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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Blood ; 139(12): 1903-1907, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113987

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is triggered by vaccination against COVID-19 with adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Ad26.COV2-S). In this observational study, we followed VITT patients for changes in their reactivity of platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by an anti-PF4/heparin IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a functional test for PF4-dependent, platelet-activating antibodies, and new thrombotic complications. Sixty-five VITT patients (41 females; median, 51 years; range, 18-80 years) were followed for a median of 25 weeks (range, 3-36 weeks). In 48/65 patients (73.8%; CI, 62.0% to 83.0%) the functional assay became negative. The median time to negative functional test result was 15.5 weeks (range, 5-28 weeks). In parallel, EIA optical density (OD) values decreased from median 3.12 to 1.52 (P < .0001), but seroreversion to a negative result was seen in only 14 (21.5%) patients. Five (7.5%) patients showed persistent platelet-activating antibodies and high EIA ODs for >11 weeks. None of the 29 VITT patients who received a second vaccination dose with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed new thromboses or relevant increase in anti-PF4/heparin IgG EIA OD, regardless of whether PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies were still present. PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies are transient in most patients with VITT. VITT patients can safely receive a second COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine shot.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trombocitopenia , Trombose , Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Fator Plaquetário 4 , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
3.
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 111-123, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941313

RESUMO

Controlling the spread of an infectious disease depends critically on the general public's adoption of preventive measures. Theories of health behavior suggest that risk perceptions motivate preventive behavior. The supporting evidence for this causal link is, however, of questionable validity. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a rare opportunity to examine how risk perceptions, preventive behavior, and the link between them develop in a fast-changing risky environment. In a 4-wave longitudinal study conducted in the United States and China, we found that for Chinese participants, there was little relationship between risk perceptions and preventive behavior. This may be a result of the Chinese government's strict control and containment policies and a collectivistic culture that encourages conforming to norms-both of which limit individuals' nonconformist behavior. For U.S. participants, risk perceptions did motivate preventive behavior in the early stage of the pandemic; however, as time went by and the risk of COVID-19 persisted, preventive behavior also led to perception of higher infection risk, which in turn further motivated preventive behavior. Thus, instead of the presumed unidirectional influence from perception to behavior, our results indicate that the two could mutually reinforce each other. Overall, our findings suggest that risk perceptions-at least in the context of a dynamic health hazard-may only motivate preventive behavior at specific stages and under specific conditions. They also highlight the importance of early interventions in promoting preventive behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Retais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
5.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311626

RESUMO

Fresh air ventilation has been identified as a widely accepted engineering control effective at diluting air contaminants in enclosed environments. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of selected ventilation measures on air change rates in school buses. Air changes per hour (ACH) of outside air were measured using a well-established carbon dioxide (CO2) tracer gas decay method. Ventilation was assessed while stationary and while traversing standardized route during late autumn/winter months in Colorado. Seven CO2 sensors located at the driver's seat and at passenger seats in the front, middle, and rear of the bus yielded similar and consistent measurements. Buses exhibited little air exchange in the absence of ventilation (ACH = 0.13 when stationary; ACH = 1.85 when mobile). Operating the windshield defroster to introduce fresh outside air increased ACH by approximately 0.5-1 ACH during mobile and stationary phases. During the mobile phase (average speed of 23 miles per hour (mph)), the combination of the defroster and two open ceiling hatches (with a powered fan on the rear hatch) yielded an ACH of approximately 9.3 ACH. A mobile phase ACH of 12.4 was achieved by the combination of the defroster, ceiling hatches, and six passenger windows open 2 inches in the middle area of the bus. A maximum mobile phase ACH of 22.1 was observed by using the defroster, open ceiling hatches, driver window open 4 inches, and every other passenger window open 2 inches. For reference, ACHs recommended in patient care settings where patients are being treated for airborne infectious diseases range from 6 to ≥12 ACHs. The results indicate that practical ventilation protocols on school buses can achieve air change rates thought to be capable of reducing airborne viral transmission to the bus driver and student passengers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(4): 570-583, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999751

RESUMO

We estimated the trends and correlates of vaccine hesitancy and its association with subsequent vaccine uptake among 5,458 adults in the United States. Participants belonged to the Communities, Households, and SARS-CoV-2 Epidemiology COVID (CHASING COVID) Cohort, a national longitudinal study. Trends and correlates of vaccine hesitancy were examined longitudinally in 8 interview rounds from October 2020 to July 2021. We also estimated the association between willingness to vaccinate and subsequent vaccine uptake through July 2021. Vaccine delay and refusal decreased from 51% and 8% in October 2020 to 8% and 6% in July 2021, respectively. Compared with non-Hispanic (NH) White participants, NH Black and Hispanic participants had higher adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for both vaccine delay (for NH Black, aOR = 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.7), and for Hispanic, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.7)) and vaccine refusal (for NH Black, aOR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 3.6), and for Hispanic, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.0)) in June 2021. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, compared with vaccine-willingness, was associated with lower odds of subsequent vaccine uptake (for vaccine delayers, aOR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.18; for vaccine refusers, aOR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03 ), adjusted for sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 history. Vaccination awareness and distribution efforts should focus on vaccine delayers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
7.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(3): 282-287, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519929

RESUMO

Background and aims: We compared the effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) provided by helmet mask vs face mask in patients with COVID-19. Methods and materials: Between March and May 2021, a single-center, prospective, open-label randomized controlled research was undertaken. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups based on the NIV delivery interface. In group I (n = 30) helmet mask was used and in group II (n = 30) face mask was used for delivery of NIV. The proportion of patients in each group who required endotracheal intubation was the primary outcome. The duration of NIV, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital mortality, ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory rate, patient comfort, and complications were all documented as secondary outcomes. Results: In both groups, demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment received were comparable. Around 10% of patients in the helmet mask group were intubated, while 43.3% of patients in the face mask group were intubated (p = 0.004). The two groups demonstrated similar hemodynamic patterns. The use of a helmet mask, on the other hand, resulted in enhanced oxygenation (263.57 ± 31.562 vs 209.33 ± 20.531, p = 0.00), higher patient satisfaction (p = 0.001), a lower risk of complications, and a shorter NIV and ICU stay (p = 0.001) (4.53 ± 0.776 vs 7.60 ± 1.354, p = 0.00 and 6.37 ± 0.556 vs 11.57 ± 2.161, p = 0.00). Conclusion: Helmet mask could be a reliable interface for delivery of NIV in COVID-19 and results in a lower rate of endotracheal intubation, better oxygenation with greater patient comfort and shorter ICU stay as compared to face mask used for NIV. How to cite this article: Saxena A, Nazir N, Pandey R, Gupta S. Comparison of Effect of Non-invasive Ventilation Delivered by Helmet vs Face Mask in Patients with COVID-19 Infection: A Randomized Control Study. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(3):282-287.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524402

RESUMO

The effects of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the lives of underserved populations are underexplored. This study aimed to identify the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health responses on the health and social well-being, and food security of users of Housing First (HF) services in Toronto (Canada) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted from July to October 2020 in a subsample of 20 adults with a history of homelessness and serious mental disorders who were receiving HF services in Toronto. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect narrative data regarding health and social well-being, food security and access to health, social and preventive services. A thematic analysis framework guided analyses and interpretation of the data. The COVID-19 pandemic and response measures had a variable impact on the health, social well-being and food security of participants. Around 40% of participants were minimally impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, among the remaining participants (impacted group), some experienced onset of new mental health problems (anxiety, stress, paranoia) or exacerbation of pre-existing mental disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder). They also struggled with isolation and loneliness and had limited leisure activities and access to food goods. The pandemic also contributed to disparities in accessing and receiving healthcare services and treatment continuity for non-COVID-19 health issues for the negatively impacted participants. Overall, most participants were able to adhere to COVID-19 public health measures and get reliable information on COVID-19 preventive measures facilitated by having access to the phone, internet and media devices and services. In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic and associated response measures impacted the health, social well-being, leisure and food security of people with experiences of homelessness and mental disorders who use supportive social and housing services in diverse ways.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children, adolescents, and young adults with established type 1 diabetes and explore the effects of COVID-19 on glycemic control and disease course. METHODS: Observational study conducted at three pediatric diabetes clinics in Israel between mid-March-2020 and mid-March-2021. Included were young people with established type 1 diabetes, <30years, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (qRT-PCR). Data was collected from medical files, diabetes devices, and COVID-19 questionnaire. Outcome measures were analyzed by presence/absence of clinical symptoms (symptomatic/asymptomatic) and by age group (pediatric, <19years/young adults, 19-30years). RESULTS: Of 132 patients, mean age 16.9±5.3years, with COVID-19 confirmed infection, 103 (78%) had related symptoms; the most common were headaches, fatigue, fever and loss of sense of smell. All had mild disease course, but four required hospitalization and two cases were directly related to COVID-19 infection (pleuropneumonia in a patient with immunodeficiency syndrome, one case of diabetic-ketoacidosis). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.11, 95%CI, 1.01, 1.23; P=0.033), elevated glucose levels (OR=5.23, 95%CI, 1.12, 24.41; P=0.035) and comorbidities (OR=8.21, 95%CI, 1.00, 67.51; P=0.050) were positively associated with symptomatic infection. Persistent symptoms occurred in 16.5% of the cohort over a median of 6.7 months; age (OR=1.14, 95%CI, 1.01, 1.29; P=0.030) and elevated glucose levels (OR=3.42, 95%CI, 1.12, 10.40; P=0.031) were positively associated with persistent symptoms. Usually, no change was reported in glucose levels (64%) except for a temporary deterioration in glycemic control during the short infection period. CONCLUSIONS: Young people with established type 1 diabetes experience mild COVID-19 infection. Elevated glucose levels during COVID-19 infection and older age were associated with prolonged disease course.

11.
Clin Lab ; 68(5)2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a sudden rise in infectious diseases, with special concern to the most recent SARS-CoV 2 outbreak. A retrospective study was conducted to study the effect of this outbreak on neonatal sepsis as a global issue that poses a challenge for pediatric management and to identify its risk factors, microbial profile, and mortality rate at King Faisal Medical Complex, Taif, KSA, a COVID-19-tertiary care segregation hospital. METHODS: This research included 111 neonates with a culture-proven diagnosis of neonatal sepsis (4 and 62 cases during 2019 and 2020, respectively). RESULTS: During 2019 early onset sepsis (EOS) occurred in 6/49 (12.2%) while in 2020 22/62 (35.5%), and during 2019 late onset sepsis (LOS) occurred in 43/49 (87.7%) while in 2020 40/62 (64.5%). Premature rupture of membrane was the major neonatal risk factor for EOS during 2019 and 2020 with proportions of 4 (66.7%), 20 (90.9%); respectively. As regards LOS, the peripherally inserted central catheters and peripheral lines were the top neonatal risk factors. In the two-year outbreak, the most prevalent causative organism for EOS neonates was Escherichia coli and for LOS neonates it was Klebsiella. There was non-significant change in the mortality rate of neonatal sepsis between 2019 and 2020. However, the mortality rate was higher in EOS 9/22 (40.9%) in 2020 in comparison to 2/6 (33.3%) in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal sepsis remains a major health problem causing serious morbidity and mortality, and health care policy makers have to implement EOS preventive measures.

12.
Fam Med ; 54(5): 350-361, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stay-at-home orders, social isolation recommendations, and fear of COVID-19 exposure have led to delays in children's preventive health services during the pandemic. Delays can lead to missed opportunities for early screening and detection of health problems, and increased risks for outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Understanding prevalence of and reasons for missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services is important for developing strategies to achieve rapid catch-up of essential health services. METHODS: Using the Household Pulse Survey (n=37,064), a large, nationally-representative household survey fielded from April 14 to May 10, 2021, we examined prevalence of households with children who have missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services, and factors associated with and reasons contributing to missed, delayed, or skipped preventive health services. RESULTS: About one-quarter of parents had children who missed, delayed, or skipped preventive check-ups in the past year. Delays in children's preventive health services were more common among respondents with higher education, households with greater numbers of children, and children who learned remotely or did not participate in formal education. Main reasons attributed to delayed preventive health services were limited appointments at health providers' offices (42.9%), concern about COVID-19 exposure at health providers' offices (42.2%), and closed health providers' offices due to the pandemic (29.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Physician office closures and concern about COVID-19 exposure resulted in over one-quarter of parents delaying preventive services for their children since the pandemic began. Coordinated efforts are needed to achieve rapid catch-up of preventive services and routine vaccines.

13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267625, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with prevention practices against COVID-19 in the Peruvian population according to rural vs. urban locations. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study, secondary analysis based on a previously collected database. A sample of individuals over 18 years of age, residing in Peru and with no history of COVID-19was evaluated. Factors associated with prevention practices were evaluated using Poisson regressions with variance adjustment by region cluster and stratified by rurality. RESULTS: Of 3231 participants included, 2741 (84.8%) were from urban areas and 490 (15.2%) from rural areas. The frequency of good prevention practices against COVID-19 was 27.8% in our total sample. In urban areas the frequency of good prevention practices was 28.8% and in rural areas it was 22.5%. Factors associated with prevention practices against COVID-19 in both urban and rural areas were male sex (urban: aPR 0.64, 95%CI 0.55-0.75; rural: aPR 0.66, 95%CI 0.54-0.80) and self-considering adequately carrying out prevention practices (urban: aPR 2.48, 95%CI 2.13-2.89; rural: aPR 2.70, 95%CI 2.27-3.19). CONCLUSION: The frequency of good prevention practices against COVID-19 was less than 30% in both urban and rural areas. There are differences in the factors associated with good preventive practice against COVID-19. Only sex and considering that preventive measures were adequately carried out were associated with good prevention practices in both areas. In view of this, prevention measures should be promoted taking into account cultural principles and considering geographical location in the face of present and future outbreaks or pandemics.

14.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(190): 20220048, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537473

RESUMO

Effective contact tracing is crucial to containing epidemic spreading without disrupting societal activities, especially during a pandemic. Large gatherings play a key role, potentially favouring superspreading events. However, the effects of tracing in large groups have not been fully assessed so far. We show that in addition to forward tracing, which reconstructs to whom the disease spreads, and backward tracing, which searches from whom the disease spreads, a third 'sideward' tracing is always present, when tracing gatherings. This is an indirect tracing that detects infected asymptomatic individuals, even if they have been neither directly infected by nor directly transmitted the infection to the index case. We analyse this effect in a model of epidemic spreading for SARS-CoV-2, within the framework of simplicial activity-driven temporal networks. We determine the contribution of the three tracing mechanisms to the suppression of epidemic spreading, showing that sideward tracing induces a non-monotonic behaviour in the tracing efficiency, as a function of the size of the gatherings. Based on our results, we suggest an optimal choice for the sizes of the gatherings to be traced and we test the strategy on an empirical dataset of gatherings on a university campus.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537800

RESUMO

Objectives: Our journal partnered with the Europe section of the International Union against STI (IUSTI) at a workshop held at the 18th European AIDS Conference in London on 30 October 2021. The workshop reviewed epidemiological trends and discussed STI care provision within HIV services across Europe. Methods and Results: We started by highlighting trends in bacterial STIs reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control from countries in the European Union/European Economic Area. This showed that notifications of bacterial STIs reached an all-time high in 2019, but are expected to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-2021. We then reviewed the evolving relationship between STIs and HIV and pointed out how antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis remain highly effective against HIV transmission despite the rising incidence of STIs. Within emerging concepts in STIs, we appraised the benefits and risks of asymptomatic screening for chlamydia, and also considered the potential perils of routinely testing for agents that lack a defined role in disease. Finally, we discussed standards of STI care for people living with HIV, informed by a brief survey of IUSTI Europe country representatives and members of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe network. Conclusions: The survey indicated substantial variability and identified key improvement targets: fighting barriers to effective service provision and access, increasing diagnostic capability and taking leadership in driving up the quality of care. We must not forget the STI-related needs of the many people who will be living with HIV for decades into the future.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 942, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionately hard impact on refugees and other migrants who are often exposed to the virus with limited means to protect themselves. We tested the hypothesis that during the COVID-19 pandemic, refugees and other migrants have suffered a negative impact on mental health and have been unjustly discriminated for spreading the disease in Europe (data collection from April to November 2020). METHODS: Participants in the ApartTogether Survey (N = 8297, after listwise deletion of missing items final N = 3940) provided data regarding to their difficulties to adhere to preventive recommendations against COVID-19 infection (CARE), self-perceived stigmatization (SS), and psychological distress (PD). Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate PD as a mediator in the pathway linking CARE to SS, while adjusting for the housing and residence status. To improve confidence in the findings, single hold-out sample cross-validation was performed using a train/test split ratio of 0.8/0.2. RESULTS: In the exploratory set (N = 3159) SS was associated with both CARE (B = 0.200, p < 0.001) and PD (B = 0.455, p < 0.001). Moreover, PD was also associated with CARE (B = 0.094, p = 0.001) and mediated the effect of CARE on SS (proportion mediated = 17.7%, p = 0.001). The results were successfully replicated in the confirmation set (N = 781; total effect = 0.417, p < 0.001; proportion mediated = 29.7%, p < 0.001). Follow-up analyses also found evidence for an opposite effect (i.e., from SS to CARE, B = 0.132; p < 0.001), suggesting that there might be a vicious circle between the self-perceived stigmatization and the access to health care and the use of preventive measures against COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Refugees and other migrants who had more difficulties in accessing health care and preventive measures against COVID-19 infection experienced worse mental health and increased discrimination. These negative effects appeared to be stronger for those with more insecure housing and residence status, highlighting from one side the specific risk of insecure housing in the impact of COVID-19 upon mental health and infection protection, and for another side the need to proper housing as a strategy to prevent both COVID-19 and mental distress.

18.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(2): 162-170, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relatively few studies have assessed risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in public facilities used by children and adolescents. This study presents an analysis of a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred in a taekwondo gym in Korea, predominantly among children and adolescents, with the aim of providing insights on managing COVID-19 outbreaks in similar facilities. METHODS: All 108 taekwondo gym students and staff received COVID-19 tests. A survey and closed-circuit television analyses were used to identify risk factors. A univariate analysis was conducted, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward elimination for variables with a significance level <0.10 in the univariate analysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 was confirmed in 30 of 108 subjects at the taekwondo gym (attack rate, 27.8%). The outbreak started in an adult class student. This student transmitted the virus to the staff, who consequently transmitted the virus to adolescent students. In the univariate analysis, the relative risk for younger age (≤9 years) was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-4.54; p=0.054), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.04-4.30; p=0.048). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for younger age was 2.96 (95% CI, 1.07-8.20; p=0.036), and that for food consumption inside the gym was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.10-8.17; p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Food consumption inside the facility and young age were significant risk factors for COVID-19 transmission in this taekwondo gym. Food consumption should be prohibited in sports facilities, and infection prevention education for young students is also required.

19.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538706

RESUMO

AIMS: We examined the impact of COVID-19 regarding organizational and management issues at Israeli long-term care facilities. BACKGROUND: Residents in facilities were very vulnerable to significant disease and mortality during COVID-19. METHODS: A survey of 52 facilities in Israel was conducted in 2020, consisting of closed- and open-ended questions. Mixed methods were used to analyze data both quantitively and qualitatively. RESULTS: Three main effects emerged: worsened financial status of long-term-care facilities resulting from high expenditures for preventive measures and reduced revenue due to deaths and fewer resident admissions; increased workload due to decreased workforce and additional duties; and negative mental health effects on staff because of increased workload and the conflict between maintaining good clinical practice and following COVID-19 regulations. CONCLUSION: The development of government directives needs to take into account potential conflicts between the directives and quality care principles and to provide a balanced approach that assures humane care. Facilities and their staff lacked adequate pandemic-related guidance and support. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The results highlight the need to address staff shortages and training, to provide more support and clearer guidance to facilities and their staff, and to devise a framework and strategies for future health crises.

20.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(2): 199-207, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538753

RESUMO

Objective To assess the psychological status of staff at the centers for disease control and prevention(CDC) in Sichuan during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and explore the influencing factors. Methods The staff at Sichuan provincial,municipal,and county(district)-level CDC were selected by convenience sampling.Their basic information,work status,training status,work difficulties,and support from the work group were collected from the self-filled questionnaires online.The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale and the 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire were respectively employed to measure the anxiety and depression of the staff.The stepwise Logistic regression was carried out to analyze the influencing factors of anxiety and depression in CDC staff. Results Among the 653 staff,58.35% and 50.06% presented anxiety and depression,respectively.The regression results showed that age(OR=0.95,95%CI=0.92-0.97) and mental support from the work group(OR=0.61,95%CI=0.45-0.82) were the protective factors while physical fatigue(OR=1.82,95%CI=1.20-2.74),work pressure(OR=1.61,95%CI=1.21-2.12),and insufficient protective equipment(OR=1.92,95%CI=1.06-3.49) were the risk factors for depression of CDC staff.Age(OR=0.97,95%CI=0.94-0.99),length of sleep per day(OR=0.74,95%CI=0.56-0.96),and participation in technical training(OR=0.33,95%CI=0.12-0.95) were the protective factors while mental fatigue(OR=1.68,95%CI=1.18-2.41),work pressure(OR=2.94,95%CI=2.08-4.17),and unclear incentive system for overtime(OR=1.99,95%CI=1.23-3.23) were the risk factors for the anxiety of CDC staff. Conclusion The anxiety and depression status of CDC staff during the COVID-19 outbreak were worrying,which were mainly affected by age,sleep,supply of protective equipment,incentive system,fatigue,and work pressure.

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