act to counter consequences during and after the COVID-19 pandemic and as a routine practice for future preparedness. This Review gives a detailed concept of WASH understanding for every sector from community to government agencies and research professionals to act immediately for the sustainable future of humanity.

13.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22273499

RESUMO

In South Africa, demand for housing close to viable/sustained sources of employment has far outstripped supply; and the size of the population living in temporary structures/shacks (and in poorly serviced informal settlements) has continued to increase. While such dwellings and settlements pose a number of established risks to the health of their residents, the present study aimed to explore whether they might also undermine the potential impact of regulations intended to safeguard public health, such as the stringent lockdown restrictions imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19 in 2020 and 2021. Using a representative sample of 1,381 South African households surveyed in May-June 2021, the present study found that respondents in temporary structures/shacks were more likely to report non-compliance (or difficulty in complying) with lockdown restrictions when compared to those living in traditional/formal houses/flats/rooms/hostels (OR:1.61; 95%CI:1.06-2.45). However, this finding was substantially attenuated and lost precision following adjustment for preceding sociodemographic and economic determinants of housing quality (adjusted OR:1.20; 95%CI:0.78-1.87). Instead, respondents were far more likely to report non-compliance (or difficulty in complying) with COVID-19 lockdown restrictions if their dwellings lacked private/indoor toilet facilities (adjusted OR:1.56; 95%CI:1.08,2.22) or they were Black/African, young, poorly educated and under-employed (regardless of: their socioeconomic position, or whether they resided in temporary structures/shacks, respectively). Restrictions imposed to safeguard public health need to be more sensitively designed to accommodate the critical role that poverty and inadequate service delivery play in limiting the ability of residents living in temporary structures/shacks and inadequately serviced dwellings/settlements to comply. [250/250 words] Significance of the main findingsO_LISouth Africans living in temporary structures/shacks are more likely to: be poorly educated and under-employed; with fewer assets and limited access to basic household services. C_LIO_LIPoverty and inadequate service delivery were more important determinants of compliance with COVID-19 restrictions than housing quality. C_LIO_LIIn the absence of improvements in economic circumstances and the delivery of basic household services, restrictions imposed to safeguard public health need to be more sensitively designed to take account of the structural barriers to compliance experienced by households where poverty and/or inadequate service delivery limit their ability to: stay at home; maintain hygiene; and/or practice social distancing. [100/100 words] C_LI O_QD"This idea of the "humbling pandemic"1 does not hold for people whose lives depend on informal economy and movement in the face of heavy restrictions on their respective activities such as... street hustle and domestic work. Therefore, the pandemic response - which employs tactics that come to determine how lives are to be lived - can be seen as an exacerbator of inequalities, by the hands of which precarious circumstances of living are a larger threat than the risk of infection"2 Stefan Ogedengbe (2021: 94)3 C_QD

14.
Environ Int ; 163: 107217, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395576

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) emerged as a powerful, actionable health management tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypothesizing future uses, we explored its potential for real-time, tracking of progress in attaining United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) globally as a non-expensive method using existing infrastructure. We inventoried (i) literature-documented sewerage infrastructure, (ii) demographics of populations served, and (iii) WBE markers informative of 9 SDGs. Among the 17 different sustainable development goals listed by the UN 2030 agenda, more than half of these may be monitored by using WBE monitoring at centralized treatment infrastructure as tabulated in this study. Driven mainly by COVID-19, WBE currently is practiced in at least 55 countries, reaching about 300 million people. Expansion of WBE to 109,000 + treatment plants inventoried in 129 countries would increase global coverage 9-fold to 34.7% or 2.7 billion, leaving out 5 billion people not served by centralized sewerage systems. Associations between population demographics and present-day infrastructure are explored, and geospatial regions particularly vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks are identified. The results suggest that difference in the differential outcomes in well-being is an outcome of the sanitation infrastructure inequalities and lack of sanitation infrastructure creates doubly disadvantaged populations at risk of poor hygiene and cut off from the early-warning benefits of conventional WBE. This is the first study to explore the feasibility and potential barriers to the use of WBE for tracking the attainment of SDGs globally with at least 9 out of 17 SDGs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas
15.
Can J Public Health ; 113(4): 622-635, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The importance of school water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal targets 6.1 and 6.2 in developing countries cannot be overemphasized. However, widespread WASH inequalities remain an impediment to achieving the targets by 2030. Hence, this study was conducted to examine current school-WASH disparities among public and private schools in a low-income Nigerian community using mixed methods. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey utilized multi-stage sampling to select 400 students from five public and five private schools in Akinyele, Ibadan. Semi-structured questionnaires and observational checklists were used to obtain data. Inferential statistics were measured at a 95% confidence interval. Independent variables like the students' sociodemographic characteristics, school type, and available WASH facilities were associated with dependent variables like respondents' hand hygiene and sanitation practices and WASH-associated knowledge and attitude to examine existing inequalities. RESULTS: Classifying the available WASH facilities based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, none of the public schools provided any sanitation and hygiene service, while all the private schools provided both services. Furthermore, the private-school students had significantly better WASH knowledge (p<0.001; È 2p=0.152) and attitude (p<0.001; È 2p=0.036) compared with the public-school students. Also, a significantly higher portion of public-school students practiced open defecation at school (p<0.001; odds ratio (OR)=7.4; confidence interval (CI)=4.1-13.5) and at home (p<0.001; OR=7.8; CI=3.7-16.7). CONCLUSION: WASH disparities among socioeconomic groups remain a persistent challenge. Sole reliance on the Government to narrow the inequalities has persistently proven unfruitful. There is a need to empower local community stakeholders to facilitate sustainable school-WASH interventions.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: On ne saurait trop insister sur l'importance de l'eau, de l'assainissement et de l'hygiène (WASH) dans les écoles pour atteindre les cibles 6,1 et 6,2 des objectifs de développement durable dans les pays en développement. Toutefois, les inégalités généralisées en matière de WASH demeurent un obstacle à la réalisation des objectifs d'ici à 2030. Par conséquent, cette étude a été menée pour examiner les disparités actuelles entre les écoles publiques et privées dans une communauté nigériane à faible revenu en utilisant des méthodes mixtes. MéTHODES: L'enquête transversale a utilisé un échantillonnage à plusieurs étapes pour sélectionner 400 élèves de cinq écoles publiques et cinq écoles privées à Akinyele, Ibadan. Des questionnaires semi-structurés et des listes de contrôle observationnelles ont été utilisés pour obtenir des données. Les statistiques inférentielles ont été mesurées à un intervalle de confiance de 95 %. Des variables indépendantes comme les caractéristiques sociodémographiques des élèves, le type d'école et les installations de WASH disponibles ont été associées à des variables dépendantes comme les pratiques d'hygiène des mains et d'assainissement des répondants et les connaissances et l'attitude associées au WASH pour examiner les inégalités existantes. RéSULTATS: Si l'on classe les installations WASH disponibles sur la base du Programme commun OMS/UNICEF de suivi, aucune des écoles publiques ne fournit les services d'assainissement et d'hygiène, alors que toutes les écoles privées fournissent ces deux services. En outre, les élèves des écoles privées avaient une connaissance nettement meilleure de WASH (p<0,001; È 2p=0,152) et attitude (p<0,001; È 2p=0,036) par rapport aux élèves des écoles publiques. De plus, une proportion significativement plus élevée d'élèves des écoles publiques pratiquaient la défécation en plein air à l'école (p<0,001; rapport de cotes (RC)=7,4; intervalle de confiance (IC)=4,1­13,5) et à domicile (p<0,001; OR=7,8; IC=3,7­16,7). CONCLUSION: Les disparités WASH entre les groupes socio-économiques demeurent un problème persistant. Le fait de compter uniquement sur le gouvernement pour réduire les inégalités s'est toujours avéré infructueux. Il est nécessaire de donner aux intervenants communautaires locaux les moyens de faciliter des interventions WASH durables en milieu scolaire.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saneamento , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Higiene , Nigéria , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 351: 126974, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276371

RESUMO

The preservation efficiency of mainstream (M-ANA) and sidestream anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) (S-ANA) were evaluated based on their activation energy (Ea). The Ea of M-ANA cultivated under low nitrogen loads was lower than that of S-ANA, which greatly contributed to enhancing the viability of anammox during preservation at 4 °C. After preservation for 140 d, the decay rate (bAN) of M-ANA ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0013/d; the bAN of S-ANA was 0.0036-0.0041/d. The addition of hydrazine, which requires minimal energy to activate anammox metabolism, is highly beneficial for the viability of microorganisms. The low Ea of anammox contributes to efficient reactivation with rapid reactivation of heme c, and the addition of hydrazine makes the process more beneficial. Although the specific nitrogen removal rate of the M-SNA seed sludge was much lower than that of S-ANA, the rate of M-ANA became higher after 48 days of reactivation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Reatores Biológicos , Anaerobiose , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Esgotos
17.
Chemosphere ; 297: 134203, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248590

RESUMO

Sewage sludge is an important vehicle for the diffusion of microplastics (MPs) into the environment, and thus, efficient removal of MPs from sludge is in urgent need. In this study, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is proposed and its potential for the removal of MPs from sewage sludge is assessed. Optical microscopy and micro-FTIR analysis showed that the concentrations of MPs in sewage sludge decreased significantly, exhibiting a 79% reduction with a HTC temperature of 260 °C. The potential decomposition mechanism of condensation polymers and addition polymers were investigated through HTC experiments, using polyethylene terephthalate-microplastics (PET-MPs) and polypropylene-microplastics (PP-MPs). During the HTC process, the disintegration efficiency of PET-MPs was significantly higher than PP-MPs, due to the PET ester bond being easily monomerized by hydrolysis. Furthermore, analyses of physicochemical properties of the residual PP-MPs indicated that exposure to heat cause PP to undergo pyrolysis reaction, resulting in the random rupture of polymer molecular chains. Overall, these results provide the first insight into the critical role of HTC in the removal of MPs from sewage sludge, providing a novel solution for reducing the risk posed by MPs in sewage sludge in the future.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Esgotos , Hidrólise , Plásticos , Polímeros
18.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(7): 2710-2758, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274646

RESUMO

Nitrate enrichment, which is mainly caused by the over-utilization of fertilisers and industrial sewage discharge, is a major global engineering challenge because of its negative influence on the environment and human health. To solve this serious problem, many technologies, such as the activated sludge method, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, adsorption, and electrodialysis, have been developed to reduce the nitrate levels in water bodies. However, the applications of these traditional techniques are limited by several drawbacks, such as a long sludge retention time, slow kinetics, and undesirable by-products. From an environmental perspective, the most promising nitrate reduction technology is enabled to convert nitrate into benign N2, and features low cost, high efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Recently, electrocatalytic nitrate reduction has been proven by satisfactory research achievements to be one of the most promising methods among these technologies. This review provides a comprehensive account of nitrate reduction using electrocatalysis methods. The fundamentals of electrocatalytic nitrate reduction, including the reaction mechanisms, reactor design principles, product detection methods, and performance evaluation methods, have been systematically summarised. A detailed introduction to electrocatalytic nitrate reduction on transition metals, especially noble metals and alloys, Cu-based electrocatalysts, and Fe-based electrocatalysts is provided, as they are essential for the accurate reporting of experimental results. The current challenges and potential opportunities in this field, including the innovation of material design systems, value-added product yields, and challenges for products beyond N2 and large-scale sewage treatment, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Esgotos , Humanos , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Óxidos de Nitrogênio
19.
Waste Manag ; 143: 116-124, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240447

RESUMO

Vermicomposting is characterized by transforming organic waste into nutrient-rich organic fertilizer through the action of different earthworms and microorganisms. Although vermicomposting can recycle the excess sludge in an eco-friendly manner, the longer stabilization period has limited its industrial application. The present study sought to investigate a novel operation process of vermicomposting combined with room drying (VD) to improve the stabilization efficiency of dewatered sludge. Subsequently, the performance and efficiency of vermicomposting without room drying, room dry without vermicomposting, and VD for sludge stabilization were compared simultaneously. In the VD process, the sludge water content reduced from 60.8% to 1.64%, showing the highest electrical conductivity and lowest organic matter content, making the humus substances abundant in the final product. Moreover, the vermicomposting achieved the highest ammonia and nitrate content in final product. Additionally, the bacterial and eukaryotic abundances in the VD product were significantly higher (P < 0.01, i.e., 15.6% and 180.7%) than the vermicomposting product. The specific bacterial genus of Glutamicibacter, Chitinibacter, and Acidobacteria was dominated in the VD product. The Partial least squares-Path modeling (PLS-PM) results revealed that the maturity degree in the VD product was significantly associated with microbial component, and the organic form was strongly driven by the change in the physicochemical properties, which was contradictory to vermicomposting model. The study suggests that the VD process could shorten the vermicomposting period by rapidly accelerating the physical, chemical, and biological stabilization of sludge.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Esgotos , Animais , Bactérias , Estudos de Viabilidade , Esgotos/química , Solo
20.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 22: 100407, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243461

RESUMO

Five billion people lack access to surgical care worldwide; climate change is the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. This review studies how climate change could be integrated into national surgical planning in the Western Pacific region. We searched databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Global Health) for articles on climate change and surgical care. Findings were categorised using the modified World Health Organisation Health System Building Blocks Framework. 220 out of 2577 records were included. Infrastructure: Operating theatres are highly resource-intensive. Their carbon footprint could be reduced by maximising equipment longevity, improving energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. Service delivery Tele-medicine, outreaches, and avoiding desflurane could reduce emissions. Robust surgical systems are required to adapt to the increasing burden of surgically treated diseases, such as injuries from natural disasters. Finance: Climate change adaptation funds could be mobilised for surgical system strengthening. Information systems: Sustainability should be a key performance indicator for surgical systems. Workforce: Surgical providers could change clinical, institutional, and societal practices. Governance: Planning in surgical care and climate change should be aligned. Climate change mitigation is essential in the regional surgical care scale-up; surgical system strengthening is also necessary for adaptation to climate change.

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