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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

RESUMO

Abstract This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Resumo Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259259, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364517

RESUMO

Abstract Rice is a widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population. Approximately 90% of the world's rice is grown in Asian continent and constitutes a staple food for 2.7 billion people worldwide. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the devastating diseases of rice. A field experiment was conducted during the year 2016 and 2017 to investigate the influence of different meteorological parameters on BLB development as well as the computation of a predictive model to forecast the disease well ahead of its appearance in the field. The seasonal dataset of disease incidence and environmental factors was used to assess five rice varieties/ cultivars (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati, and IRRI-9). The accumulated effect of two year environmental data; maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and rainfall, was studied and correlated with disease incidence. Average temperature (maximum & minimum) showed a negative significant correlation with BLB disease and all other variables; relative humidity, rainfall, and wind speed had a positive correlation with BLB disease development on individual varieties. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to indicate potentially useful predictor variables and to rule out incompetent parameters. Environmental data from the growing seasons of July to October 2016 and 2017 revealed that, with the exception of the lowest temperature, all environmental factors contributed to disease development throughout the cropping season. A disease prediction multiple regression model was developed based on two-year data (Y = 214.3-3.691 Max T-0.508 Min T + 0.767 RH + 2.521 RF + 5.740 WS), which explained 95% variability. This disease prediction model will not only help farmers in early detection and timely management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice but may also help reduce input costs and improve product quality and quantity. The model will be both farmer and environmentally friendly.


Resumo O arroz é um alimento básico amplamente consumido por grande parte da população humana mundial. Aproximadamente 90% do arroz do mundo é cultivado no continente asiático e constitui um alimento básico para 2,7 bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O crestamento bacteriano das folhas (BLB) causado por Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae é uma das doenças devastadoras do arroz. Um experimento de campo foi realizado durante os anos de 2016 e 2017 para investigar a influência de diferentes parâmetros meteorológicos no desenvolvimento do BLB, bem como o cálculo de um modelo preditivo para prever a doença bem antes de seu aparecimento em campo. O conjunto de dados sazonais de incidência de doenças e fatores ambientais foi usado para avaliar cinco variedades/cultivares de arroz (Basmati-2000, KSK-434, KSK-133, Super Basmati e IRRI-9). O efeito acumulado de dados ambientais de dois anos; temperatura máxima e mínima, umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluviométrica foram estudados e correlacionados com a incidência da doença. A temperatura média (máxima e mínima) apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a doença BLB e todas as outras variáveis; umidade relativa, precipitação e velocidade do vento tiveram uma correlação positiva com o desenvolvimento da doença BLB em variedades individuais. A análise de regressão stepwise foi realizada para indicar variáveis preditoras potencialmente úteis e para descartar parâmetros incompetentes. Os dados ambientais das safras de julho a outubro de 2016 e 2017 revelaram que, com exceção da temperatura mais baixa, todos os fatores ambientais contribuíram para o desenvolvimento da doença ao longo da safra. Um modelo de regressão múltipla de previsão de doença foi desenvolvido com base em dados de dois anos (Y = 214,3-3,691 Max T-0,508 Min T + 0,767 RH + 2,521 RF + 5,740 WS), que explicou 95% de variabilidade. Este modelo de previsão de doenças não só ajudará os agricultores na detecção precoce e gestão atempada da doença bacteriana das folhas do arroz, mas também pode ajudar a reduzir os custos de insumos e melhorar a qualidade e a quantidade do produto. O modelo será agricultor e ambientalmente amigável.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 18-22, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799503

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that starts many years before the onset of cognitive symptoms. Identifying novel biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease has the potential for patient risk stratification, early diagnosis, and disease monitoring in response to therapy. A novel class of biomarkers is extracellular vesicles given their sensitivity and specificity to specific diseases. In addition, extracellular vesicles can be used as novel biological therapeutics given their ability to efficiently and functionally deliver therapeutic cargo. This is critical given the huge unmet need for novel treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease. This review summarizes and discusses the most recent findings in this field.

5.
DEN open ; 3(1): e142, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898826

RESUMO

Herein, we describe a case of olmesartan-related sprue-like enteropathy in which improvement in villous atrophy was confirmed by small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE). We successfully treated a 66-year-old man with a chief complaint of loose diarrhea. The patient had persistent watery diarrhea 10 times a day and experienced a weight loss of 9 kg in 3 months. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed fluid retention in the small intestine. Blood test results revealed no inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy detected villous atrophy in the stomach and duodenum. Moreover, small-bowel CE showed villous atrophy in about two-thirds of the small intestine. Based on other examinations, hyperthyroidism, intestinal tuberculosis, intestinal amyloidosis, and intestinal malignant lymphoma were ruled out. Therefore, the patient was suspected of having an olmesartan-related sprue-like disease. Early after discontinuation of medication, diarrhea symptoms improved, and a repeat CE indicated improvements in small intestinal villous atrophy. Since the patient had been administered olmesartan for a long time and CE showed villous atrophy throughout the small bowel, we suspected him of having the olmesartan-associated sprue-like disease. The findings of gastric mucosa atrophy on esophagogastroduodenoscopy may lead to an early diagnosis of this disease. Olmesartan-related sprue-like enteropathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with chronic severe watery diarrhea.

6.
DEN open ; 3(1): e140, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898850

RESUMO

A 48-year-old female patient presented with longstanding unrecognized celiac disease (CD), a family history of CD, and a short duration of alarming symptoms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed the concomitant presence of small and large bowel ulcers raised a dilemma about differential diagnosis in her case. Pathologic examination of tissue specimens from the jejunal ulcer led to the diagnosis of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. In recent years, the availability of modern cross-sectional imaging and endoscopy modalities has dramatically improved the detection and characterization of small bowel lesions. Characterization of small bowel ulcers by endoscopy and radiology imaging in a patient with suspected complicated CD (CCD) needs to be made in conjunction with all clinical factors, as there is a wide overlap of the possible etiologic factors. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a highly aggressive T-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may be delayed due to nonspecific clinical and endoscopic presentation. Therefore, it is crucial to timely recognize patients with suspected CCD and properly navigate diagnostic imaging tools, acquire adequate biopsy, and perform immunophenotyping to set early diagnosis in patients with diffuse intestinal ulcers and CD.

7.
Med Gas Res ; 13(1): 33-38, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946221

RESUMO

In a previous study, in silico screening of the binding of almost all proteins in the Protein Data Bank to each of the five noble gases xenon, krypton, argon, neon, and helium was reported. This massive and rich data set requires analysis to identify the gas-protein interactions that have the best binding strengths, those where the binding of the noble gas occurs at a site that can modulate the function of the protein, and where this modulation might generate clinically relevant effects. Here, we report a preliminary analysis of this data set using a rational, heuristic score based on binding strength and location. We report a partial prioritized list of xenon protein targets and describe how these data can be analyzed, using arginase and carbonic anhydrase as examples. Our aim is to make the scientific community aware of this massive, rich data set and how it can be analyzed to accelerate future discoveries of xenon-induced biological activity and, ultimately, the development of new "atomic" drugs.


Assuntos
Proteoma , Xenônio , Criptônio/química , Criptônio/farmacologia , Neônio/farmacologia , Gases Nobres/química , Gases Nobres/metabolismo , Xenônio/química , Xenônio/farmacologia
8.
DEN open ; 3(1): e159, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959099

RESUMO

Objectives: Between May and July 2021, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a sharp surge in community transmission in Taiwan. We present a three-stage restructuring process of pre-endoscopy triage at the beginning of the pandemic, which can support urgent endoscopic procedures while protecting endoscopy staff. Methods: The pre-endoscopy triage framework was set up with three checkpoints at the hospital entrance, outpatient department, and endoscopy unit, with a specific target patient population and screening methods. Relevant data included the number of endoscopic procedures performed, outpatient department visits, and performing screening methods such as temperature measurement, travel, occupation, contact, and clustering history checking, polymerase chain reaction assay, and rapid antigen test. Results: Forehead temperature measurement and verification of travel, occupation, contact, and clustering history provided rapid, easy, and early mass screening of symptomatic patients at the hospital entrance. During the pandemic, outpatient department visits and endoscopic procedures decreased by 37% and 64%, respectively. The pre-endoscopy screening methods used displayed regional variations in COVID-19 prevalence. Among 16 endoscopy units with a community prevalence of ≥ 31.04 cases per 100,000 residents, 12 (75%) used polymerase chain reaction assay and four (25%) used rapid antigen test to identify asymptomatic patients before endoscopy. Of 6540 pre-endoscopy screening patients, 15 (0.23%) tested positive by laboratory testing. No endoscopy-related nosocomial COVID-19 infections were reported during the pandemic. Conclusions: We present a three-stage pre-endoscopy triage based on the local laboratory capacity, medical resources, and community prevalence. These measures could be useful during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
J Healthy Eat Act Living ; 1(3): 127-141, 2023 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935885

RESUMO

Active travel to school is one way youths can incorporate physical activity into their daily schedule. It is unclear the extent to which active travel to school is systematically monitored at local, state, or national levels. To determine the scope of active travel to school surveillance in the US and Canada and catalog the types of measures captured, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature documenting active travel to school surveillance published from 2004 to February 2018. A study was included if it addressed children's school travel mode across two or more time periods in the US or Canada. Criteria were applied to determine whether a data source was considered an active travel to school surveillance system. We identified 15 unique data sources; 4 of these met our surveillance system criteria. One system is conducted in the US, is nationally representative, and occurs every 5-8 years. Three are conducted in Canada, are limited geographically to regions and provinces, and are administered with greater frequency (e.g., 2-year cycles). School travel mode was the primary measure assessed, most commonly through parent report. None of the systems collected data on school policies or program supports related to active travel to school. We concluded that incorporating questions related to active travel to school behaviors into existing surveillance systems, as well as maintaining them over time, would enable more consistent monitoring. Concurrently capturing behavioral information along with related environmental, policy, and program supports may inform efforts to promote active travel to school.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

RESUMO

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Assuntos
Cromo , Metais Pesados , Bacillus , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resíduos Industriais/análise
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

RESUMO

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Assuntos
Cordia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
14.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 23(2): 128-130, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722851

RESUMO

AIM: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common clinical condition in which the throat narrows or collapses repeatedly during sleep, causing obstructive sleep apnoea events. This disorder is present in the paediatric population with a prevalence estimated between 1.2% and 5.8%. Down Syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with mental disability and characterised by other clinical manifestations, and its incidence is estimated at 1/800 births worldwide. Most of the craniofacial features typical of DS represent a risk factor for the development of OSAS. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries but it is still not a standard practice. The aim of this study is the Italian linguistic validation of a questionnaire for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with Down Syndrome. METHODS: After careful review of the existing scientific literature, a specific questionnaire was selected for the diagnosis of OSAS in children with DS. The questionnaire was then translated into Italian and administered to 111 parents of children with Down syndrome, for online completion. The last part of the questionnaire was dedicated to the comprehension of the questionnaire itself, with a specific focus on its clarity, accuracy and difficulty in completing it. CONCLUSION: The positive feedback registered in the comprehension part of the questionnaire, certified the good quality of the Italian translation and confirmed the questionnaire as a useful screening method to identify the comorbidity of OSAS and DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Humanos , Linguística , Faringe , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cytopathology ; 33(2): 249-252, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599627

RESUMO

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is described as a patient's clinical (phenotypical) presentation as a female with male karyotyping. Classically, patients are normal looking females with complaints of primary amenorrhea. The gonads may be found as extra-genital swellings; rarely, the testes may undergo malignant transformation. Thus, gonadectomy is indicated in these patients on attaining puberty. A rare and interesting case of clinically unsuspected AIS in a young female who presented with primary amenorrhea and inguinal swelling is reported. The initial diagnosis was suggested on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the inguinal swelling that showed the presence of Sertoli cells. Further family history revealed two similar siblings; karyotyping and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of AIS in the patient. This case highlights the importance of FNAC in early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to confirm the diagnosis and help in appropriate management.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Irmãos , Testículo/patologia
16.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 868597, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372507

RESUMO

The continuous interest in discovering new bioactive molecules derived from natural products (NP) has stimulated the development of improved screening assays to help overcome challenges in NP-based drug discovery. Here, we describe a unique platform for the online screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors without the need for pre-treating the sample. In the current study, we have demonstrated the ability to combine reversed-phase separation with a capillary immobilized enzyme reactor (cIMER) in two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry detection. We systematically investigated the effects of method parameters that are of practical significance and are known to affect the enzyme assay and interfere in the analysis such as: bioreactor dimensions, loop sizes, amount of immobilized enzyme, second dimension flow rates, reaction time, substrate concentration, presence of organic modifier, limit of detection and signal suppression. The performance of this new platform was evaluated using a mixture containing three known AChE inhibitors (tacrine, galanthamine and donepezil) and an ethanolic extract obtained from the dry bulbs of Hippeastrum calyptratum (Amaryllidaceae) was investigated to provide a proof of concept of the applicability of the platform for the analysis of complex mixtures such as those derived from NPs.

17.
AIDS Care ; 34(2): 227-231, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625933

RESUMO

HIV-associated functional impairment may cause cognitive impairment secondary to the viral infection, hence, associations between cognitive impairment and functional impairment in youth living with HIV are important to assess. We sought to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with functional impairment and if it carries higher risk for also having functional impairment. We collected parent-rated information regarding youth functional impairment on four different measures and administered a cognitive battery to youth to determine cognitive impairment, 203 HIV-infected youth and 44 HIV-uninfected controls. Degree of cognitive impairment correlated strongly with decreased function: CBCL, r = -.17, p = .01; VABS2, r = -.28, p < .001; repeated-grades, r = .26, p < .001. Presence of cognitive impairment was associated with increased risk of functional impairment: 3.47 (CIS); 1.71 (CBCL); 2.17 (VABS2); 2.97 (repeated-grades). Repeated-grades strongly associated with cognitive impairment and functional impairment. We found strong associations between HIV-infected youth functional impairment on CBCL, VABS2 and repeated-grades with degree of cognitive impairment; and that when cognitive impairment was present youth had higher risk of experiencing functional impairment as well. Asking whether youth have repeated a grade at school could be a helpful screening question for assessing potential functional impairment and provide clinicians with an indication as to whether a further in-depth assessment is required.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
18.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 257-260, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess faecal immunochemical test (FIT) negativity in terms of its effect on cancer risk in the local symptomatic two-week wait (2WW) population. FIT was introduced to the colorectal 2WW pathway at the start of the pandemic. This study analyses the FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) cohort and calculates the relative risk and odds ratio associated with a negative FIT test. METHODS: FIT tests were sent to symptomatic 2WW patients without rectal bleeding, iron-deficient anaemia or palpable mass. Where FIT was <10µg Hb/g investigations were moved to a radiology protocol. RESULTS: The test return rate was 91% with a FIT-negative (<10µg Hb/g) rate of 82%. The FIT-negative group in the symptomatic referral pathway in Cornwall have a low (1.4%) risk of colon cancer but a significant risk (6.6%) when all cancer types are considered. The impact of a negative quantitative FIT changes the odds ratio of a patient having a luminal cancer by 0.26. The odds ratio for 'all cancer' risk was affected by 0.83. CONCLUSION: A negative FIT test within the local NG12 symptomatic patient group signifies a low risk of colon cancer and identifies patients who can be initially investigated with cross-sectional imaging. However, when all cancer types are considered, cancer prevalence in this group remains above 6%. In relative risk terms a negative FIT represents a small change in overall risk and this patient group still qualify for investigation through 2WW pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Reto , Encaminhamento e Consulta
19.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 22-28, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that causes latent infections, and its reactivation due to immunosuppression can cause fatal complications. CMV reactivation is a complication frequently occurring in patients with kidney disease who require immunosuppressive therapy, and, therefore, this study retrospectively examined its risk factors. METHODS: Patients who received immunosuppressive therapy and underwent the CMV antigenemia test (CMV antigenemia: C7-HRP) for the treatment of primary nephritis (minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated nephritis diagnosed at Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 were recruited as study participants. Risk factors of CMV reactivation were examined using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Among the 64 patients (36 men and 28 women; median age, 72 years) included, 34 had primary nephritis (20 minimal disease changes, 10 membranous nephropathy, 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 1 focal glomerulosclerosis, and 2 IgA nephropathy) and 30 had ANCA-associated nephritis. Regarding glucocorticoid (GC), 43 patients received oral GC therapy, whereas 21 received GC pulse therapy. CMV reactivation participants showed significant differences in age, ANCA-associated nephritis, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, maximum GC dosage, and hemodialysis in univariable analysis. Multivariate analysis showed significantly lower lymphocyte counts in CMV-reactivated patients, but no significant difference in other factors. CONCLUSION: In patients with kidney disease, who require immunosuppressive therapy, CMV reactivation risk is high in patients with low lymphocyte count, and monitoring CMV during the treatment course could lead to early diagnosis and treatment of CMV disease.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Nefropatias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ativação Viral
20.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378520

RESUMO

Objetivos: avaliar a cobertura e os fatores associados à não realização do exame citopatológico do colo do útero entre mulheres de 18 a 39 anos no Brasil. Métodos: estudo transversal, de base populacional, com dados de inquérito domiciliar com 2.002 mulheres alfabetizadas de áreas urbanas, selecionadas por amostragem aleatória por conglomerados em 2016. Foram avaliados a prática do exame nos três anos anteriores e os fatores associados à não realização, com cálculo de razão de prevalência ajustada (RPaj) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) por regressão de Poisson. Resultados: a cobertura do exame entre mulheres de 18-39 anos foi de 66,5%, sendo mais elevada naquelas de 35-39 anos (76,8%). Mulheres com renda familiar até 1 salário-mínimo (RPaj=2,08;IC95% 1,72-2,54), que estudaram até a 4a série (RPaj=2,30;IC95% 1,22-2,67), residentes na região Nordeste (RPaj=1,79;IC95% 1,34-2,09) e em municípios com até 20.000 habitantes (RPaj=3,15;IC95% 2,33-3,96) apresentaram maior prevalência de não realização do exame. Conclusão: a cobertura do exame citopatológico esteve abaixo do recomendado, com disparidades socioeconômicas e geográficas. Os dados sugerem necessidade de oportunizar o rastreamento entre mulheres jovens de maior risco para o câncer do colo do útero.


Objectives: to evaluate the coverage and factors associated with non-performing Pap smear test among women aged 18-39 years in Brazil. Methods: cross-sectional, population-based study with household survey data with 2,002 literate women from urban areas, selected by random sampling by clusters in 2016. The practice of Pap test in the previous three years and associated factors with non-participation were evaluated, with calculation of adjusted prevalence ratio (PRad) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by Poisson regression. Results: coverage of Pap tests among women 18-39 years was 66.5%, being higher in those aged 35-39 years (76.8%). Women with a family income up to 01 minimum wage (PRad=2.08; 95%CI 1.72-2.54), who studied up to 4th grade (PRad=2.30; 95%CI 1.22-2.67) and residents in the Northeast region (PRad=1.79; 95%CI 1.34-2.09) and in municipalities up to 20,000 inhabitants (PRad=3.15; 95%CI 2.33-3.96) had a higher prevalence of non-participation in screening. Conclusions: the coverage of the Pap smear test was below recommended, with socioeconomic and geographical disparities. The data suggest the need to provide screening among young women at higher risk for cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou , Mulheres , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Colo do Útero , Programas de Rastreamento , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
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