Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 38.520
Filtrar
1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9557

RESUMO

La inteligencia artificial es la simulación de procesos de inteligencia humana por máquinas, especialmente sistemas informáticos. Las aplicaciones específicas de la IA incluyen sistemas expertos, procesamiento del lenguaje natural, reconocimiento de voz y visión artificial, entre otros. En los últimos años, la inteligencia artificial ha cobrado un rol muy importante para la industria, y en el caso de la salud, se ha visto como una gran oportunidad para mejorar la toma de decisión clínica, tener diagnósticos y tratamientos con mayor precisión, etc. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, la aceleración en la adopción de las tecnologías digitales ha propiciado la utilización de la inteligencia artificial en distintos ámbitos para mejorar la respuesta a la emergencia sanitaria, incluyendo la atención clínica de los casos más graves de la enfermedad, así como en la fabricación de vacunas.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação , Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9558

RESUMO

La inteligencia artificial es la simulación de procesos de inteligencia humana por máquinas, especialmente sistemas informáticos. Las aplicaciones específicas de la IA incluyen sistemas expertos, procesamiento del lenguaje natural, reconocimiento de voz y visión artificial, entre otros. En los últimos años, la inteligencia artificial ha cobrado un rol muy importante para la industria, y en el caso de la salud, se ha visto como una gran oportunidad para mejorar la toma de decisión clínica, tener diagnósticos y tratamientos con mayor precisión, etc. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, la aceleración en la adopción de las tecnologías digitales ha propiciado la utilización de la inteligencia artificial en distintos ámbitos para mejorar la respuesta a la emergencia sanitaria, incluyendo la atención clínica de los casos más graves de la enfermedad, así como en la fabricación de vacunas.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação , Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Salud Mental; 1 ed; Ene. 2022. 27 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1353063

RESUMO

La pandemia del coronavirus ha provocado un gran impacto en la salud mental, especialmente entre niños y jóvenes. Este periodo de pandemia ha involucrado distanciamiento o pérdida de los seres queridos, dificultades económicas, cambios drásticos en las rutinas, en las formas de relacionarse con los demás y un clima de incertidumbre y preocupación. Esta situación puede aumentar el riesgo suicida. Por lo que brindamos las pautas para identificar y prevenir las conductas suicidas


Assuntos
Suicídio , Saúde Mental , Coronavirus , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Impactos na Saúde , Participação da Comunidade , Pandemias
6.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-475282

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 primarily replicates in mucosal sites, and more information is needed about immune responses in infected tissues. We used rhesus macaques to model protective primary immune responses in tissues during mild COVID-19. Viral RNA levels were highest on days 1-2 post-infection and fell precipitously thereafter. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lung abnormalities and interferon (IFN)-activated myeloid cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were found on days [~]3-4. Virus-specific effector CD8 and CD4 T cells were detectable in the BAL and lung tissue on days [~]7-10, after viral RNA, lung inflammation, and IFN-activated myeloid cells had declined. Notably, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were not detectable in the nasal turbinates, salivary glands, and tonsils on day 10 post-infection. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 replication wanes in the lungs prior to T cell responses, and in the nasal and oral mucosa despite the apparent lack of Ag-specific T cells, suggesting that innate immunity efficiently restricts viral replication during mild COVID-19. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARYSARS-CoV-2 infection leads to mild, focal lung inflammation, and type I IFN activated myeloid cells that mostly resolve prior to the influx of virus-specific effector T cells or antibody responses in rhesus macaques.

7.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268622

RESUMO

BackgroundThe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted an urgent need to use infection testing databases to rapidly estimate effectiveness of prior infection in preventing reinfection (PES) by novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MethodsMathematical modeling was used to demonstrate the applicability of the test-negative, case-control study design to derive PES. Modeling was also used to investigate effects of bias in PES estimation. The test-negative design was applied to national-level testing data in Qatar to estimate PES for SARS-CoV-2 infection and to validate this design. ResultsApart from the very early phase of an epidemic, the difference between the test-negative estimate for PES and the true value of PES was minimal and became negligible as the epidemic progressed. The test-negative design provided robust estimation of PES even when PES began to wane after prior infection. Assuming that only 25% of prior infections are documented, misclassification of prior infection status underestimated PES, but the underestimate was considerable only when >50% of the population was ever infected. Misclassification of latent infection, misclassification of current active infection, and scale-up of vaccination all resulted in negligible bias in estimated PES. PES against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta variants was estimated at 97.0% (95% CI: 93.6-98.6) and 85.5% (95% CI: 82.4-88.1), respectively. These estimates were validated using a cohort study design. ConclusionsThe test-negative design offers a feasible, robust method to estimate protection from prior infection in preventing reinfection.

8.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268587

RESUMO

ObjectivesTo estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD management using routinely collected medication data as a proxy. DesignDescriptive and interrupted time series analysis using anonymised individual-level population-scale data for 1.32 billion records of dispensed CVD medications across 15.8 million individuals in England, Scotland and Wales. SettingCommunity dispensed CVD medications with 100% coverage from England, Scotland and Wales, plus primary care prescribed CVD medications from England (including 98% English general practices). Participants15.8 million individuals aged 18+ years alive on 1st April 2018 dispensed at least one CVD medicine in a year from England, Scotland and Wales. Main outcome measuresMonthly counts, percent annual change (1st April 2018 to 31st July 2021) and annual rates (1st March 2018 to 28th February 2021) of medicines dispensed by CVD/ CVD risk factor; prevalent and incident use. ResultsYear-on-year change in dispensed CVD medicines by month were observed, with notable uplifts ahead of the first (11.8% higher in March 2020) but not subsequent national lockdowns. Using hypertension as one example of the indirect impact of the pandemic, we observed 491,203 fewer individuals initiated antihypertensive treatment across England, Scotland and Wales during the period March 2020 to end May 2021 than would have been expected compared to 2019. We estimated that this missed antihypertension treatment could result in 13,659 additional CVD events should individuals remain untreated, including 2,281 additional myocardial infarctions (MIs) and 3,474 additional strokes. Incident use of lipid-lowering medicines decreased by an average 14,793 per month in early 2021 compared with the equivalent months prior to the pandemic in 2019. In contrast, the use of incident medicines to treat type-2 diabetes (T2DM) increased by approximately 1,642 patients per month. ConclusionsManagement of key CVD risk factors as proxied by incident use of CVD medicines has not returned to pre-pandemic levels in the UK. Novel methods to identify and treat individuals who have missed treatment are urgently required to avoid large numbers of additional future CVD events, further adding indirect cost of the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269050

RESUMO

Shanghai is the best city to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection in China. Since February 20, 2020, Shanghai has experienced five waves of COVID-19. Out of a total of 388 patients with COVID-19 symptoms, 381 were cured and seven died. Medical staff achieved zero infection. This paper summarizes, analyzes and simulates COVID-19 epidemics in Shanghai. The simulation results show that for five waves of epidemics, after reaching the infection turning point, the blocking rate of symptomatic infection is over 99%. The administration needs to maintain the prevention and control implemented 7 days after reaching the infection turning point until the new infection goes away.

10.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55572

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar os fatores correlacionados à incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19 e verificar situações de sindemia em escala global. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico de casos e óbitos confirmados de COVID-19 a partir de informações coletadas do European Center for Disease Prevention and Control em 2019 e 2020. Para a caracterização dos países, utilizaram-se indicadores do Banco Mundial e Worldometer Coronavirus. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e de correlação entre as variáveis independentes para posteriormente realizar o modelo de regressão linear múltipla, com o objetivo de identificar os fatores correlacionados à incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19. Resultados. Obtiveram-se dados de 185 países. A média da incidência dos casos foi de 16 482/mil habitantes, enquanto a média para mortalidade por COVID-19 foi de 291/mil habitantes, sendo América do Norte e Leste Asiático e Pacífico as regiões que apresentaram maiores e menores índices, respectivamente. Identificouse correlação positiva da taxa de incidência com proporção da população com idade de 15 a 64 anos, população urbana, desigualdade conforme Índice de Gini e com seis das sete regiões analisadas (exceto Leste Asiático e Pacífico). A taxa de mortalidade apresentou correlação negativa com a população de 0 a 14 anos e positiva com população urbana, desigualdade conforme índice de Gini e todas as regiões analisadas, exceto Leste Asiático e Pacífico. Conclusões. A morbimortalidade da COVID-19 esteve correlacionada à carga de condições crônicas, ao envelhecimento da população e à baixa capacidade dos serviços de saúde para testagem e oferta de leitos hospitalares, quadro agravado em países ou regiões com elevada desigualdade social, caracterizando uma situação de sindemia.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify factors correlated with the incidence and mortality from COVID-19 and investigate syndemic situations at the global level. Method. An ecologic study of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths was performed using information collected from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2019 and 2020. World Bank indicators and information obtained from Worldometer Coronavirus were used to characterize the countries. Descriptive analyses and correlations between independent variables were performed, followed by multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors correlated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Results. Data were obtained for 185 countries. Mean case incidence was 16 482/1,000 population, whereas mean COVID-19 mortality was 291/1,000 population, with the highest and lowest rates recorded in North America and East Asia and Pacific respectively. A positive correlation was identified between incidence rate and percent population aged 15 to 64 years, urban population, inequality measured by the Gini coefficient, and six out of the seven regions analyzed (except East Asia and Pacific). Mortality rate was negatively correlated with population aged 0 to 14 years and positively correlated with urban population, inequality measured by the Gini coefficient, and all regions analyzed except East Asia and Pacific. Conclusions. COVID-19 morbidity and mortality were correlated with the burden of chronic diseases, aging population, and low capacity of healthcare services for testing and providing hospital beds, a scenario complicated by social inequality in countries and regions, indicating a syndemic effect.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar los factores correlacionados con la incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esa causa y verificar las situaciones de sindemia a escala mundial. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico de casos de COVID-19 y de defunciones confirmadas por esa causa a partir de la información obtenida del Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de las Enfermedades en el 2019 y el 2020. Para caracterizar a los países, se utilizaron indicadores del Banco Mundial y del sitio web de referencia Worldometer Coronavirus. Se hicieron análisis descriptivos y de correlación entre las variables independientes para crear posteriormente un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple con el fin de identificar los factores correlacionados con la incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esa causa. Resultados. Se obtuvieron datos de 185 países. La tasa media de incidencia de casos de COVID-19 fue de 16 482 por mil habitantes y la tasa media de mortalidad por esa causa fue de 291 por mil habitantes. Las regiones de América del Norte y de Asia oriental y el Pacífico presentaron los mayores y menores índices, respectivamente. Se observó una correlación positiva de la tasa de incidencia con la proporción del grupo de 15 a 64 años de edad, la población urbana, la desigualdad medida por el coeficiente de Gini y seis de las siete regiones analizadas (excepto Asia oriental y el Pacífico). La tasa de mortalidad presentó una correlación negativa con el grupo de 0 a 14 años de edad y positiva con la población urbana, la desigualdad medida por el coeficiente de Gini y todas las regiones analizadas, excepto Asia oriental y el Pacífico. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por COVID-19 guardó una correlación con la carga de problemas crónicos de salud, el envejecimiento de la población y la poca capacidad de realizar pruebas en los servicios de salud y de ofrecer camas de hospital, cuadro agravado en los países o regiones con una elevada tasa de desigualdad social y característico de una situación de sindemia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Pandemias , Epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Pandemias , Epidemiologia
11.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269023

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has triggered a devastating global health, social and economic crisis. The RNA nature and broad circulation of this virus facilitate the accumulation of mutations, leading to the continuous emergence of variants of concern with increased transmissibility or pathogenicity1. This poses a major challenge to the effectiveness of current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies1,2. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic and preventive measures with a broad spectrum of action, especially against variants with an unparalleled number of mutations such as the recently emerged Omicron variant, which is rapidly spreading across the globe3. Here, we used combinatorial antibody phage-display libraries from convalescent COVID-19 patients to generate monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ultrapotent neutralizing activity. One such antibody, NE12, neutralizes an early isolate, the WA-1 strain, as well as the Alpha and Delta variants with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations at picomolar level. A second antibody, NA8, has an unusual breadth of neutralization, with picomolar activity against both the Beta and Omicron variants. The prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of NE12 and NA8 was confirmed in preclinical studies in the golden Syrian hamster model. Analysis by cryo-EM illustrated the structural basis for the neutralization properties of NE12 and NA8. Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein may play a key role against future variants of concern that evade immune control.

12.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268726

RESUMO

It is important to assess the extent to which the real-world effectiveness of marketed vaccines is consistent with that observed in the clinical trials, and to characterize how well vaccines prevent COVID-19 symptoms. We conducted a modified test-negative design (TND) to evaluate the RW effectiveness of three COVID-19 vaccines by leveraging data from an on-going, US community-based registry. Vaccine effectiveness was examined in two ways: considering cases who (1) tested positive for COVID-19 (695 cases, 1,786 controls) and who (2) tested positive with at least one moderate/severe COVID-19 symptom (165 cases, 2,316 controls). Any vaccination (full or partial) was associated with a 95% reduction in the odds of having a positive COVID-19 test [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.06)]. Full vaccination was associated with an aOR of 0.03 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.05) while partial vaccination had an aOR of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12). Any vaccination was associated with a 71% reduction in the odds of testing positive and having at least one moderate/severe symptom (aOR=0.29 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.40)). High effectiveness was observed across all three vaccine manufacturers both for prevention of positive COVID-19 test results and prevention of moderate/severe COVID-19 symptoms. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04368065

13.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268914

RESUMO

COVID-19 emergency use authorizations and approvals for vaccines were achieved in record time. However, there remains a need to develop additional safe, effective, easy-to-produce, and inexpensive prevention to reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. This need is due to difficulties in vaccine manufacturing and distribution, vaccine hesitancy, and, critically, the increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with greater contagiousness or reduced sensitivity to immunity. Antibodies from eggs of hens (immunoglobulin Y; IgY) that were administered receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were developed as nasal drops to capture the virus on the nasal mucosa. Although initially raised against the 2019 novel coronavirus index strain (2019-nCoV), these anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY surprisingly had indistinguishable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay binding against variants of concern that have emerged, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). This is distinct for sera from immunized or convalescent patients. Culture neutralization titers against available Alpha, Beta, and Delta were also indistinguishable from the index SARS-CoV-2 strain. Efforts to develop these IgY for clinical use demonstrated that the intranasal anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY preparation showed no binding (cross-reactivity) to a variety of human tissues and had an excellent safety profile in rats following 28-day intranasal delivery of the formulated IgY. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 study evaluating single-ascending and multiple doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY administered intranasally for 14 days in 48 healthy participants also demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile, and no evidence of systemic absorption. As these antiviral IgY have broad selectivity against many variants of concern, are fast to produce, and are a low-cost product, their use as prophylaxis to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission warrants further evaluation.

14.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268869

RESUMO

BackgroundDuring the COVID-19 pandemic, post-exposure-prophylaxis is not a practice. Following exposure, only patient isolation is imposed. Moreover, no therapeutic prevention approach is applied. We asked whether evidence exists for reduced mortality rate following post-exposure-prophylaxis. MethodsTo estimate the effectiveness of post-exposure-prophylaxis, we obtained data from the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) registry. The study population consisted of Israeli residents aged 12 years and older, identified for the first time as PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2, between December 20th, 2020 (the beginning of the vaccination campaign) and October 7th, 2021. We compared "recently injected" patients - that proved PCR-positive on the same day or on one of the five consecutive days after first vaccination (representing an unintended post-exposure-prophylaxis), to unvaccinated control group. ResultsAmong Israeli residents identified PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2, 11,690 were found positive on the day they received their first vaccine injection (BNT162b2) or on one of the 5 days thereafter. In patients over 65 years, 143 deaths occurred among 1413 recently injected (10.12%) compared to 280 deaths among the 1413 unvaccinated (19.82%), odd ratio (OR) 0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36 to 0.57; P<0.001). The most significant reduction in the death toll was observed among the 55 to 64 age group, with 8 deaths occurring among the 1322 recently injected (0.61%) compared to 43 deaths among the 1322 unvaccinated control (3.25%), OR 0.18 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.39; P<0.001). ConclusionPost-exposure-prophylaxis is effective against death in COVID-19 infection. Israeli MoH Registry NumberHMO-0372-20

15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262342, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms including acute respiratory failure. Biomarkers that can predict outcomes in patients with COVID-19 can assist with patient management. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether procalcitonin (PCT) can predict clinical outcome and bacterial superinfection in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal PCR who were admitted to a tertiary care center in Boston, MA with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 17 and April 30, 2020 with a baseline PCT value were studied. Patients who were presumed positive for SARS-CoV-2, who lacked PCT levels, or who had a positive urinalysis with negative cultures were excluded. Demographics, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: 324 patient charts were reviewed and grouped by clinical and microbiologic outcomes by day 28. Baseline PCT levels were significantly higher for patients who were treated for true bacteremia (p = 0.0005) and bacterial pneumonia (p = 0.00077) compared with the non-bacterial infection group. Baseline PCT positively correlated with the NIAID ordinal scale and survival over time. When compared to other inflammatory biomarkers, PCT showed superiority in predicting bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PCT levels are associated with outcome and bacterial superinfection in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2.

16.
J Tissue Viability ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027251

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the skin-related problems caused by personal protective equipment (PPE) use in health care workers (HCWs) and to identify the factors contributing to their occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive and cross-sectional online survey study was carried out with 297 HCWs working in a university hospital in Turkey between March 20, 2021, and May 20, 2021. The study data was collected using an online questionnaire consisting of 3 parts. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Chi-square, and Fisher's Exact Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Among the HCWs, 95.6% reported that skin-related problems associated with at least one PPE use. Skin-related problems that develop due to PPE use were mostly associated with the use of Surgical/N95 masks (97.1%) and gloves (96.8%). The most commonly reported problems were ''dryness'' (%74.0) and ''itching'' (%72.1) when wearing gloves, ''perspiration and moisture'' (73.6%), ''formation of equipment traces'' (53.9%), and ''skin lesions'' (52.8%) when wearing a surgical/N95 mask, ''perspiration and moisture'' (89.7%) when wearing protective overalls/gowns. Wearing PPE for more than 4h (p=0.001), taking additional precautions to increase the sense of protection (p=0.026), and not applying preventive measures while using PPE (p=0.003) significantly increase the risk of skin-related problems. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that skin-related problems due to the use of PPE are common among HCWs.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014749

RESUMO

Facing recent threats of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an educational strategy was designed and applied to middle school students in order to reinforce related knowledge and behaviors. A group of 65 middle school students (14-18 years old) developed several designed online curricular activities. After the intervention, students answered a questionnaire to assess if they: (a) were familiar with the terms COVID 19 and SARS-CoV-2; (b) were conscious about the importance of preventive measures to stop the spread of this disease; (c) were engaged in these activities; (d) were motivated to research on health-related issues. This study was a first to attempt to evaluate student's perceptions about SARS-CoV-2 infection and support education regarding COVID-19, mainly on the reinforcement of preventive measures.

18.
J Mol Biol ; : 167438, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990653

RESUMO

Recognition of viral infections by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates an inflammatory cytokine response that inhibits viral replication and orchestrates the activation of adaptive immune responses to control the viral infection. The broadly active innate immune response puts a strong selective pressure on viruses and drives the selection of variants with increased capabilities to subvert the induction and function of antiviral cytokines. This revolutionary process dynamically shapes the host ranges, cell tropism and pathogenesis of viruses. Recent studies on the innate immune responses to the infection of human coronaviruses (HCoV), particularly SARS-CoV-2, revealed that HCoV infections can be sensed by endosomal toll-like receptors and/or cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors in various cell types. However, the profiles of inflammatory cytokines and transcriptome response induced by a specific HCoV are usually cell type specific and determined by the virus-specific mechanisms of subverting the induction and function of interferons and inflammatory cytokines as well as the genetic trait of the host genes of innate immune pathways. We review herein the recent literatures on the innate immune responses and their roles in the pathogenesis of HCoV infections with emphasis on the pathobiological roles and therapeutic effects of type I interferons in HCoV infections and their antiviral mechanisms. The knowledge on the mechanism of innate immune control of HCoV infections and viral evasions should facilitate the development of therapeutics for induction of immune resolution of HCoV infections and vaccines for efficient control of COVID-19 pandemics and other HCoV infections.

19.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illnesses in the U.S. and are estimated to consume one-third of the country's mental health treatment cost. Although anxiolytic therapies are available, many patients still exhibit treatment resistance, relapse, or substantial side effects. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home order, social isolation, fear of the pandemic, and unprecedented times, the incidence of anxiety has dramatically increased. Previously, we have demonstrated dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exhibits anxiolytic properties in a mouse model of social isolation-induced anxiety. Because GABAergic transmission modulates the immune system in addition to the inhibitory signal transmission, we investigated the effects of short-term social isolation on the neuroimmune system. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed under absolute social isolation for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behaviors after DHM treatment were examined using elevated plus-maze and open field behavioral tests. Gephyrin protein expression, microglial profile changes, NF-κB pathway activation, cytokine level, and serum corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Socially isolated mice showed increased anxiety levels, reduced exploratory behaviors, and reduced gephyrin levels. Also, a dynamic alteration in hippocampal microglia were detected illustrated as a decline in microglia number and overactivation as determined by significant morphological changes including decreases in lacunarity, perimeter, and cell size and increase in cell density. Moreover, social isolation induced an increase in serum corticosterone level and activation in NF-κB pathway. Notably, DHM treatment counteracted these changes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social isolation contributes to neuroinflammation, while DHM has the ability to improve neuroinflammation induced by anxiety.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Flavonóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991778

RESUMO

Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% reduction in transmission rates might further reduce it by 41%, indicating that even small increases in protective behaviours may be critical to mitigate the wave.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Imunização Secundária , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...