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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48585

RESUMO

herramienta que reúne varias fuentes de información relacionadas con el covid


Assuntos
COVID-19
2.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9557

RESUMO

La inteligencia artificial es la simulación de procesos de inteligencia humana por máquinas, especialmente sistemas informáticos. Las aplicaciones específicas de la IA incluyen sistemas expertos, procesamiento del lenguaje natural, reconocimiento de voz y visión artificial, entre otros. En los últimos años, la inteligencia artificial ha cobrado un rol muy importante para la industria, y en el caso de la salud, se ha visto como una gran oportunidad para mejorar la toma de decisión clínica, tener diagnósticos y tratamientos con mayor precisión, etc. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, la aceleración en la adopción de las tecnologías digitales ha propiciado la utilización de la inteligencia artificial en distintos ámbitos para mejorar la respuesta a la emergencia sanitaria, incluyendo la atención clínica de los casos más graves de la enfermedad, así como en la fabricación de vacunas.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação , Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9558

RESUMO

La inteligencia artificial es la simulación de procesos de inteligencia humana por máquinas, especialmente sistemas informáticos. Las aplicaciones específicas de la IA incluyen sistemas expertos, procesamiento del lenguaje natural, reconocimiento de voz y visión artificial, entre otros. En los últimos años, la inteligencia artificial ha cobrado un rol muy importante para la industria, y en el caso de la salud, se ha visto como una gran oportunidad para mejorar la toma de decisión clínica, tener diagnósticos y tratamientos con mayor precisión, etc. Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, la aceleración en la adopción de las tecnologías digitales ha propiciado la utilización de la inteligencia artificial en distintos ámbitos para mejorar la respuesta a la emergencia sanitaria, incluyendo la atención clínica de los casos más graves de la enfermedad, así como en la fabricación de vacunas.


Assuntos
Informática Médica , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação , Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce
4.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268458

RESUMO

ImportanceThere are limited data describing SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses and their durability following infection and vaccination in nursing home residents. ObjectiveTo evaluate the quantitative titers and durability of binding antibodies detected after SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent COVID-19 vaccination. DesignA prospective longitudinal evaluation included nine visits over 150 days; visits included questionnaire administration, blood collection for serology, and paired anterior nasal specimen collection for testing by BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card (BinaxNOW), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and viral culture. SettingA nursing home during and after a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Participants11 consenting SARS-CoV-2-positive nursing home residents. Main Outcomes and MeasuresSARS-CoV-2 testing (BinaxNOW, RT-PCR, viral culture); quantitative titers of binding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post-infection and post-vaccination (beginning after the first dose of the primary series). ResultsOf 10 participants with post-infection serology results, 9 (90%) had detectable Pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA antibodies and 8 (80%) had detectable IgM antibodies. At first antibody detection post-infection, two-thirds (6/9, 67%) of participants were RT-PCR-positive but none were culture positive. Ten participants received vaccination; all had detectable Pan-Ig, IgG, and IgA antibodies through their final observation [≤]90 days post-first dose. Post-vaccination geometric means of IgG titers were 10-200-fold higher than post-infection. Conclusions and RelevanceNursing home residents in this cohort mounted robust immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 post-infection and post-vaccination. The augmented antibody responses post-vaccination are potential indicators of enhanced protection that vaccination may confer on previously infected nursing home residents.

5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-01-11.
em Inglês, Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55594

RESUMO

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained low but increasing. In Canada, influenza A and B virus co-circulated with influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 among samples where subtyping was performed; SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased. In Mexico, influenza A(H3N2) prevailed, with B co-circulating and SARS-CoV-2 activity increased. In the United States, influenza A(H3N2) predominated, with SARS-CoV-2 activity increasing, hospitalizations and deaths remained elevated. Respiratory syncytial virus activity remained high in Canada. Caribbean: Influenza remained at low activity levels. Haiti reported a few detections in recent weeks with the predominance of influenza B/Victoria and A(H1N1)pdm09. In Suriname, SARS-CoV-2 and SARI activity decreased to low levels. Central America: Influenza activity continued low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased to low levels overall. In Guatemala, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of influenza A(H3N2) in the previous week, while influenza A(H3N2) circulation increased in Honduras with low SARI and ILI activity. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low; however, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru reported increased influenza activity associated with A(H3N2) detections. SARS-CoV-2 activity stands elevated in Bolivia and Ecuador; and in Bolivia, SARI activity continued at extraordinary levels. Brazil and Southern Cone: Influenza activity increased to pre-pandemic levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity continues at low levels, except in Argentina. Influenza A(H3N2) detections continue to rise in Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Most activity and increasing A(H3N2) detections are recorded in Brazil and Uruguay. Global: In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity, although still low, appeared to increase in some countries with detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and B Victoria lineage (mainly in China). In Europe, influenza activity continued to increase. Influenza A(H3N2) predominated. In East Asia, influenza activity continued rising in China, while influenza illness indicators and activity remained low in the rest of the subregion. Influenza B/Victoria viruses predominated. In tropical Africa, overall influenza activity continued decreasing, with both influenza A and B detected. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections of predominately influenza A(H3N2) increased overall, although reducing in a few countries. In South-East Asia, sporadic influenza detections were reported in the Philippines. However, in the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance increased to approximately 30%. Activity remained under 10% positivity in the Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asian and Western Pacific Regions of WHO. In the other WHO Regions, an increasing trend in positivity was observed in recent weeks. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also increased and was at 25%.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL] América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja pero en aumento. En Canadá, el virus de la influenza A y B circularon concurrentemente con los virus influenza A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09 en las muestras a las que se les determinó el subtipo; la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó ligeramente. En México, predominó el virus influenza A(H3N2), con la circulación concurrente de B, y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, predominó la influenza A(H3N2), con un aumento de la actividad del SARS-CoV-2, las hospitalizaciones y muertes se mantuvieron elevadas. La actividad del virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo alta en Canadá. Caribe: la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos de actividad. Haití reportó algunas detecciones en las últimas semanas con predominio de influenza B/Victoria y A(H1N1)pdm09. En Surinam, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 e IRAG disminuyó a niveles bajos. América Central: la actividad de la influenza continuó baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó a niveles bajos en general. En Guatemala, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó con el predominio de la influenza A(H3N2) en semanas previa, mientras que la circulación de la influenza A(H3N2) aumentó en Honduras con baja actividad de IRAG y ETI. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja; sin embargo, Bolivia, Ecuador y Perú informaron un aumento de la actividad de la influenza asociada con las detecciones de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene elevada en Bolivia y Ecuador; y en Bolivia, la actividad de la IRAG continuó en niveles extraordinarios. Brasil y Cono Sur: la actividad de la influenza aumentó a niveles prepandémicos y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continúa en niveles bajos, excepto en Argentina. Las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) continúan aumentando en Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. La mayor parte de la actividad y las detecciones crecientes de A(H3N2) se registran en Brasil y en Uruguay. Global: en las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza, aunque todavía baja, pareció aumentar en algunos países con detecciones de influenza principalmente A(H3N2) y B linaje Victoria (principalmente en China). En Europa, la actividad gripal siguió aumentando. Predominó influenza A(H3N2). En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza siguió aumentando en China, mientras que los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza se mantuvieron bajos en el resto de la subregión. Predominaron los virus influenza B linaje Victoria. En África tropical, la actividad general de la influenza continuó disminuyendo y se detectaron tanto la influenza A como la B. En el sur de Asia, en general, las detecciones de los virus de la influenza predominantemente A(H3N2) aumentaron, aunque disminuyeron en algunos países. En el sudeste asiático, en Filipinas se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza. Sin embargo, en las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja en general. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 de la vigilancia centinela aumentó a aproximadamente el 30%. La actividad se mantuvo por debajo del 10 % de positividad en las Regiones del Mediterráneo Oriental, Asia Sudoriental y el Pacífico Occidental. En las otras Regiones, se observó una tendencia creciente en la positividad en las últimas semanas. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también aumentó y fue del 25%.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe , Influenza Humana , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Emergências , América , Região do Caribe
6.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55572

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar os fatores correlacionados à incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19 e verificar situações de sindemia em escala global. Métodos. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico de casos e óbitos confirmados de COVID-19 a partir de informações coletadas do European Center for Disease Prevention and Control em 2019 e 2020. Para a caracterização dos países, utilizaram-se indicadores do Banco Mundial e Worldometer Coronavirus. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e de correlação entre as variáveis independentes para posteriormente realizar o modelo de regressão linear múltipla, com o objetivo de identificar os fatores correlacionados à incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19. Resultados. Obtiveram-se dados de 185 países. A média da incidência dos casos foi de 16 482/mil habitantes, enquanto a média para mortalidade por COVID-19 foi de 291/mil habitantes, sendo América do Norte e Leste Asiático e Pacífico as regiões que apresentaram maiores e menores índices, respectivamente. Identificouse correlação positiva da taxa de incidência com proporção da população com idade de 15 a 64 anos, população urbana, desigualdade conforme Índice de Gini e com seis das sete regiões analisadas (exceto Leste Asiático e Pacífico). A taxa de mortalidade apresentou correlação negativa com a população de 0 a 14 anos e positiva com população urbana, desigualdade conforme índice de Gini e todas as regiões analisadas, exceto Leste Asiático e Pacífico. Conclusões. A morbimortalidade da COVID-19 esteve correlacionada à carga de condições crônicas, ao envelhecimento da população e à baixa capacidade dos serviços de saúde para testagem e oferta de leitos hospitalares, quadro agravado em países ou regiões com elevada desigualdade social, caracterizando uma situação de sindemia.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify factors correlated with the incidence and mortality from COVID-19 and investigate syndemic situations at the global level. Method. An ecologic study of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths was performed using information collected from the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2019 and 2020. World Bank indicators and information obtained from Worldometer Coronavirus were used to characterize the countries. Descriptive analyses and correlations between independent variables were performed, followed by multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors correlated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Results. Data were obtained for 185 countries. Mean case incidence was 16 482/1,000 population, whereas mean COVID-19 mortality was 291/1,000 population, with the highest and lowest rates recorded in North America and East Asia and Pacific respectively. A positive correlation was identified between incidence rate and percent population aged 15 to 64 years, urban population, inequality measured by the Gini coefficient, and six out of the seven regions analyzed (except East Asia and Pacific). Mortality rate was negatively correlated with population aged 0 to 14 years and positively correlated with urban population, inequality measured by the Gini coefficient, and all regions analyzed except East Asia and Pacific. Conclusions. COVID-19 morbidity and mortality were correlated with the burden of chronic diseases, aging population, and low capacity of healthcare services for testing and providing hospital beds, a scenario complicated by social inequality in countries and regions, indicating a syndemic effect.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar los factores correlacionados con la incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esa causa y verificar las situaciones de sindemia a escala mundial. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio ecológico de casos de COVID-19 y de defunciones confirmadas por esa causa a partir de la información obtenida del Centro Europeo para la Prevención y el Control de las Enfermedades en el 2019 y el 2020. Para caracterizar a los países, se utilizaron indicadores del Banco Mundial y del sitio web de referencia Worldometer Coronavirus. Se hicieron análisis descriptivos y de correlación entre las variables independientes para crear posteriormente un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple con el fin de identificar los factores correlacionados con la incidencia de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esa causa. Resultados. Se obtuvieron datos de 185 países. La tasa media de incidencia de casos de COVID-19 fue de 16 482 por mil habitantes y la tasa media de mortalidad por esa causa fue de 291 por mil habitantes. Las regiones de América del Norte y de Asia oriental y el Pacífico presentaron los mayores y menores índices, respectivamente. Se observó una correlación positiva de la tasa de incidencia con la proporción del grupo de 15 a 64 años de edad, la población urbana, la desigualdad medida por el coeficiente de Gini y seis de las siete regiones analizadas (excepto Asia oriental y el Pacífico). La tasa de mortalidad presentó una correlación negativa con el grupo de 0 a 14 años de edad y positiva con la población urbana, la desigualdad medida por el coeficiente de Gini y todas las regiones analizadas, excepto Asia oriental y el Pacífico. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por COVID-19 guardó una correlación con la carga de problemas crónicos de salud, el envejecimiento de la población y la poca capacidad de realizar pruebas en los servicios de salud y de ofrecer camas de hospital, cuadro agravado en los países o regiones con una elevada tasa de desigualdad social y característico de una situación de sindemia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Pandemias , Epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Sindemia , Pandemias , Epidemiologia
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-06. (OPS/EGC/COVID-19/21-0006).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55557

RESUMO

La COVID-19 ha generado efectos catastróficos en los sistemas de salud y en la salud de las personas en la Región de las Américas, en especial en el caso de las mujeres y las niñas, cuyas condiciones han empeorado en todos los ámbitos. Las mayores preocupaciones al respecto se centran en las consecuencias directas (morbilidad y mortalidad) de la acción del virus sobre poblaciones definidas, en los resultados de las medidas orientadas a mitigar la propagación del virus y en el efecto indirecto sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas. En este complejo escenario, el enfoque de género, con sus consecuencias en el contexto actual, no ha recibido la debida atención durante la pandemia. El género es uno de los determinantes estructurales asociados a la salud, pero no aparece en los análisis de los efectos directos e indirectos de la pandemia. Además, es fundamental para reconocer y analizar los efectos diferenciales de la pandemia sobre hombres y mujeres y su interacción con los diferentes determinantes de la salud. El presente informe es una iniciativa de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y apunta a generar un conjunto de conocimientos que permitan, por un lado, reconocer, entender e instalar la temática de género y salud en el contexto de la pandemia, y, por otro, comprender el comportamiento de la enfermedad y sus posibles efectos. El informe se cierra con una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones sobre datos y evidencia, y sobre respuestas en planes y políticas.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Gênero e Saúde , Mulheres , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Mortalidade , Morbidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Pandemias , Sistemas de Saúde , Política de Saúde
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-03. (OPS/PHE/IMS/COVID-19/21-0015).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55544

RESUMO

Esta publicación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) es una versión actualizada del documento de junio del 2020 titulado Consideraciones sobre la ejecución y el manejo del rastreo de contactos para la enfermedad por coronavirus del 2019 (COVID-19) en la Región de las Américas, cuyo propósito es complementar las orientaciones provisionales proporcionadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sobre el rastreo de contactos en el contexto de la COVID-19. La presente publicación incluye orientación sobre el rastreo de contactos en los contactos vacunados y viajeros internacionales, así como en los entornos en los que hay transmisión comunitaria. También incluye las definiciones actualizadas de “caso”, “contacto” y “transmisión comunitaria” que ha publicado la OMS. El objetivo del presente documento es brindar orientación y recomendaciones operativas que permitan realizar el rastreo de contactos de COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas. El documento se actualizará conforme se disponga de información nueva sobre la COVID-19. Esta publicación está dirigida a las autoridades nacionales de salud, los profesionales de la salud pública y otros funcionarios que formulan y ejecutan políticas y procedimientos normalizados de trabajo relacionados con las operaciones de rastreo de contactos en la Región.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Período de Transmissibilidade , Vacinação , Vacinas , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina
9.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22269151

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic generated a surge of critically ill patients greater than the NHS capacity. Additionally there have been multiple well-documented impacts associated with the national COVID-19 pandemic surge on ICU workers including an increased prevalence of mental health disorders on a scale potentially sufficient to impair high-quality care delivery. Aim: To identify prevalence of probable mental health disorders, functional impairment and establish demographic and professional predictors of probable mental health disorders, and functional impairment, in ICU staff between November 2020 to April 2021. Methods: English ICU staff were surveyed before, during and after the winter 2020/2021 surge using a survey which comprised of validated measures of mental health. Results: 6080 surveys were completed, by nurses (57.5%), doctors (27.9%), and other healthcare staff (14.5%). Reporting probable mental health disorders increased from 51% (prior to), to 64% (during) and then dropped to 46% (after) the peak. Younger, less experienced and nursing staff were most likely to report probable mental health disorders. Additionally, during and after the winter, over 50% of participants met threshold criteria for functional impairment. Staff who reported probable post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety or depression were more likely to meet threshold criteria for functional impairment. Conclusions: The winter of 2020/2021 was associated with an increase in poor mental health outcomes and functional impairment during a period of peak caseload. These effects are likely to impact on patient care outcomes and the longer-term resilience of the healthcare workforce.

10.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268906

RESUMO

ObjectiveThis study aims to investigate the relationship between registered nurses and hospital-based medical specialties staffing levels with inpatient COVID-19 mortality rates. MethodsWe rely on data from AHA Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, and UnitedHealth Group Clinical Discovery Database. We use linear regression to analyze the association between hospital staffing levels and bed capacity with inpatient COVID-19 mortality rates from March 1, 2020, through December 31, 2020. ResultsHigher staffing levels of registered nurses, hospitalists, and emergency medicine physicians were associated with lower COVID-19 mortality rates. Moreover, a higher number of ICU and skilled nursing beds were associated with better patient outcomes. Hospitals located in urban counties with high infection rates had the worst patient mortality rates. ConclusionHigher staffing levels are associated with lower inpatient mortality rates for COVID-19 patients. A future assessment is needed to establish benchmarks on the minimum staffing levels for nursing and hospital-based medical specialties during pandemics.

11.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268637

RESUMO

BackgroundNurses have been under heavy workloads since the outbreak of COVID-19 and are at a high risk of infection, leading to a high level of psychosocial risk. This can adversely affect nurses both psychologically and physically. Burnout is caused by prolonged stress during work. In the nursing profession, burnout is common, potentially affecting the well-being of nurses and their productivity. The identification of factors that may contribute to maintaining mental health and reducing burnout among frontline nurses during a pandemic is essential. PurposeThe purpose of this study was to explore how personal resilience, social support, and organizational support impact burnout among frontline staff nurses. MethodsThis study involved 129 registered nurses from a COVID-19 designated hospital using four standardized scales. ResultsThe mean age of the respondents was 29.46 years (standard deviation = 4.89). The mean number of years respondents worked in this organization was 5.60 years and the nursing profession was 4.16 years. Most of the respondents were female and held a bachelors degree in nursing. Multiple regression analysis was performed to predict burnout. Burnout was statistically significantly predicted by the multiple regression model (R2 = .420, F (3, 125) = 10.941, p < .0001; adjusted R2 = .406). Personal resilience, social support, and organizational support added statistically significantly to the prediction of burnout (p < .05). ConclusionFindings from multiple regression analysis showed that nurses with low resilience and those who perceived inadequate social and organizational support had a higher risk of reporting more burnout. As a result of a bivariate analysis, there was no significant correlation between nurse variables and burnout level, except for age, which was negatively correlated with burnout level. Accordingly, young nurses tend to experience burnout, and nurse directors and managers must address this problem.

12.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-3434

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among workers in the Espírito Santo prison system between August and September 2020. Methods: A stratified sample survey through interviews and serological tests for SARS-CoV-2.Results: In the 986 respondents, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11.9% (CI95% 8,1%;15,7%) among health professionals and 22.1% (CI 95%; 18,8%; 25,3%) among prison officers. Positivity was more frequent in health professionals from the North region (19.7%), and in male prison officers (24.0%). Among the positive ones, fatigue was the most frequent symptom among prison officers (13.4%) and miracle among health professionals (10.8%); and the most prevalent comorbidities among thepositive ones were: asthma or bronchitis (16.2%) for health professionals, and hypertension for prison officers (12.8%). Conclusion: The prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 was higher in prison officers, supporting disease control and prevention actions in this scenario.


Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en trabajadores del sistema penitenciario de Espírito Santo entre agosto y septiembre de 2020. Métodos: Encuesta muestral estratificada mediante entrevistas y pruebasserológicas para SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: En los 986 encuestados, la prevalencia de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 11,9% (IC95% 8,1%;15,7%) entre los profesionales de la salud y del 22,1% (IC95% 18,8%;25,3%) entre los funcionarios deprisiones. La positividad fue más frecuente en los profesionales de la salud de la región Norte (19,7%) y en los funcionarios de prisiones varones (24,0%). Entre los positivos, la fatiga fue el síntoma más frecuente entre los funcionarios de prisiones (13,4%) y el milagro entre los profesionales de la salud (10,8%); y las comorbilidades másprevalentes entre las positivas fueron: asma o bronquitis (16,2%) para los profesionalesde la salud e hipertensión para los funcionarios de prisiones (12,8%). Conclusión: La prevalencia del SARS-Cov-2 fue mayor en los funcionarios de prisiones, apoyando las acciones de control y prevención de enfermedades en este escenario.


Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 entre trabalhadores do sistema prisional do Espírito Santo, Brasil, no período agosto-setembro de 2020. Métodos: Inquérito em amostra estratificada, mediante entrevistas e testes sorológicos para SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Nos 986 pesquisados, a prevalência deinfecção por SARS-CoV-2 foi de 11,9% (IC95% 8,1%;15,7%) nos profissionais de saúde, e de 22,1% (IC95%; 18,8%;25,3%) nos agentes penitenciários. A positividade foi mais frequente nos profissionais da saúde do norte do estado (19,7%) e em agentes penitenciários do sexo masculino (24,0%). Entre soropositivos, a fadiga foi o sintoma mais frequente nos agentes penitenciários (13,4%) e a mialgia nos profissionais de saúde (10,8%); e as comorbidades mais prevalentes entre os positivos foram asma ou bronquite (16,2%), para profissionais de saúde, e hipertensão para agentes penitenciários (12,8%). Conclusão: A prevalência de SARS-Cov-2 foi maior nos agentes penitenciários, achado que deve subsidiar ações de controle e prevenção dadoença nesse cenário.

13.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-3429

RESUMO

Introduction and objective: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 often progress to acute kidney injury and need for hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to compare the care profile of critically ill patients undergoing renal replacement therapy before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Observational study carried out at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Critical patients undergoing hemodialysis from April to June 2019 and April to June 2020 participated in the study. Data were collected from hemodialysis care documents and electronic medical records. The Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher's exact test were used (5% significance). Results: 212 patients participated, 50 in 2019 and 171 in 2020. In 2019, 30.0% of patients were hospitalized due to acute renal changes, 90.0% had increased entry creatinine, were referred to intensive care after 4.62± 6.38 days and started hemodialysis after 17.26±24.53 days. In 2020, 66.7% were hospitalized for COVID-19, 77.7% had increased entry creatinine, were referred to intensive care after 2.21±3.63 days and started hemodialysis after 10.24±11.99 days . 212 hemodialysis sessions were performed in 2019 and 873 in 2020. There were more deaths in 2020 (p=0.01) and patients with COVID-19 (p=0.014) and hemodynamic instability (p=0.016) were the most affected. Conclusion: In 2020, there was an increase of 3.42 times in the number of critical patients on hemodialysis and an increase of 4.11 times in the number of sessions compared to the year 2019.


Introducción y objetivo: Los pacientes críticamente enfermos con COVID-19 a menudo progresan a una lesión renal aguda y necesitan hemodiálisis. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el perfil de atención de los pacientes críticamente enfermos sometidos a terapia de reemplazo renal antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19.Métodos: estudio observacional realizado en un hospital universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. En el estudio participaron pacientes críticos sometidos a hemodiálisis de abril a junio de 2019 y de abril a junio de 2020. Los datos se obtuvieron de documentos de atención de hemodiálisis y registros médicos electrónicos. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado, Mann-Whitney, Shapiro-Wilk, exacta de Fisher (significancia del 5%).Resultados: participaron 221 pacientes, 50 en 2019 y 171 en 2020. En 2019, el 30,0% de los pacientes fueron hospitalizados por alteraciones renales agudas, el 90,0% presentó aumento de creatinina de entrada, fueron remitidos a cuidados intensivos a los 4,62 ± 6,38 días e iniciaron hemodiálisis posteriormente. 17,26 ± 24,53 días. En 2020, el 66,7% fueron hospitalizados por COVID-19, el 77,7% presentó aumento de creatinina de entrada, fueron remitidos a cuidados intensivos a los 2,21 ± 3,63 días e iniciaron hemodiálisis a los 10,24 ± 11,99 días. Se realizaron 212 sesiones de hemodiálisis en 2019 y 873 en 2020. Hubo más muertes en 2020 (p = 0.01) y los pacientes con COVID-19 (p = 0.014) e inestabilidad hemodinámica (p = 0.016) fueron los más afectados.Conclusión: En 2020, hubo un aumento de 3,42 veces en el número de pacientes críticos en hemodiálisis y un aumento de 4,11 veces en el número de sesiones respecto al año 2019.


Introdução e objetivo: Frequentemente os pacientes críticos com COVID-19 evoluem para lesão renal aguda e necessidade de hemodiálise. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o perfil de atendimento aos pacientes críticos submetidos a terapia de substituição renal antes e durante a pandemia pela COVID-19. Métodos: Estudo observacional realizado em um hospital universitário da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Participaram do estudo pacientes críticos em hemodiálise de abril a junho de 2019 e abril a junho de 2020. Os dados foram coletados a partir de documentos de atendimento de hemodiálise e prontuário eletrônico. Foram utilizados os testes de Qui-quadrado, Mann-Whitney, Shapiro-Wilk, Teste Exato de Fisher, (significância de 5%). Resultados: Participaram 221 pacientes, sendo 50 em 2019 e 171 em 2020. Em 2019, 30,0% dos pacientes internaram por alterações renais agudas, 90,0% apresentaram creatinina de entrada aumentada, foram encaminhados para terapia intensiva após 4,62±6,38 dias e iniciaram hemodiálise após 17,26±24,53 dias. Em 2020, 66,7% internaram por COVID-19, 77,7% tiveram creatinina de entrada aumentada, foram encaminhados para terapia intensiva após 2,21±3,63 dias e iniciaram a hemodiálise após 10,24±11,99 dias. Foram realizadas 212 sessões de hemodiálise em 2019 e 873 em 2020. Houve mais óbitos em 2020 (p=0,01) e os pacientes com COVID-19 (p=0,014) e instabilidade hemodinâmica (p=0,016) foram os mais acometidos. Conclusão: Em 2020, foi observado aumento de 3,42 vezes no número de pacientes críticos em hemodiálise e aumento de 4,11 vezes no número de sessões quanto comparado ao ano de 2019.

14.
J Clin Nurs ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985160

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To reveal the existence of alarms in COVID-19 intensive care units, where medical devices with alarm function are frequently used, the effects of alarms on nurses, especially their on-the-job performances and social lives, and their coping methods. METHODOLOGY/METHODS: This was a mixed design, including descriptive and qualitative research methods with two stages, and was carried out between March and April 2021. The study adhered to the STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies and the COREQ guidelines for qualitative studies. SETTING: Nurses in the COVID-19 intensive care unit of a university hospital constituted the sample. 58 nurses participated in the quantitative data phase, and 18 nurses in the qualitative interviews. RESULTS: More than half of the nurses worked in the COVID-19 intensive care unit for more than 5 months and overtime, and 87.9 had day and night shifts. The monthly income level of 65.5% was between the hunger and poverty lines, and 12.1 % received psychiatric support in the last 6 months. A positive and significant relationship was found between the mean score obtained from the alarm fatigue questionnaire and the level of discomfort felt due to the alarms (1-10 points) (p = 0.001). Five themes and thirty sub-themes were emerged in the focus group interviews. CONCLUSION: The number of alarms of the medical devices in the COVID-19 intensive care units was more than the other intensive care units, resulting in fatigue in nurses. Since alarm fatigue is directly related to patient safety, the effective management of medical device alarms can reduce alarm fatigue and prevent potentially dangerous outcomes. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses care for patients with severe clinical conditions in COVID-19 intensive care units. This situation caused them to be exposed to more alarms. Nurses should make efforts to reduce their alarm intensity.

15.
J Ment Health ; : 1-12, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current moment is characterised by deep-rooted uncertainties, such as climate change and COVID-19. Uncertainty has been reported to be associated with negative mental health outcomes, such as stress and anxiety. However, no comprehensive review on the association between uncertainty and mental health exists. AIM: The aim of the current scoping review was to systematically explore and describe the literature on the link between uncertainty and mental health. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken following guidelines by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). RESULTS: One hundred and one papers addressing the association between uncertainty and mental health were identified. Most were cross-sectional studies (67%) conducted in the fields of medicine or nursing (59%), in high-income countries, among adult populations (74%), and in medical settings. Substantial heterogeneity was identified in the measurements of uncertainty and mental health. Most studies (79%) reported a positive association between uncertainty and mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed in more diverse contexts and populations. More robust designs are required to provide insight into the directionality and strength of the association between uncertainty and mental health. Few studies reported how individuals coped with uncertainty. Future studies should address the identified gaps and investigate interventions to address uncertainty and its determinants.

17.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e056655, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While all research-oriented faculty face the pressures of academia, female faculty in fields including science, engineering, medicine and nursing, are especially susceptible to burnout. Nursing is unique in that it remains a predominantly female-dominated profession, which implies that there is a critical mass of females who are disproportionately affected and/or at higher risk of burnout. To date, little is known about the experiences of nursing faculty especially, new and early career researchers and the factors that influence their retention. This study aims to understand the work-life (the intersection of work with personal life) experiences of nursing faculty in Canadian academic settings and the factors that influence their retention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A mixed-method design will be used in this study. For the quantitative study, a sample of approximately 1500 new and early career nursing faculty across Canadian academic institutions will be surveyed. Eligible participants will be invited to complete a web-based structured questionnaire in both French and English language. Data will be evaluated using generalised linear regression model and structural equation modelling. Given the complexities of work-life issues in Canada, qualitative focus group interviews with about 20-25 participants will also be conducted. Emerging themes will be integrated with the survey findings and used to enrich the interpretation of the quantitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received ethical approval from the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board (#1477). Prior to obtaining informed consent, participants will be provided with information about study risks and benefits and strategies undertaken to ensure confidentiality and anonymity. The study findings will be disseminated to academics and non-academic stakeholders through national and international conference presentations and peer-reviewed open-access journals. A user-friendly report will be shared with professional nursing associations such as the Canadian Associations of Schools of Nursing, and through public electronic forums (e.g., Twitter). Evidence from this study will also be shared with stakeholders including senior academic leaders and health practitioners, government, and health service policy-makers, to raise the profile of discourses on the nursing workforce shortages; and women's work-life balance, a public policy issue often overlooked at the national level. Such discussion is especially pertinent in light of the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on women, and female academics. The findings will be used to inform policy options for improving nursing faculty retention in Canada and globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Docentes de Enfermagem , Canadá , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 79-85, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982625

RESUMO

Analysis of Current Population Survey data suggests a tightening labor market for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing assistants, marked by falling employment and rising wages through June 2021. Unemployment rates remain higher in nonhospital settings and among registered nurses and nursing assistants who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Emprego , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 105-111, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982633

RESUMO

Informal care, or care provided by family and friends, is the most common form of care received by community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. However, less is known about informal care provision within residential care settings including residential care facilities (for example, assisted living) and nursing homes. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2016) and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (2015), we found that informal care was common among older adults with functional limitations, whether they lived in the community, a residential care facility, or a nursing home. The hours of informal care provided were also nontrivial across all settings. This evidence suggests that informal caregiving and some of the associated burdens do not end when a person transitions from the community to residential care or a nursing home setting. It also points to the large role that families play in the care and well-being of these residents, which is especially important considering the recent visitor bans during the COVID-19 epidemic. Family members are an invisible workforce in nursing homes and residential care facilities, providing considerable front-line work for their loved ones. Providers and policy makers could improve the lives of both the residents and their caregivers by acknowledging, incorporating, and supporting this workforce.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Idoso , Cuidadores , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Instituições Residenciais , SARS-CoV-2
20.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 04, 2022. 24 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353079

RESUMO

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 50/2021. Alertas internacionales. Situación epidemiológica de dengue. Situación epidemiológica de zika y chikungunya. Infección respiratoria aguda. Neumonías. Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS). Vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. Vigilancia centinela de rotavirus. Enfermedad diarreica aguda. Resumen de quemados por pólvora 2020 ­ 2021


Summary of notification events up to SE 50/2021. International alerts. Epidemiological situation of dengue. Epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya. Acute respiratory infection. Pneumonia Global situation 2019-nCov (WHO). Sentinel surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses. Sentinel surveillance for rotavirus. Acute diarrheal disease. Summary of gunpowder burns 2020 - 2021


Assuntos
Epidemiologia , Publicações Eletrônicas , Infecções , Vírus , Queimaduras , Alerta , Notificação
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