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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429838

RESUMO

For more than 20 years, disaster dynamic monitoring and early warning have achieved orderly and sustainable development in China, forming a systematic academic research system and top-down policy design, which are inseparable from the research of China's scientific community and the promotion of government departments. In the past, most of the research on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning focused on specific research in a certain field, scene, and discipline, while a few studies focused on research review or policy analysis, and few studies combined macro and meso research reviews in academia with national policy analysis for comparative analysis. It is necessary and urgent to explore the interaction between scholars' research and policy deployment, which can bring theoretical contributions and policy references to the top-down design, implementation promotion, and academic research of China's dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. Based on 608 international research articles on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning published by Chinese scholars from 2000-2021 and 187 national policy documents published during this period, this paper conducts a comparative analysis between the knowledge maps of international research hotspots and the co-occurrence maps of policy keywords on dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning. The research shows that in the stage of initial development (2000-2007), international research articles are few and focused, and research hotspots are somewhat alienated from policy keywords. In the stage of rising development (2008-2015), after the Wenchuan earthquake, research hotspots are closely related to policy keywords, mainly in the fields of geology, engineering disasters, meteorological disasters, natural disasters, etc. Meanwhile, research hotspots also focus on cutting-edge technologies and theories, while national-level policy keywords focus more on overall governance and macro promotion, but the two are gradually closely integrated. In the stage of rapid development (2016-2021), with the continuous attention and policy promotion of the national government, the establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Management, and the gradual establishment and improvement of the disaster early warning and monitoring system, research hotspots and policy keywords are integrated and overlapped with each other, realizing the organic linkage and mutual promotion between academic research and political deployment. The motivation, innovation, integration, and transformation of dynamic disaster monitoring and early warning are promoted by both policy and academic research. The institutions that issue policies at the national level include the State Council and relevant departments, the Ministry of Emergency Management, the Ministry of Water Resources, and other national ministries and commissions. The leading affiliated institutions of scholars' international research include China University of Mining and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, Shandong University of Science and Technology, and other institutions. The disciplines involved are mainly multidisciplinary geosciences, environmental sciences, electrical and electronic engineering, remote sensing, etc. It is worth noting that in the past two to three years, research and policies focusing on COVID-19, public health, epidemic prevention, environmental governance, and emergency management have gradually increased.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Desastres/prevenção & controle , China
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232270

RESUMO

Water resources are a major factor in the spatial layout of agricultural production and urban construction, which is an important part of China's ongoing territorial spatial planning. In order to assess the constraining and guiding effects of water resources on territorial spatial planning, water resources suitability evaluation needs to be carried out at the grid scale. Traditional basin or regional-scale indicators of water resources cannot satisfy the requirements with high spatial accuracy in territorial spatial planning, because the internal differences could not be described. In this study, irrigation water supply cost index (CIA) and urban water supply cost index (CIU) were evaluated to characterize the affordability of potential water supply costs by simulating of optimal water supply path. Further, grid-scale indexes of water resource suitability for agricultural production (WRSA) and for urban construction (WRSU) were constructed. The grades of WRSA and WRSU were classified at a 20 m grid scale in Baiyin City. The areas of water resources that were suitable, relatively suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable for agricultural production were 381.0 km2, 3354.7 km2, 3663.9 km2, and 12,700.7 km2, respectively, accounting for 1.9%, 16.7%, 18.2%, and 63.2% of the total area of Baiyin City. The areas of water resources that were suitable, relatively suitable, less suitable, and unsuitable for urban construction were 1657.7 km2, 4184.5 km2, 1177.7 km2, and 13,075.7 km2, respectively, accounting for 8.2%, 20.8%, 5.9%, and 65.1% of the total area of Baiyin City. Coupling analysis with land use and land resources suitability were carried out in this study, which showed that the grid-scale WRSA and WRSU could well characterize the spatial differences of water resources suitability for agricultural production and urban construction. The results of the Geodetector-based study show that the WRSA and WRSU indicators have better explanatory power for the land-use spatial distribution compared to indicators such as water distance. Therefore, the indexes could provide scientific support to delimit agricultural space and urban space, and are effective means of "determining regional functions by water resources" in territorial spatial planning. Furthermore, the indexes could be applied to other arid and semi-arid areas, and also hilly areas, where water supply suitability plays a restrictive role in agricultural production and urban construction.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Hídricos , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Água , Abastecimento de Água
3.
J Therm Biol ; 109: 103321, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195397

RESUMO

Energy conservation is a clear function of torpor. Although many studies imply that torpor is also a water-saving strategy, the experimental evidence linking water availability with torpor is inconclusive. We tested the relative roles of water and energy shortages in driving torpor, using the Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus as a model species. To account for the seasonal development of spontaneous heterothermy, we used male hamsters acclimated to short (8L:16D, SP; n = 40) and long (16L:8D, LP; n = 36) photoperiods. We continuously measured body temperature (Tb) during consecutive 32 h of complete removal of water, food, or both, separated by 7.5 d recovery periods. We predicted that all deprivation types would increase the frequency of spontaneous torpor in SP, and induce torpor in LP-acclimated hamsters. Individuals underwent each deprivation type twice in random orders. Food and water deprivation did not induce torpor in LP-acclimated P. sungorus. Patterns of torpor expression varied among deprivation types in SP individuals. Torpor frequency was significantly lower, but bouts were ∼2 h longer and 2.5 °C deeper, during water deprivation compared to food and food-and-water deprivation. Heterothermic responses to all deprivation types were repeatable among individuals. Different torpor patterns during water and food deprivation suggest that water and energy shortages are distinct physiological challenges. Deeper and longer bouts during water deprivation likely led to higher energy and water savings, while shorter and shallower bouts during fasting may reflect a trade-off between energy conservation and food-seeking activity. The lack of a difference between food- and food-and-water-deprived hamsters suggests a higher sensitivity to food than water shortage. This supports the traditional view that energy conservation is the major function of torpor, but suggests that water shortages may also modulate torpor use. The high repeatability of thermoregulatory responses to resource deprivation suggests that these may be heritable traits subject to natural selection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Torpor , Animais , Cricetinae , Privação de Alimentos , Masculino , Phodopus/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Água
4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(22): 6807-6822, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073184

RESUMO

The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most biodiverse savannas in the world, yet 46% of its original cover has been cleared to make way for crops and pastures. These extensive land-use transitions (LUTs) are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperature (LST), and ultimately reducing precipitation. Here, we quantify the impacts of LUTs on ET and LST in the Cerrado by combining MODIS satellite data with annual land use and land cover maps from 2006 to 2019. We performed regression analyses to quantify the effects of six common LUTs on ET and LST across the entire gradient of Cerrado landscapes. Results indicate that clearing forests for cropland or pasture increased average LST by ~3.5°C and reduced mean annual ET by 44% and 39%, respectively. Transitions from woody savannas to cropland or pasture increased average LST by 1.9°C and reduced mean annual ET by 27% and 21%, respectively. Converting native grasslands to cropland or pasture increased average LST by 0.9 and 0.6°C, respectively. Conversely, grassland-to-pasture transitions increased mean annual ET by 15%. To date, land changes have caused a 10% reduction in water recycled to the atmosphere annually and a 0.9°C increase in average LST across the biome, compared to the historic baseline under native vegetation. Global climate changes from increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations will only exacerbate these effects. Considering potential future scenarios, we found that abandoning deforestation control policies or allowing legal deforestation to continue (at least 28.4 Mha) would further reduce yearly ET (by -9% and -3%, respectively) and increase average LST (by +0.7 and +0.3°C, respectively) by 2050. In contrast, policies encouraging zero deforestation and restoration of the 5.2 Mha of illegally deforested areas would partially offset the warming and drying impacts of land-use change.


O Cerrado brasileiro é uma das savanas mais biodiversas do mundo. Apesar disso, 46% da sua cobertura original foi desmatada para dar lugar a cultivos agrícolas e pastos. Estas extensas transições de uso do solo (LUT) têm o potencial de influenciar o clima regional, reduzindo a evapotranspiração (ET), aumentando a temperatura da superfície terrestre (LST) e por fim reduzindo a precipitação. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar os impactos de LUTs sobre ET e LST no Cerrado, combinando dados do satélite MODIS com mapas anuais de uso e cobertura do solo de 2006-2019. Foram realizadas análises de regressão para quantificar os efeitos de seis LUTs usuais sobre ET e LST, ao longo de todo o gradiente de paisagens do Cerrado. Os resultados indicaram que a retirada de florestas para dar lugar à agricultura ou pastagem aumentou a LST média em ~3.5°C e reduziu a ET média anual em 44% e 39%, respectivamente. Transições de formações savânicas para agricultura ou pastagem aumentaram a LST média em 1.9°C e reduziram a ET média anual em 27% e 21%, respectivamente. A conversão de campos nativos para agricultura ou pastagem aumentou a LST média em 0.9 e 0.6°C, respectivamente. Em contrapartida, transições de formações campestres nativas para pastagens aumentaram a ET média anual em 15%. Até o momento, as mudanças de uso do solo causaram redução de 10% da água reciclada para a atmosfera anualmente e aumento de 0.9°C da LST média ao longo do bioma, em comparação com a linha de base histórica sob vegetação nativa. As mudanças climáticas globais decorrentes do aumento das concentrações atmosféricas de gases do efeito estufa irão exacerbar esses efeitos. Considerando potenciais cenários futuros, observou-se que o abandono das políticas de controle do desmatamento ou o avanço do desmatamento legal (ao menos 28.4 Mha) reduziriam a ET anual (em −9% e −3%, respectivamente) e aumentariam a LST média (em +0.7 e +0.3ºC, respectivamente) até 2050. Por outro lado, políticas que promovam desmatamento zero e restauração dos 5.2 Mha de áreas ilegalmente desmatadas compensariam parte dos impactos de aquecimento e seca causados por alterações de uso do solo.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Água
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078270

RESUMO

At present, nearly half of the population of China live in water-deficient areas where water needs to be transferred from surrounding or remote water sources to meet local water demands. Although the water transfer project has alleviated the demands for water in the water-deficient areas, and brought water-supply income to water source regions, it has also posed some cross-regional negative impacts, including the changes in the original ecology within the water source, the impacts on the downstream water demands, and the risk of biological invasion in the distant water receiving areas. Therefore, it can be seen that the impact of water transfer is complicated and will be manifested in various aspects. The Middle Route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP-MR), as the world's largest cross-watershed water transfer project, exerts particularly important effects on regional sustainable development; however, it also produces complex interactions within the ecological environment itself, downstream and in the distant water receiving cities. Thus, this work attempts to apply a metacoupling analysis framework of water transfer to explore the ecological interaction of water transfer in SNWTP-MR on each system. The metacoupling framework can be divided into intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling. This study focuses on the analysis of the causes and effects of the intracoupling, pericoupling and telecoupling of SNWTP-MR from the perspective of ecological values and ecological risks. We found that the coupling of water transfer brings about 23 billion yuan of ecological service value to the water source annually, but also increases the internal ecological risk index by 9.31%, through the calculation of changes in land use; secondly, the power generation benefit significantly increases, and the flood control standards have shifted from once-in-20 years to once-in-a-century. However, the ecological risks are also significant, such as poor water quality, eutrophication of water resources, competition for water between industry and agriculture, deterioration of waterway shipping, and threats to biodiversity, etc. Considering only water supply, the population carrying capacity of the water resource in distant water receiving cities is increased by 16.42 million people, which enhances the value of water resources and creates a cross-regional green ecological landscape belt. Nevertheless, the biological invasion and water pollution have greatly affected the safety of water supply. It can be seen that the cross-regional water transfer does not always damage the interests of the sending system and the spillover system while benefiting the receiving system; its impacts are complex and variable. Through this paper, it is hoped to provide a reference for the analysis of the ecological compensation, resource development and allocation in SNWTP-MR by revealing the metacoupling relationship of SNWTP-MR. This paper will provide new ideas for researching the metacoupling relationship, thereby offering valuable reference for the study of the interaction generated by large-scale water transfer.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Abastecimento de Água , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Qualidade da Água
6.
J Environ Manage ; 322: 116103, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067663

RESUMO

There is a growing consensus that recycled water, as an alternative and renewable water source, can serve as a vital water supply to alleviate water scarcity problem and in support of water resilience. Accordingly, recycled water infrastructure investment has seen a significant growth in recent years in many regions of the world. However, previous studies found the perceptions of public, the main end user, toward using recycled water for potable or non-potable purposes remain negatively stereotyped. The negative stereotypes led to public rejections to the construction and operation of recycled water infrastructure. Traditionally, public perceptions of recycled water uses are captured through self-reporting interview or survey techniques. To gain a more accurate measurement of the implicit public stereotypes toward recycled water uses, this study employed an event-related potential (ERPs) technique to collect neurophysiological responses with participants and presented a few research findings. Firstly, the negative stereotypes of recycled water still exist. Secondly, the degree of human contact impacts the negative stereotypes of participants toward recycled water uses more significantly on the supply side (referring to the whole supply chain of recycled water) rather than on the demand side (referring to the potential consumers of recycled water) Third, knowledge level significantly impacts the negative stereotypes of participants toward recycled water uses that have close human contact, at both supply and demand sides, and shows a more significant impact on the supply side. The findings of study contributed to the literature through creatively dividing the negative stereotypes of recycled water into the "supply-side" and the "demand-side" ones, and meanwhile have managerial implication for policymaking and scheme implementation in the area.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078185

RESUMO

Changes in the territorial pattern of the Beibu Gulf, an environmentally sensitive and ecologically fragile area in China, will directly or indirectly affect the regional ecological environment, while profoundly influencing economic development and human well-being. Therefore, it is significant to understand the ecological response in the process of territorial space changes in the Beibu Gulf to promote the coordination between sea and land and sustainable regional development. This paper used remote sensing image interpretation to generate land-use maps in 2000, 2010 and 2020, and then analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution of the territorial pattern of the Beibu Gulf from 2000 to 2020. Finally, this paper proposed a comprehensive carrying capacity evaluation system and explored the spatial functional zones of the coastal areas of the Beibu Gulf. The results showed that the demand for urban development and ecological protection between 2000 and 2020 increased built-up land and forestland by 386.71% and 25.56%, respectively, and reduced farmland by 28.33%. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in various land-use types. Where forestland is mainly distributed in the west, farmland is mainly distributed in the east, wetland is mainly distributed in the south, and orchards are spread throughout the whole area. The evaluation results of land resources, water resources and ecological conditions in the Beibu Gulf area showed that its comprehensive carrying capacity was high in the south and low in the north, and high in the west and low in the east. On this basis, this paper considered the actual situation of natural resources, ecological conditions, socio-economic development, protection and development in coastal areas; divided the study area into four categories: developed areas, priority development areas, ecological reserve areas and coastal reserve areas; and put forward corresponding control suggestions. The results of this paper could provide a scientific basis for regional development and territorial spatial planning in the coastal areas.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Áreas Alagadas , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Ecossistema , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(22): 6541-6555, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008887

RESUMO

Despite the fact that cetaceans provide significant ecological contributions to the health and stability of aquatic ecosystems, many are highly endangered with nearly one-third of species assessed as threatened with extinction. Nevertheless, to date, few studies have explicitly examined the patterns and processes of extinction risk and threats for this taxon, and even less between the two subclades (Mysticeti and Odontoceti). To fill this gap, we compiled a dataset of six intrinsic traits (active region, geographic range size, body weight, diving depth, school size, and reproductive cycle), six environmental factors relating to sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration, and two human-related threat indices that are commonly recognized for cetaceans. We then employed phylogenetic generalized least squares models and model selection to identify the key predictors of extinction risk in all cetaceans, as well as in the two subclades. We found that geographic range size, sea surface temperature, and human threat index were the most important predictors of extinction risk in all cetaceans and in odontocetes. Interestingly, maximum body weight was positively associated with the extinction risk in mysticetes, but negatively related to that for odontocetes. By linking seven major threat types to extinction risk, we further revealed that fisheries bycatch was the most common threat, yet the impacts of certain threats could be overestimated when considering all species rather than just threatened ones. Overall, we suggest that conservation efforts should focus on small-ranged cetaceans and species living in warmer waters or under strong anthropogenic pressures. Moreover, further studies should consider the threatened status of species when superimposing risk maps and quantifying risk severity. Finally, we emphasize that mysticetes and odontocetes should be conserved with different strategies, because their extinction risk patterns and major threat types are considerably different. For instance, large-bodied mysticetes and small-ranged odontocetes require special conservation priority.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Peso Corporal , Clorofila , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Filogenia , Temperatura , Água
9.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115956, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987052

RESUMO

Variation analysis of ecosystem services (ESs) is an important means of regional watershed management, especially for the ecologically fragile Three-River Headwaters Basin (TRHB), which is an important part of the national ecological security barrier. In this study, meteorological data, remote sensing images and land use data from 2000 to 2020 in the TRHB were collected. Based on the estimation of ecosystem service values (ESVs), the spatial-temporal variations of ESVs in the three watersheds were analyzed via spatial autocorrelation analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correspondence analysis. The study indicates that for the 20-year changes in the TRHB, the provisioning service (PS) and regulating service (RS) increased in most areas except for a small decrease in the northwest, while the supporting service (SS) value in most areas in the southwest showed a decreasing trend. Through the difference results of different watersheds, it can be seen that the differences in the PS and RS values among the three watersheds became increasingly more significant with the passage of time. Moreover, a significant correspondence was identified between each watershed and each ESV level, whereby the highest ESV levels (SS-VI, RS-VI, and PS-VI) mainly corresponded to the Yellow River watershed, the high values (SS-V, RS-V, PS-V, SS-IV, RS-IV, and PS-IV) mainly corresponded to the Lancang River watershed, and the low values (SS-I, RS-I, and PS-I) corresponded to the Yangtze River watershed. Our analysis shows the variation characteristics of ESVs to provide a guiding basis for ensuring the precise implementation of the management and protection of watersheds in the TRHB or similar areas.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meteorologia , Análise Espacial
10.
Ground Water ; 60(5): 583-590, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811302

RESUMO

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) involves the intentional recharge of water to aquifers for subsequent recovery or for environmental benefits. It is an increasingly common water resources management strategy but, despite its use for many decades, is unfamiliar to many. This lack of widespread understanding makes it essential that MAR projects are developed using a systematic, comprehensive and transparent approach. This paper outlines a proven and successful approach to planning and developing MAR projects. The process includes three steps, consisting of developing project objectives, developing evaluation criteria for potential MAR projects, and, after collecting and evaluating pertinent data, ranking potential projects against those criteria. Project objectives help define the data that should be collected and the evaluation criteria that are relevant to consider. Commonly used criteria include those relating to water supply, aquifer restoration, water quality and environmental protection. Key evaluation criteria that are discussed in more detail include the availability of water that would be used for recharge, the suitability of receiving aquifers to accept and retain the recharged water, and the compatibility of recharged water with the aquifer into which it is placed. Potential MAR projects can be ranked objectively by quantifying the evaluation criteria and assigning ranking scores to them. The potential project that best meets the project objectives will score the most favorably. Using a quantitative and objective process to evaluate and rank potential projects will increase support by project stakeholders and increase the likelihood that the project will be successful.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Qualidade da Água , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água
11.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271200, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802737

RESUMO

China's Loess Plateau regions have experienced severe soil erosion for many decades due to fragmented landscapes, steep slopes, and concentrated rainfall storm-events. Restoring sub-optimal or marginal farming fields, mostly on steep, hilly terrain, to plantation forests has been a long-standing strategic policy in China aimed at rehabilitating degraded environments and reducing soil and water erosion. While there are numerous studies that have focused on the effects of forests at controlling soil erosion at relatively short time scales, few have addressed longer-term effects of plantation forests on reducing runoff and the mechanisms that inhibit erosion. Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) has been widely planted in abandoned or reclaimed lands that were formerly farmed in Northwest China; however, there is limited knowledge about the effectiveness of the tree species at reducing soil and water erosion. In this study, we examined reduction rates of runoff and erosion by Chinese pine plantation in comparison with agricultural land as a control (i.e., wheat, a dominant agricultural commodity in the region), based on long-term monitoring of modified standard erosion plots with slopes of 10°, 15°, and 20°. Results showed that as the slope of the land increased, rates of erosion increased for both plantation and agricultural land use. However, the runoff and soil erosion rates under Chinese pine plantation forest were about 11% and 60% lower, respectively, than those under agricultural land use of the same slope. Scaling with the slope, the highest reduced runoff and erosion rates by Chinese pine forest were 17% and 72%, respectively, on 20° slope. Also, it was found that runoff rates from the forested land were positively related to erosive rainfall (i.e., rainfall when runoff generated), and varied with forest canopy coverage. The rates of runoff and erosion can be well model led with multiple regression models. Taken together, this study provides insight into the importance and potential of Chinese pine plantations in the conservation of soil and water in China's Loess Plateau.


Assuntos
Pinus , Agricultura , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Solo , Água
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805408

RESUMO

This study examines the effect of the intergroup social comparison approach in promoting water conservation. In an online survey experiment, participants first encountered normative persuasive messages, informative persuasive messages, or intergroup social comparison messages and then reported their willingness to conserve water, prior water usage, and demographic information. Results showed a significantly higher willingness to conserve water in the intergroup social comparison condition compared to other conditions. We further investigated whether this social comparison effect was moderated by prior water usage and the strength of comparison. Results suggest that prior water usage, rather than the strength of comparison, moderated the influence of intergroup social comparison. Moreover, the moderating effect of prior water usage only works when participants receive a low level of strength of comparison.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Comparação Social , Humanos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0268879, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789329

RESUMO

A key component of behavior-based energy conservation programs is the identification of target behaviors. A common approach is to target behaviors with the greatest energy-saving potential. The concept of behavioral spillover introduces further considerations, namely that adoption of one energy-saving behavior may increase (or decrease) the likelihood of other energy-saving behaviors. This research aimed to identify and describe household energy- and water-saving measure classes within which positive spillover is likely to occur (e.g., adoption of energy-efficient appliances may correlate with adoption of water-efficient appliances), and explore demographic and psychographic predictors of each. Nearly 1,000 households in a California city were surveyed and asked to report whether they had adopted 75 different energy- and/or water-saving measures. Principal Component Analysis and Network Analysis based on correlations between adoption of these diverse measures revealed and characterized eight water-energy-saving measure classes: Water Conservation, Energy Conservation, Maintenance and Management, Efficient Appliance, Advanced Efficiency, Efficient Irrigation, Green Gardening, and Green Landscaping. Understanding these measure classes can help guide behavior-based energy program developers in selecting target behaviors and designing interventions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Água , Características da Família , Fenômenos Físicos , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Environ Manage ; 70(2): 329-349, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699739

RESUMO

Water provision and distribution are subject to conflicts between users worldwide, with agriculture as a major driver of discords. Water sensitive ecosystems and their services are often impaired by man-made water shortage. Nevertheless, they are not sufficiently included in sustainability or risk assessments and neglected when it comes to distribution of available water resources. The herein presented contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals Clean Water and Sanitation (SDG 6) and Life on Land (SDG 15) is the Ecological Sustainability Assessment of Water distribution (ESAW-tool). The ESAW-tool introduces a watershed sustainability assessment that evaluates the sustainability of the water supply-demand ratio on basin level, where domestic water use and the water requirements of ecosystems are considered as most important water users. An ecological risk assessment estimates potential impacts of agricultural depletion of renewable water resources on (ground)water-dependent ecosystems. The ESAW-tool works in standard GIS applications and is applicable in basins worldwide with a set of broadly available input data. The ESAW-tool is tested in the Danube river basin through combination of high-resolution hydro-agroecological model data (hydrological land surface process model PROMET and groundwater model OpenGeoSys) and further freely available data (water use, biodiversity and wetlands maps). Based on the results, measures for more sustainable water management can be deduced, such as increase of rainfed agriculture near vulnerable ecosystems or change of certain crops. The tool can support decision making of authorities from local to national level as well as private enterprises who want to improve the sustainability of their supply chains.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Água , Recursos Hídricos
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 500, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701693

RESUMO

The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) is a carrying capacity of natural resources. It affects the application and expansion of the carrying capacity of water resources. This subject involves various elements, such as water resources, the ecological environment system, humans and their economic and social systems, and a wider range of biological groups and their survival needs. Based on the objective recognition of the complex relationship between the water resource system, ecological environment system, and economic and social system, the support scale of water resources and the ecological environment for economic and social development is studied. Current research on the carrying capacity of water resources has mostly shifted from the previously limited support capacity of water resources to include factors such as the population, economy, and ecology, establishing the internal relationships between the economics, water resources, and ecological environment. This reflects the comprehensive carrying capacity of the entire region (or river basin) of water resources and the ecological environment system on an overall economic and social scale. Based on the conceptual connotation of the WRCC and the actual problems facing water resources in Henan Province, the paper uses a system dynamics method to develop information feedback between the four subsystems of Henan Province: economic, population, water resource, and water environment subsystems. The index system of the WRCC in Henan Province is also determined. The weight of each index is comprehensively determined by a combination weighting method of the analytic hierarchy process and an entropy weight method, and then a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate the WRCC of Henan Province under four different development models. The validation period of the model is 2010-2020, and the forecast period is 2021-2030. The results indicate that during the period 2021-2030, the WRCC of Henan Province showed a slight upward trend overall under the four models, but the increase rates were different under the different models. Among the four models, the comprehensive model's benefit was the best, which not only maintained the healthy and stable development of the economy and society but also improved the pressure on the water resources and the quality of the water environment.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Hídricos , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Rios , Água
16.
J Environ Manage ; 318: 115476, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714471

RESUMO

Although it is well acknowledged that the improvement of ecosystem services is conducive to human well-being, there is still a lack of approach to determining reasonable improvement goals, especially for ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. Based on the method of production possibility frontier (PPF), this study presented a novel approach to identifying the improvement goals of interacting ecosystem services with considering their context dependency. By calculating the gap between the current supply of ecosystem services and the reasonable improvement goal, the ecosystem services supply efficiency was defined and measured to identify the optimization potentials of ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. The results showed that the supply efficiency of ecosystem services (grain production and water purification) decreased and then increased significantly along with the increasing of farmland area ratio in the Dongting Lake Basin (DLB). Meanwhile, the inflection point appeared when the farmland area ratio was 0.16. The change of farmland area ratio was significantly influenced by the change of elevation, with the regression coefficients of elevation on the left and right sides of the inflection point being -1.28 and -0.5 respectively, which were higher than that of other factors. Along with the increasing of elevation, the ecosystem services supply efficiency decreased but increased when the elevation exceeded 721.74 m. Furthermore, the sub-watersheds with farmland area ratio below the inflection point, i.e. mainly high elevation areas, were located around national or provincial level poor counties, posing a great challenge for improving ecosystem services with trade-off relationship. Development strategies for sub-watersheds should consider the non-linear trade-offs of ecosystem services, especially the opposite stages of supply efficiency. This study highlighted the elevation dependency of ecosystem services supply efficiency through farmland area ratio in great lake watershed.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos
17.
Water Res ; 221: 118766, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35759851

RESUMO

Water scarcity and quality deterioration often occur in economically developing regions, particularly during crises related to climate change or increasing human activities. The assignment of priority areas is considered a suitable strategy for stakeholders to mitigate water crises and cope with water stress. However, most studies focused on protecting water bodies in priority areas and did not consider the hydrological/hydrochemical/hydroecological interaction between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We divided a watershed into manageable areas to select priority areas for multiple water-related ecosystem services (WES-priority areas), considering the aquatic-terrestrial interactions to predict the effects of climate change and human activities. The proposed novelty framework couples the soil and water assessment tool and maximum entropy models with a systematic conservation planning tool. It uses the gross domestic product as the economic cost to assess dynamic changes and social-environmental driving forces. A case study is conducted in the Xiangjiang River basin, a modified watershed of the main tributary of the Yangtze River, China. Results revealed that most of the WES-priority areas were located in the southern and southeastern regions of the upper reaches in all climatic scenarios. The conservation efficiency of the WES-priority areas decreased from 1.264 to 0.867 in 50 years, indicating that the level of protection declined as climate change accelerated. The precipitation was positively correlated with the WES-priority area selection in all climate scenarios. The temperature was only negatively correlated with the WES-priority areas when it exceeded 20 °C, and this effect became more pronounced as the temperature increased. The topographic factors had the most crucial impacts on the upstream priority areas selection. The water flow regulation service played a leading role in identifying WES-priority areas in the middle reaches because the priority areas' distribution here was closely related to the water yield, and its proportion decreased with the acceleration of global warming. The number of WES-priority areas was relatively low in the lower reaches. It was positively associated with the gross domestic product and the amount of built-up land. The proposed framework for WES-priority areas identification enables a sound trade-off between environmental protection and economic development.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Hidrologia , Rios
18.
J Environ Manage ; 317: 115477, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751274

RESUMO

The stable supply of water resources is an important foundation for maintaining human production and life. With the development of economy and society, climate, socioeconomic and land factors directly or indirectly affect surface Water yield ecosystem services (WY). The driving factors of WY in the Yellow River Economic Belt (YREB) show the spatial spillover effect, which has been neglected in previous related studies. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2015, WY in YREB showed an obvious downward trend, with Henan and Shandong having the largest declines; (2) The decrease of WY is positively correlated with climate factors and negatively correlated with socioeconomic and land factors. (3) WY of YREB presents is characterized by obvious spatial heterogeneity characteristics of uneven distribution in the north and south, which is mainly due to the spatial spillover effect caused by climate and socioeconomic factors. Scientifically identifying the spatial heterogeneity of WY and the spatial spillover effect of the driving factors can help managers better understand the spatial driving mechanism of the driving factors on WY. This conclusion provides support for the ecological protection and high-quality development strategy of YREB.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Água , Recursos Hídricos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 2): 156005, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584749

RESUMO

Monitoring of access to water and sanitation services is stipulated in Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 6.1 and 6.2, respectively. The monitoring is carried out with a global, regional and country vision. However, in most developing countries, decentralization of services in water and sanitation management has tended to the sub-national level or has shared responsibilities between national and sub-national governments. Management at the subnational level becomes more important, since everything that is done there will impact the objectives and goals of the country. However, little or nothing progress has been made in harmonizing global indicators with those at the subnational level. Therefore, in this study we have proposed a way to disaggregate information and form WASH ladders at the subnational level. The results show using disaggregated data to interpolate models at the subnational level requires overcoming three main points: the validation of the data through statistical methods, interpolation techniques that go according to the compositional characteristics of the data and the incorporation of the uncertainty of the data into the model results. It also shows that subnational behavior is heterogeneous, which a general analysis does not capture correctly, i.e., there is a masking effect of subnational trends that the country's trend does not represent. However, these have been exceptional cases in some specific categories. Finally, the applicability of non-linear models is contrasted in a broader context, an issue that is still under discussion for its application to global monitoring. This study also provides a way to disaggregate information from the global to the sub-national level, allowing any sector analyst to replicate the methodology in a broader context.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saneamento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Incerteza , Abastecimento de Água
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8336, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35585115

RESUMO

The construction of check dams is an important measure to prevent soil erosion on the Loess Plateau and reduce the amount of sediment entering the Yellow River. Based on an analysis of the current situation of soil and water conservation on the Loess Plateau and the three major problems faced by the traditional homogeneous soil check dam construction, the study of anti-scouring materials, hydrological calculation methods, dam design and construction technology and soil and water conservation monitoring are carried out in this paper. The results showed that the current soil and water conservation measures on the Loess Plateau have achieved remarkable outcomes. The new design and application concept of check dams with anti-burst and multi-sand interceptions is innovatively proposed in this paper. The new materials of solidified loess have good durability and anti-scouring characteristics and could meet the overflow and anti-scouring requirements of the new check dam. The small watershed high sand content of hydrological calculation can establish the upper limit of the flood sediment boundary for the anti-scouring protection layer of the check dam. The new technology of dam design and construction can achieve no collapse or slow collapse when encountering floods exceeding the standard. Intelligent monitoring systems can realize real-time dynamic monitoring for soil and water conservation on the Loess Plateau. The results will eventually contribute to the national strategy of the Ecological Protection and High Quality Development in the Yellow River basin.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Solo , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios , Areia
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