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1.
J Autoimmun ; 127: 102792, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995958

RESUMO

The emergence and rapid global spread of the new Delta and, more recently, Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 pose a daunting public health emergency. Being an RNA virus, the Covid-19 virus is continuing to mutate, resulting in the emergence of new variants with high transmissibility, such as the recently discovered Omicron variant. In this paper, we consider the conditions that may facilitate viral mutations and the emergence of variants with the ability to evade immunity. Here, we have discussed the importance of vaccination with the currently available vaccines. These vaccines are highly effective at preventing serious disease, hospitalization, and death from Covid-19. However, the antibody response induced by these vaccines is short-lasting and there are reports of breakthrough infections. A stable and persistent interaction between T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells is needed for robust B cell memory response. We discussed the potential reasons behind the breakthrough infections and underscored the importance of developing better second-generation vaccines that may not necessitate frequent booster immunizations and are preventive in nature. This may involve the development of multivalent vaccines and creating vaccines against other viral proteins including conserved proteins. Vaccine hesitancy remains a notable hurdle for implementing vaccination. Furthermore, we recommend different approaches to increase vaccine acceptance, which is a critical translational component of a successful vaccine strategy. These perspectives on overcoming the pandemic's current challenges provide strategies to contain SARS-CoV-2 globally.

2.
BMJ ; 376: e068407, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of statin treatment versus placebo on clinical outcomes in patients with covid-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: INSPIRATION/INSPIRATION-S was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial with a 2×2 factorial design. Results for the anticoagulation randomization have been reported previously. Results for the double blind randomization to atorvastatin versus placebo are reported here. SETTING: 11 hospitals in Iran. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥18 years with covid-19 admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION: Atorvastatin 20 mg orally once daily versus placebo, to be continued for 30 days from randomization irrespective of hospital discharge status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or all cause mortality within 30 days from randomization. Prespecified safety outcomes included increase in liver enzyme levels more than three times the upper limit of normal and clinically diagnosed myopathy. A clinical events committee blinded to treatment assignment adjudicated the efficacy and safety outcomes. RESULTS: Of 605 patients randomized between 29 July 2020 and 4 April 2021 for statin randomization in the INSPIRATION-S trial, 343 were co-randomized to intermediate dose versus standard dose prophylactic anticoagulation with heparin based regimens, whereas 262 were randomized after completion of the anticoagulation study. 587 of the 605 participants were included in the primary analysis of INSPIRATION-S, reported here: 290 were assigned to atorvastatin and 297 to placebo (median age 57 years (interquartile range 45-68 years); 256 (44%) women). The primary outcome occurred in 95 (33%) patients assigned to atorvastatin and 108 (36%) assigned to placebo (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 1.21). Death occurred in 90 (31%) patients in the atorvastatin group and 103 (35%) in the placebo group (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 1.22). Rates for venous thromboembolism were 2% (n=6) in the atorvastatin group and 3% (n=9) in the placebo group (odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 2.06). Myopathy was not clinically diagnosed in either group. Liver enzyme levels were increased in five (2%) patients assigned to atorvastatin and six (2%) assigned to placebo (odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 2.81). CONCLUSIONS: In adults with covid-19 admitted to the ICU, atorvastatin was not associated with a significant reduction in the composite of venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or all cause mortality compared with placebo. Treatment was, however, found to be safe. As the overall event rates were lower than expected, a clinically important treatment effect cannot be excluded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04486508.

3.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s15-s23, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998306

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has collapsed the health systems of many countries in the world and comorbidities in adults have exponentially increased their mortality; in matters of asthma, it has not been possible to establish a defining relationship in mortality. The clinical manifestations of asthmatic patients with SARS COV 2 are presented in a wide range; from asymptomatic to those who experience acute respiratory failure. The most sensitive method for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is RT-PCR. Antigen and serologic tests are quicker than RT-PCR, but they are less sensitive. Radiologic studies and the computed tomography of the chest assist in the diagnosis and follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The use of spirometry for diagnosis and follow-up is restricted due to the elevated risk of contagion. It has been shown that eosinophilia and TH2 inflammation, due to their antiviral immune effect, are protective factors against severe SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Patients with mild asthma express less angiotensin converting enzyme receptors (ACE2), and those with neutrophilic asthma express it in greater proportion, which suggests more severe presentations of COVID-19. The conventional asthma treatment modulates the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 immune response, which is why patients with controlled asthma have non-severe manifestations of COVID 19, however, the mechanisms are not clear.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7424748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005030

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious global health threat and has spread dramatically worldwide. Prolonged viral shedding is associated with a more severe disease course and inflammatory reaction. Blood glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Objective: Previous studies focused primarily on the relationship between blood glucose and mortality or severe outcomes, but there were few research studies on the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positive status. To explore the relationship between FPG levels and prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity, the clinical data of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Method: In this retrospective study, 99 cases of COVID-19 patients in Beijing Ditan Hospital were recruited, and their clinical and laboratory findings at admission were collected and analyzed. Furthermore, the risk factors for prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding were identified, and the relationship between FPG levels and the prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was evaluated. Result: We found that elevated FPG levels were correlated with longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity, classification of COVID-19, imaging changes of chest CT, inflammation-related biomarkers, and CD8+ T cell number in COVID-19 patients. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for gender and age, COVID-19 patients with elevated FPG were more likely to had longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity than those with normal FPG levels (OR 3.053 [95% CI 1.343, 6.936]). Conclusion: Higher FPG levels (≥6.1 mmol/l) at admission was an independent predictor for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding, regardless of a known history of diabetes. It suggests that intensive monitoring and control of blood glucose are important for all COVID-19 patients.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 32, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are an essential maintenance treatment option for individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This report summarizes a roundtable discussion on the impact of COVID-19 on the mental healthcare landscape and use of LAIs for individuals with schizophrenia or BP-I. METHODS: Ten experts and stakeholders from diverse fields of healthcare participated in a roundtable discussion on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, treatment challenges, and gaps in healthcare for individuals with schizophrenia or BP-I, informed by a literature search. RESULTS: Individuals with schizophrenia or BP-I are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and increased risk of mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis. LAI prescriptions decreased early on in the pandemic, driven by a decrease in face-to-face consultations. Mental healthcare services are adapting with increased use of telehealth and home-based treatment. Clinical workflows to provide consistent, in-person LAI services include screening for COVID-19 exposure and infection, minimizing contact, and ensuring mask-wearing by individuals and staff. The importance of continued in-person visits for LAIs needs to be discussed so that staff can share that information with patients, their caregivers, and families. A fully integrated, collaborative-care model is the most important aspect of care for individuals with schizophrenia or BP-I during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of a fully integrated collaborative-care model to ensure regular, routine healthcare contact and access to prescribed treatments and services for individuals with schizophrenia and BP-I.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 9, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012650

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 is currently spreading throughout the world with a high rate of infection and mortality and poses a huge threat to global public health. COVID-19 primarily manifests as hypoxic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can lead to multiple organ failure. Despite advances in the supportive care approaches, there is still a lack of clinically effective therapies, and there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies to fight this disease. Currently, stem cell therapy and stem cell-derived organoid models have received extensive attention as a new treatment and research method for COVID-19. Here, we discuss how stem cells play a role in the battle against COVID-19 and present a systematic review and prospective of the study on stem cell treatment and organoid models of COVID-19, which provides a reference for the effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Células-Tronco
7.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018899, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014600

RESUMO

Intestinal bacteria may influence lung homeostasis via the gut-lung axis. We conducted a single-center, quadruple-blinded, randomized trial in adult symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid19) outpatients. Subjects were allocated 1:1 to probiotic formula (strains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP022, KABP023, and KAPB033, plus strain Pediococcus acidilactici KABP021, totaling 2 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)) or placebo, for 30 days. Co-primary endpoints included: i) proportion of patients in complete symptomatic and viral remission; ii) proportion progressing to moderate or severe disease with hospitalization, or death; and iii) days on Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three hundred subjects were randomized (median age 37.0 years [range 18 to 60], 161 [53.7%] women, 126 [42.0%] having known metabolic risk factors), and 293 completed the study (97.7%). Complete remission was achieved by 78 of 147 (53.1%) in probiotic group compared to 41 of 146 (28.1%) in placebo (RR: 1.89 [95 CI 1.40-2.55]; P < .001), significant after multiplicity correction. No hospitalizations or deaths occurred during the study, precluding the assessment of remaining co-primary outcomes. Probiotic supplementation was well-tolerated and reduced nasopharyngeal viral load, lung infiltrates and duration of both digestive and non-digestive symptoms, compared to placebo. No significant compositional changes were detected in fecal microbiota between probiotic and placebo, but probiotic supplementation significantly increased specific IgM and IgG against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) compared to placebo. It is thus hypothesized this probiotic primarily acts by interacting with the host's immune system rather than changing colonic microbiota composition. Future studies should replicate these findings and elucidate its mechanism of action (Registration: NCT04517422).Abbreviations: AE: Adverse Event; BMI: Body Mass Index; CONSORT: CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; CFU: Colony-Forming Units; eDRF: Electronic Daily Report Form; GLA: Gut-Lung Axis; GSRS: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale; hsCRP: High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein; HR: Hazard Ratio; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; OR: Odds Ratio; PCoA: Principal Coordinate Analysis; RR: Relative Risk; RT-qPCR: Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction; SARS-CoV2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SpO2: Peripheral Oxygen Saturation; WHO: World Health Organization.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 45, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some evidence has been demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of routine hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries, the evidence is still limited in other settings including in South Africa. Given this, the evidence base around the cost of care for hepatitis A needs to be developed towards considerations of introducing hepatitis A vaccines in the national immunisation schedule and guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To describe the severity, clinical outcomes, and cost of hepatitis A cases presenting to two tertiary healthcare centers in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective folder review of patients presenting with hepatitis A at two tertiary level hospitals providing care for urban communities of metropolitan Cape Town, South Africa. Patients included in this folder review tested positive for hepatitis A immunoglobulin M between 1 January 2008 and 1 March 2018. RESULTS: In total, 239 folders of hepatitis A paediatric patients < 15 years old and 212 folders of hepatitis A adult patients [Formula: see text] 15 years old were included in the study. Before presenting for tertiary level care, more than half of patients presented for an initial consultation at either a community clinic or general physician. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.45 days for adult patients and 3.11 days for paediatric patients. Three adult patients in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 29 developed complicated hepatitis A. One paediatric patient in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 27 developed complicated hepatitis A, including 4 paediatric patients diagnosed with acute liver failure. The total cost per hepatitis A hospitalisation was $1935.41 for adult patients and $563.06 for paediatric patients, with overhead costs dictated by the length of stay being the largest cost driver. CONCLUSION: More than 1 in every 10 hepatitis A cases (13.3%) included in this study developed complicated hepatitis A or resulted in death. Given the severity of clinical outcomes and high costs associated with hepatitis A hospitalisation, it is important to consider the introduction of hepatitis A immunisation in the public sector in South Africa to potentially avert future morbidity, mortality, and healthcare spending.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Vacinação
10.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 3, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early intravenous fluids for patients with sepsis presenting with hypoperfusion or shock in the emergency department remains one of the key recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines to reduce mortality. However, compliance with the recommendation remains poor. While several interventions have been implemented to improve early fluid administration as part of sepsis protocols, the extent to which they have improved compliance with fluid resuscitation is unknown. The factors associated with the lack of compliance are also poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and narrative review to investigate the effectiveness of interventions in emergency departments in improving compliance with early fluid administration and examine the non-interventional facilitators and barriers that may influence appropriate fluid administration in adults with sepsis. We searched MEDLINE Ovid/PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, and SCOPUS databases for studies of any design to April 2021. We synthesised results from the studies reporting effectiveness of interventions in a meta-analysis and conducted a narrative synthesis of studies reporting non-interventional factors. RESULTS: We included 31 studies out of the 825 unique articles identified in the systematic review of which 21 were included in the meta-analysis and 11 in the narrative synthesis. In meta-analysis, interventions were associated with a 47% improvement in the rate of compliance [(Random Effects (RE) Relative Risk (RR) = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.25-1.74, p-value < 0.01)]; an average 24 min reduction in the time to fluids [RE mean difference = - 24.11(95% CI - 14.09 to - 34.14 min, p value < 0.01)], and patients receiving an additional 575 mL fluids [RE mean difference = 575.40 (95% CI 202.28-1353.08, p value < 0.01)]. The compliance rate of early fluid administration reported in the studies included in the narrative synthesis is 48% [RR = 0.48 (95% CI 0.24-0.72)]. CONCLUSION: Performance improvement interventions improve compliance and time and volume of fluids administered to patients with sepsis in the emergency department. While patient-related factors such as advanced age, co-morbidities, cryptic shock were associated with poor compliance, important organisational factors such as inexperience of clinicians, overcrowding and inter-hospital transfers were also identified. A comprehensive understanding of the facilitators and barriers to early fluid administration is essential to design quality improvement projects. PROSPERO REGISTRATION ID: CRD42021225417.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027676

RESUMO

In the COVID-19 scenario, patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have an increased risk of death. Through a national multicenter study, we aimed to describe the impact of COVID-19 on the survival of HSCT recipients in Brazil. Eighty-six patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 (92% by RT-PCR) were included. There were 24 children and 62 adults receiving an autologous (n = 25) and allogeneic (n = 61) HSCT for malignant (n = 72) and non-malignant (n = 14) disorders. Twenty-six patients died, (10 on autologous (38%) and 16 patients (62%) on allogeneic group). The estimated overall survival (OS) at day 40 was 69%. Adults had decreased OS compared to children (66% vs 79%, p = 0.03). The severity of symptoms at the time of diagnosis, ECOG score, laboratory tests (C-reactive protein, urea values) were higher in patients who died (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HSCT recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a high mortality rate mainly in adults and patients with critical initial COVID-19 presentation. These findings show the fragility of HSCT recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, the importance of adherence to preventive measures is evident, in addition to prioritizing the vaccination of family members and the HSCT team.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028751

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Ratings (CALIPER) software has already been widely used in the evaluation of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) but has not yet been tested in patients affected by COVID-19. Our aim was to use it to describe the relationship between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome and the CALIPER-detected pulmonary vascular-related structures (VRS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective study enrolling 570 COVID-19 patients who performed a chest CT in emergency settings in two different institutions. Fifty-three age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also identified. Chest CTs were analyzed with CALIPER identifying the percentage of VRS over the total lung parenchyma. Patients were followed for up to 72 days recording mortality and required intensity of care. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in VRS between COVID-19-positive patients and controls (median (iqr) 4.05 (3.74) and 1.57 (0.40) respectively, p = 0.0001). VRS showed an increasing trend with the severity of care, p < 0.0001. The univariate Cox regression model showed that VRS increase is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.17, p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that VRS is an independent explanatory factor of mortality along with age (HR 1.13, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that VRS increases with the required intensity of care, and it is an independent explanatory factor for mortality. KEY POINTS: • The percentage of vascular-related structure volume (VRS) in the lung is significatively increased in COVID-19 patients. • VRS showed an increasing trend with the required intensity of care, test for trend p< 0.0001. • Univariate and multivariate Cox models showed that VRS is a significant and independent explanatory factor of mortality.

13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028855

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 4.4 million deaths worldwide as of August 24, 2021. Viral infections such as SARS-CoV2 are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and also increased the level of reactive oxygen species. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is preferentially translated under integrated stress conditions and controls the genes involved in protein homeostasis, amino acid transport and metabolism, and also protection from oxidative stress. The GRP78, regulated either directly or indirectly by ATF4, is an essential chaperone in the ER and overexpressed and appears on the surface of almost all cells during stress and function as a SARS-CoV2 receptor. In this mini-review article, we briefly discuss the effects of SARS-CoV2 infection on the ER stress, and then the stress modulator functions of ATF4 and GRP78 as novel therapeutic targets were highlighted. Finally, the effects of GRP78 inhibitory components as potential factors for targeted therapies for COVID-19 critical cases were discussed.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28493, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is a common life-threatening, acute and severe disease with high morbidity and mortality, which seriously endangers patient health. Shengmai injection (SMI) is typically used as an alternative treatment for sepsis patients. This investigation aimed at designing a comprehensive recollection and meta-analytical exercise for evaluating efficacy and safety-profile for employing SMI against sepsis. METHODS: Multiple research literature repositories, both localized and global, were examined for randomized controlled trials of sepsis treated by SMI - from repository inception to December 2021 as a timeframe. Primary outcome measures contained 28-day all-cause mortality, while secondary outcome measures consisted of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scorings, acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scorings, ICU-based hospitalization length, mechanical ventilation timespan, ICU mortality rate, and adverse effects/events. RevMan V.5.3 was employed for data analyses. Two reviewers evaluated bias risks/investigation quality through Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool / Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation, separately. RESULTS: Such a comprehensive reviewing protocol review protocol systematically and objectively analyzes the effectiveness and safety-profile of SMI for therapy against sepsis, together with providing scientific grounds for clinic-based employment for SMI. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021245247.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28600, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2019 to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put enormous strain on the world's health systems, causing significant deaths and economic losses worldwide. Nasal congestion, one of the symptoms of COVID-19, poses considerable problems for patients. In China, acupuncture has been widely used to treat nasal congestion caused by COVID-19, but there is still a lack of evidence-based medical evaluation. METHODS: According to the retrieval strategies, randomized controlled trials on the acupuncture for COVID-19 nasal congestion were obtained from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, regardless of publication date, or language. Studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) and STATA 14.2 software. Ultimately, the evidentiary grade for the results will be evaluated. RESULTS: The study will provide a high-quality and convincing assessment of the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of COVID-19's nasal congestion and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: Our findings will provide references for future clinical decision and guidance development. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: NO.CRD42021299482.

16.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001392

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused over 274 million cases and over 5.3 million deaths worldwide since it occurred in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Here we conceptualized the temporospatial evolutionary and expansion dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 by taking a series of cross-sectional view of viral genomes from early outbreak in January 2020 in Wuhan to early phase of global ignition in early April, and finally to the subsequent global expansion by late December 2020. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the early patients in Wuhan, Wuhan/WH04/2020 is supposed to be a more appropriate reference genome of SARS-CoV-2, instead of the first sequenced genome Wuhan-Hu-1. By scrutinizing the cases from the very early outbreak, we found a viral genotype from the Seafood Market in Wuhan featured with two concurrent mutations (i.e. M type) had become the overwhelmingly dominant genotype (95.3%) of the pandemic one year later. By analyzing 4,013 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from different continents by early April, we were able to interrogate the viral genomic composition dynamics of initial phase of global ignition over a timespan of 14-week. 11 major viral genotypes with unique geographic distributions were also identified. WE1 type, a descendant of M and predominantly witnessed in western Europe, consisted a half of all the cases (50.2%) at the time. The mutations of major genotypes at the same hierarchical level were mutually exclusive, which implying that various genotypes bearing the specific mutations were propagated during human-to-human transmission, not by accumulating hot-spot mutations during the replication of individual viral genomes. As the pandemic was unfolding, we also used the same approach to analyze 261,323 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the world since the outbreak in Wuhan (i.e. including all the publicly available viral genomes) in order to recapitulate our findings over one-year timespan. By 25 December 2020, 95.3% of global cases were M type and 93.0% of M-type cases were WE1. In fact, at present all the five variants of concern (VOC) are the descendants of WE1 type. This study demonstrates the viral genotypes can be utilized as molecular barcodes in combination with epidemiologic data to monitor the spreading routes of the pandemic and evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. Moreover, the dynamics of viral mutational spectrum in the study may help the early identification of new strains in patients to reduce further spread of infection, guide the development of molecular diagnosis and vaccines against COVID-19, and help assess their accuracy and efficacy in real world at real time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Transfus Med ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: South America is one of the regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific and affordable treatments are needed to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence regarding the use of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 patients is still limited. We compared the safety and efficacy of COVID-19-convalescent plasma administration as a complement to standard treatment in the early management of patients with moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We carried out a random double blinded, placebo-controlled trial that compared standard treatment plus convalescent plasma (CP) or plus non-convalescent plasma in the management of COVID-19 patients. The main outcome was survival and secondary endpoints included: length of hospitalisation (LOH), days from treatment to discharge, time to clinical improvement or death within a 28-day period, and adverse reactions to treatment. RESULTS: Administration of CP with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not affect patient survival, RR = 1.003, 95% CI (0.3938, 2.555). These results led to terminate the RCT prematurely. However, early treatment of COVID-19 patients with CP tended to decrease the LOH while the delay in CP treatment was associated with longer hospitalisation. In addition, delay in CP treatment negatively affected the recovery of the respiratory rate. CONCLUSION: Use of CP for the treatment of COVID-19 patients is safe and its early use can decrease the LOH and improve respiratory function. Early administration of antibody-rich CP could contribute to decrease the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic in patients with impaired immune response.

18.
Hemodial Int ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The transmission risk of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 virus infection is increased in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, and also the disease causes much higher mortality than the normal population. The aim of this study is to define the predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in terms of worse outcomes in MHD patients. METHODS: A total of 123 MHD patients who had received inpatient care due to COVID-19 infection were included in this multicentered retrospective study. Receiver operating curve analysis were plotted to illustrate C reactive protein (C-rp), systemic inflammatory index (SII) and NLR best cut-off values for estimation of need for intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. Multivariate regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine the association between C-rp, SII and NLR and mortality. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (23%) patients with MHD were dead due to COVID-19. Nonsurvivor patients was significantly older than the survivors (p < 0.001) and also had higher rates of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01) and coronary artery disease (p = 0.02). Cox regression analysis revealed that NLR >5.17 significantly associated with mortality [HR: 6.508, p < 0.001]. Similarly, SII > 726 [HR: 3.124, p = 0.006] and C-rp > 88 [HR: 4.590, p = 0.002] were significantly associated with mortality due to COVID-19 in hospitalized MHD patients. Multivarite logistic regression analysis showed that age older than 60 years, higher ferritin, and NLR > 5.17 were independent factors associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: NLR had favorable predictive value than the C-rp and SII in terms of need for ICU and mortality in MHD patients. Determining the poor prognosis with simple and easily applicable markers may reduce mortality in these patients with early supportive treatments.

19.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(1): 1-8, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001569

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus infection is also called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The infection has affected millions of people worldwide and caused morbidity as well mortality in patients with pre-existing chronic conditions such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The severity of the disease is mostly seen in people with low immunity and chronic sufferers of respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. To date, there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19. Precaution and prevention are the most recommended options followed for controlling the spread of infection. Trace elements such as zinc, calcium, iron and magnesium play an important role in boosting the immunity of the host system. These components assist in the development and functioning of lymphocytes, cytokines, free radicals, inflammatory mediators and endothelial functioning. This review summarizes the common dietary supplements that are regularly consumed in Saudi Arabia and are known to contain these vital trace elements. Data available in Google Scholar, NCBI, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science about COVID-19, micronutrients, trace elements and nutritional supplements of Saudi Arabia was collected. By highlighting the traditionally used dietary components containing the essential elements, this review could provide useful knowledge crucial for building immunity in the population.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001606

RESUMO

Diarrhea represents a common manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases. Infectious agents are the most common causes of diarrhea in developing countries, where the inadequate sanitation and hygiene are prevalent. In these countries, the scarcity of preventive measures as well as the limited health resources cause a substantial increase in incidence, morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases, including diarrhea. Currently, with the availability of rapid and inexpensive air transportation millions of people travel for tourism, work and immigration from developing countries to industrialized countries and vice versa. This leads to a high number of imported pathogens such as parasites causing infectious diarrhea. Importantly, while most cases of parasitic diarrhea are short, mild and self-limited, other cases may be associated with chronic diarrhea and serious morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current review is to provide an update, from a clinician's point of view, of the main parasites causing diarrhea, with a focus on their diagnosis and management in the clinical setting.

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