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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800440

RESUMO

To control the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia's government imposed a strict lockdown during March-July 2020. As a result, the public was confined to indoors, and most of their daily activities were happening in their indoor places, which might have resulted in lower indoor environment quality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in household dust (n = 40) collected from different residential districts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during the lockdown period. PAHs' levels were two folds higher than the previously reported PAHs in indoor dust from this region. We detected low molecular weight (LMW) with two to four aromatic ring PAHs in all the samples with a significant contribution from Phenanthrene (Phe), present at an average concentration of 1590 ng/g of dust. Although high molecular weight (HMW) (5-6 aromatic ring) PAHs were detected at lower concentrations than LMW PAHs, however, they contributed >90% in the carcinogenic index of PAHs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of specific PAHs was above the reference dose (RfD) for young children in high-end exposure and the calculated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) was >1.00 × 10-4 for both Saudi adults and young children. The study highlighted that indoor pollution has increased significantly during lockdown due to the increased indoor activities and inversely affect human health. This study also warrants to conduct more studies involving different chemicals to understand the indoor environment quality during strict lockdown conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Coronavirus , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804855

RESUMO

The development of high-throughput screening methodologies may decrease the need for laboratory animals for toxicity testing. Here, we investigate the potential of assessing immunotoxicity with high-throughput screening data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ToxCast program. As case studies, we analyzed the most common chemicals added to food as well as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) shown to migrate to food from packaging materials or processing equipment. The antioxidant preservative tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) showed activity both in ToxCast assays and in classical immunological assays, suggesting that it may affect the immune response in people. From the PFAS group, we identified eight substances that can migrate from food contact materials and have ToxCast data. In epidemiological and toxicological studies, PFAS suppress the immune system and decrease the response to vaccination. However, most PFAS show weak or no activity in immune-related ToxCast assays. This lack of concordance between toxicological and high-throughput data for common PFAS indicates the current limitations of in vitro screening for analyzing immunotoxicity. High-throughput in vitro assays show promise for providing mechanistic data relevant for immune risk assessment. In contrast, the lack of immune-specific activity in the existing high-throughput assays cannot validate the safety of a chemical for the immune system.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Alimentos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806616

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM2.5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. A total of 205 children were randomly selected to assess the DNA damage in buccal cells, employing the comet assay. Total PAHs measured in exposed and comparative schools varied, respectively, from 61.60 to 64.64 ng m-3 and from 5.93 to 35.06 ng m-3. The PAH emission in exposed schools was contributed mainly by traffic and industrial emissions, dependent on the source apportionment. The 95th percentiles of the incremental lifetime cancer risk estimated using Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the inhalation risk for the exposed children and comparative populations was 2.22 × 10-6 and 2.95 × 10-7, respectively. The degree of DNA injury was substantially more severe among the exposed children relative to the comparative community. This study reveals that higher exposure to PAHs increases the risk of genotoxic effects and cancer among children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Malásia , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803562

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of important organic pollutants widely emitted from anthropogenic activities, with a general distribution in the gas and particulate phases. Some PAHs are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. Inhalation exposure to PAHs is correlated with adverse health outcomes in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Thus, it is significant to determine the exposure level of the general population. This study summarizes the evaluation methods for PAH exposure, focusing on different exposure parameters. External exposure can be determined via the collection of the environmental pollution concentration through active samplers or passive samplers during environmental monitoring or personal sampling. Time-activity patterns give critical exposure information that captures the exposure period, origin, and behaviors. Modeling is a labor-less approach for human exposure estimation, and microenvironmental exposure requires specific research. It is important to select appropriate methods to quantify the exposure level to provide accurate data to establish the exposure-risk relationship and make scientific suggestions for the protection of public health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804117

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in the summer and winter of 2015 and 2017 in Xinxiang, China. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM2.5 were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The PAHs concentration in summer and winter decreased from 6.37 ± 1.30 ng/m3 and 96.9 ± 69.9 ng/m3 to 4.89 ± 2.67 ng/m3 and 49.8 ± 43.4 ng/m3 from 2015 to 2017. NPAHs decreased in winter (from 1707 ± 708 pg/m3 to 1192 ± 1113 pg/m3), but increased in summer from 2015 (336 ± 77.2 pg/m3) to 2017 (456 ± 312 pg/m3). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated that petroleum combustion was the main emission source in summer, and pollutants originating from the combustion of petroleum, coal and biomass dominated in winter. The 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR)/2-nitropyrene (2-NP) ratio in this study demonstrated that the OH radical pathway was the main pathway for the formation of 2-NP and 2-NFR. The mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values decreased from 2013 to 2017. The high value of total BaPeq in the winter of 2017 in Xinxiang revealed that a high-risk of cancer remained for residents. The results of this study demonstrate that the decreases in PAHs and NPAHS concentrations from 2015 to 2017. Combined with reducing gaseous pollutants concentration, the reduction in this study might be attributable to emissions reductions by implementing the air pollution control regulations in Xinxiang city in 2016.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
7.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112535, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895580

RESUMO

In comparison with various restaurant cuisines, common cooking methods are more represented in residential cooking. Rather than the exhaust pipe or the ambient environment in the cooking room, the respiration zone better reflects the health risks for operators. In this study, the concentrations of total volatile organic compound (TVOC) released from six typical cooking methods were monitored online in the respiratory zone, and the VOCs were analysed by GC-MS. The results demonstrated that the intensities of exposure to TVOC for the different cooking methods decreased as follows: stir-frying (3.809 mg/m3) > quick-frying (2.724 mg/m3) > deep-frying (2.465 mg/m3) > boiling (1.161 mg/m3)≈stewing (1.149 mg/m3) > limit in China (0.600 mg/m3) > steaming (0.440 mg/m3). The intense ventilation mode of the ventilator reduced exposure to TVOC by 45-63% relative to the medium mode. Eleven types of VOCs (approximately 200 compounds) were found in Chinese residential cooking fumes, and the predominant contaminants were aldehydes, followed by alkanes, unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols and alkenes. The mass percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in all VOCs emitted from Chinese residential cooking was only 1%, while the value was 17-48% for commercial restaurants. The results of a health risk assessment revealed that the total potential carcinogenic risk level for VOCs released by six residential cooking methods decreased as follows: deep-frying (5.75) > stir-frying (3.95) > quick-frying (2.94) > stewing (1.99) > boiling (1.73) > steaming (1.48). Chinese residential cooking, and especially deep frying, has potential health impacts for the operator.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco
8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 68, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845785

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has suspended many non-COVID-19 related research activities. Where restarting research activities is permitted, investigators need to evaluate the risks and benefits of resuming data collection and adapt procedures to minimize risk. OBJECTIVES: In the context of the multicountry Household Air Pollution Intervention (HAPIN) trial conducted in rural, low-resource settings, we developed a framework to assess the risk of each trial activity and to guide protective measures. Our goal is to maximize the integrity of reseach aims while minimizing infection risk based on the latest scientific understanding of the virus. METHODS: We drew on a combination of expert consultations, risk assessment frameworks, institutional guidance and literature to develop our framework. We then systematically graded clinical, behavioral, laboratory and field environmental health research activities in four countries for both adult and child subjects using this framework. National and local government recommendations provided the minimum safety guidelines for our work. RESULTS: Our framework assesses risk based on staff proximity to the participant, exposure time between staff and participants, and potential viral aerosolization while performing the activity. For each activity, one of four risk levels, from minimal to unacceptable, is assigned and guidance on protective measures is provided. Those activities that can potentially aerosolize the virus are deemed the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a systematic, procedure-specific approach to risk assessment for each trial activity, we were able to protect our participants and research team and to uphold our ability to deliver on the research commitments we have made to our staff, participants, local communities, and funders. This framework can be tailored to other research studies conducted in similar settings during the current pandemic, as well as potential future outbreaks with similar transmission dynamics. The trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02944682 on October 26. 2016 .


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Pandemias , Medição de Risco/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2153-2158, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884784

RESUMO

In order to understand the levels of indoor air pollution and health risks in public places, our research group conducted air quality monitoring and human health risk assessments for five types of public places (offices, classrooms, laboratories, banks, and hospitals) in Xi'an City from December 2017 to July 2020. The test items included formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, n-butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, styrene, n-undecane, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The results showed that formaldehyde had the highest exceedance rate (59.4%), followed by toluene, TVOC, benzene, and xylene. Among the five types of public places, hospitals had the highest rate of pollutants exceeding the standard (46.7%), and the main pollutants exceeding the standard were formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene. The results showed that the concentrations of formaldehyde and TVOC were positively correlated with temperature and humidity. The health risk assessment results showed that there were carcinogenic risks of formaldehyde and benzene in different places; people working in banks had a higher risk of formaldehyde carcinogenesis, and those working in hospitals had a higher risk of benzene carcinogenesis. This study provides a reference for the level of indoor air pollution in public places in Xi'an City, and is of great significance to the health risk research of related populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 302, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900454

RESUMO

Understanding the occurrence, behavior, and fate of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the substrate-mushroom-human nexus is critical for assessing and mitigating their human health risks. In this review, we (1) summarized the nature, sources, and biogeochemical behavior of PTEs in the substrate-mushroom systems; (2) discussed the occurrence, exposure, and human health risks of PTEs in mushrooms with emphasis on African geological hotspots such as metalliferous and highly mineralized substrates; (3) developed a 10-step conceptual framework for identifying, assessing, and mitigating the human health risks of PTEs in mushrooms, and highlight future directions. High human exposure risks potentially exist in Africa due to the following: (1) widespread consumption of mushrooms from various metalliferrous and highly mineralized substrates such as serpentines and mine waste dumps, (2) inadequate and poorly enforced environmental health and food safety regulations and policies, (3) limited environmental and human health monitoring data, and (4) potential synergistic interactions among PTEs in mushrooms and human health stressors such as a high burden of human diseases and infections. Although the human health effects of individual PTEs are well known, scientific evidence linking human health risk to PTEs in mushrooms remains weak. A framework for risk assessment and mitigation, and future research directions are recommended.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , África , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 311, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914177

RESUMO

Ambient PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) samples were collected and characterized from July 2012 to August 2013 with the objective to evaluate the variation in elemental concentration and use the same as markers for source apportionment and health risk assessment for the first time over Bhubaneswar, India. The yearly average mass of PM10 was 82.28 µg/m3, which was ~ 37% higher than the national ambient air quality (NAAQ) standards. Maximum PM10 concentration was observed during winter season followed by post-monsoon, pre-monsoon, and monsoon months. Acid soluble components in the PM10 samples were analyzed using ICP-OES (inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy), and 19 different elements including heavy metals were determined. Enrichment factor analysis attributed the source to either crustal or non-crustal origin. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that crustal sources, industrial activities, and vehicular emissions were significant contributors to PM mass. The contribution of total average elemental concentration showed a seasonal variation with the lowest (11.96 µg/m3) and highest (17.77 µg/m3) during monsoon and winter, respectively, which is relatively less significant than the variation in total PM10 mass that ranged between 48.43 µg/m3 in monsoon and 138.24 µg/m3 during the winter season. This observation evidences the predominant contribution of local/regional emission sources to the metallic components in coarse PM10 mass, which is corroborated by the wind pattern studies carried out using polar plots and a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) FLEXPART. Further, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk assessments of the measured elements that find their way into the human body through different exposure pathways have been calculated using United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The carcinogenic risk of most of the elements was insignificant. The potential risk assessment study revealed that regular exposure to heavy metals through the ingestion pathway caused detrimental health effects. These effects were observed to be more severe in children in comparison to adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Adulto , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1820-1829, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742817

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the pollution characteristics of the volatile organic compounds in Nansi Lake and evaluate the ecological and health risks. In November 2017, water samples collected from 25 sampling points in Nansi Lake using the purge and trap technique and GC-MS detected 52 types of VOCs. The detection rate of ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and naphthalene reached 100%, and cis-1,3-dichloropropene and toluene reached 96%. The detection rate of 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene was the lowest, at only 12%, the average concentration of 1,2-dichlorobenzene was the highest, reaching 3.49 µg·L-1, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene was only 0.02 µg·L-1. The concentration of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in Nansi Lake was generally higher than that of other VOCs. Meanwhile, the concentrations of m-/p-xylene and ethylbenzene at point NSH-24 far exceeded the other VOCs, but the median value of all VOCs did not exceed 4 µg·L-1. The spatial distribution of the VOCs concentrations in Nansi Lake presented high values in the northwest and southeast, and low in the middle. The leading cause of VOCs pollution in Nansi Lake may be the exhaust gas emitted by shipping vessels during navigation, and the secondary cause is the collection of VOCs in the upstream and downstream tributaries and the influence of human factors. The health risk assessment of Nansi Lake found that, overall, there was no carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic health risk, but the risk value of individual points was relatively high, even exceeding the risk threshold set by the US EPA. There were 12 points in Nansi Lake where the ecological risk quotient exceeded 1, indicating an ecological risk to aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Medição de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 595-603, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742853

RESUMO

In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected synchronously at Gaoxin and Linxiao in Luoyang City during autumn and winter (4 October 2018 to 30 January 2019). Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matter were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations and composition characteristics of the PAHs on clean and polluted days were studied. Diagnostic ratio analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the emission sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs and the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) model were applied to evaluate health risks. During the sampling period, the concentrations of PAHs at Gaoxin and Linxiao ranged 24.33-90.26 ng·m-3 and 23.81-76.99 ng·m-3, respectively. With the increase in PM2.5 pollution, PAH concentrations increase significantly (the mean PAH concentration on polluted days was approximately 1.3 times higher than during clean days). PAH profiles at different polluting levels were similar; 4-ring PAHs (43%-48%) > 5-6 ring PAHs (32%-35%) > 2-3-ring PAHs (20%-22%). Diagnostic ratios and PCA demonstrated that PAHs in the study area were mainly derived from combustion sources including coal combustion, biomass burning, and motor vehicle emissions. The coal combustion was the main pollution source in the study area (clean days=49.28%-56.38%, polluted days=49.44%-60.60%). The results of the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and ILCR model revealed that the human health risk on polluted days was higher. Moreover, the cancer risks from adult exposure to PAHs were higher than those child exposure, which has an acceptable level of risk (<10-6).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740016

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, with considerable public health and socio-economic impacts that are seriously affecting health and safety of workers, as well as their employment stability. Italy was the first of many other western countries to implement extended containment measures. Health workers and others employed in essential sectors have continued their activity, reporting high infection rate with many fatalities. The epidemiological trend highlighted the importance of work as a substantial factor to consider both when implementing strategies aimed at containing the pandemic and shaping the lockdown mitigation strategy required for sustained economic recovery. To support the decision-making process, we have developed a strategy to predict the risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace based on the analysis of the working process and proximity between employees; risk of infection connected to the type of activity; involvement of third parties in the working processes and risk of social aggregation. We applied this approach to outline a risk index for each economic activity sector, with different levels of detail, also considering the impact on mobility of the working population. This method was implemented into the national epidemiological surveillance model in order to estimate the impact of re-activation of specific activities on the reproduction number. It has also been adopted by the national scientific committee set up by the Italian Government for action-oriented policy advice on the COVID-19 emergency in the post lockdown phase. This approach may play a key role for public health if associated with measures for risk mitigation in enterprises through strategies of business process re-engineering. Furthermore, it will make a contribution to reconsidering the organization of work, including also innovation and fostering the integration with the national occupational safety and health (OSH) system.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , /patologia , Tomada de Decisões , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Itália , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112071, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690004

RESUMO

PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from the outdoor environment of five types of cities (provincial central cities, regional central cities, resource-based cities, agricultural cities, and forested cities) situated in Northeast China. Based on bioaccessibility and respiratory deposition fluxes, health risks of PM2.5- and PM10-bound six heavy metals [HM6: Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), and Lead (Pb)] were studied. Cobalt (Co) and Cr were found to be the most abundantly bioaccessible fraction among HM6 after extraction of simulated lung fluids. After inhalation exposure, among HM6, Co mainly contributed 88.39-93.19% to the non-carcinogenic risk, while Cr account for 82.92-93.72% of cancer risk. The estimated daily intake of bioaccessible HM6 in outdoor environment during the heating period was calculated to be 293.11 ± 121.03, 117.08 ± 32.46, 105.57 ± 32.49, 100.35 ± 25.58 and 83.11 ± 17.64 ng/h for provincial central cities, regional central cities, agricultural city, resource-based cities and forested cities, respectively, for local residents. During the heating period of 180 days, non-carcinogenic risks (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co) in outdoor environment of 0.5 residence time were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1). Cancer risks for Cr and Co were above 10-5 in the five types of cities, but in the assumable range (< 10-4). Our study highlighted the wide range of measures needed to cut airborne particles pollution to safer levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsênico , China , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental , Calefação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671618

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has immensely affected economic and social order in not only China but the entire world, seriously threatening peoples' lives and property. In China's fight against COVID-19, the community is at the front line of joint prevention and control of the disease, yet it faces the problem of insufficient resilience. We explored the manifestations and formation mechanism of the problem of insufficient resilience in community public health crisis governance, based on the complex adaptive system theory, which emphasizes interaction among subjects and between subjects and the environment to improve the adaptability to the environment. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted in 28 counties (districts) of 14 cities of 7 provinces in China; 2345 questionnaires and 71 interview data were collected, and we conducted descriptive statistical analysis on questionnaire data. It is found that some communities faced insufficient resilience problems such as "simply isolating households and communities", "blindly setting limits", "layer-by-layer law", and "rejecting and repelling all individuals from or even related to Hubei". These problems are due to the fact that the community have a non-interactive relationship, which is a one-dimensional linear governance model to some extent. The legal content of the building of a "comprehensive disaster-reduction demonstration community" implemented by the Chinese government is compelled to stay at the level of system design to some extent, with its existence playing an ornamental role but lacking a substantial one. In this regard, this study suggests that a resilient governance model of community pluralistic cooperation be established based on the theoretical framework of complex adaptive system. This model is designed to increase the resilience of community public health crisis governance. The authoritative role of central and local policies is expected to be truly developed and played in dealing with the grassroots community public health crisis.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública , China , Cidades , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
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