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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-11. (OPS/NMH/MH/COVID-19/22-0001).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55563

RESUMO

The COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkErs Study (HEROES) es un estudio multicéntrico de cohorte prospectivo que evalúa el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los trabajadores de los servicios de salud en 26 países de cuatro continentes y en cómo esta se ve afectada por una serie de factores a distintos niveles que pudieran estar interrelacionados: individual, familiar, laboral y social. El presente informe breve recoge la evidencia generada a partir de la encuesta basal del estudio para once países de la Región de las Américas que participan en el estudio. A partir del uso de escalas validadas, los resultados muestran que en varios países de la Región existen elevadas tasas de síntomas depresivos, ideación suicida y malestar psicológico. El espíritu del proyecto no es solo generar evidencia científica de calidad respecto de la salud mental del personal de salud, sino, sobre la base de lo anterior, contribuir a generar intervenciones (tanto a nivel individual como institucional) y políticas que permitan enfrentar las consecuencias negativas que en ella ha tenido la pandemia de COVID-19. The COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkErs Study (HEROES) es un estudio multicéntrico de cohorte prospectivo que evalúa el impacto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los trabajadores de los servicios de salud en 26 países de cuatro continentes y en cómo esta se ve afectada por una serie de factores a distintos niveles que pudieran estar interrelacionados: individual, familiar, laboral y social. El presente informe breve recoge la evidencia generada a partir de la encuesta basal del estudio para once países de la Región de las Américas que participan en el estudio. A partir del uso de escalas validadas, los resultados muestran que en varios países de la Región existen elevadas tasas de síntomas depresivos, ideación suicida y malestar psicológico. El espíritu del proyecto no es solo generar evidencia científica de calidad respecto de la salud mental del personal de salud, sino, sobre la base de lo anterior, contribuir a generar intervenciones (tanto a nivel individual como institucional) y políticas que permitan enfrentar las consecuencias negativas que en ella ha tenido la pandemia de COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Recursos Humanos , Vigilância do Ambiente de Trabalho , América
4.
Psychiatry Res Commun ; 2(1): 100015, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977912

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the factors associated with frequent sadness and nervousness in Brazilian adolescents, during the Covid-19 pandemic, in 9470 adolescents (aged 12-17 years), interviewed from June 27 to September 17, 2020. Prevalences and prevalence ratios were estimated according to socio-demographic variables and factors related to family, school, friends, and health. Brazilian adolescents often felt sad (32.4%) and nervous (48.7%). Higher prevalences of these feelings were related to: being female; aged 15-17 year; from families with financial difficulties; having learned little or nothing with remote education; missing friends; having few friends; family disagreements; having regular/bad health before the pandemic; and worsened health and sleep during the pandemic. Higher prevalence of nervousness was also found in adolescents who worked before the pandemic and those who reported lack of concentration and not knowing if they had COVID-19. Sadness and nervousness in Brazilian adolescents is high and the need for action by the government, schools, health services, and parents to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on the physical and mental health of adolescents. Special attention must be paid to adolescents with previous health problems and those belonging to the most socially vulnerable population.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 20, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Covid-19 had negative impacts on the mental stress and induced psychological distress among university students worldwide. This study proposed a moderated mediation model, and hypothesized that the Covid-19 pandemic-related stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among international medical students. METHODS: An online survey on stress and depressive symptoms of international students was conducted in a medical university. Questions on Covid-19 pandemic-related stress, Patient Health Quesionnaire-9, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and the Perceived Social Support Scale were used as measurements, and model analyses were conducted using Hayes' PROCESS macro for SPSS. RESULTS: It was found that 9.83%, 3.08% and 2.12% students had mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms, respectively, and the positive association between Covid-19 pandemic-related stress and depressive symptoms was significant (ß = 0.27, t = 6.87, P < 0.01). Negative coping was also significantly correlated to depressive symptoms (ß = 0.26, t = 6.60, P < 0.01), and partially mediated the association between Covid-19 pandemic-related stress and depressive symptoms. Perceived social support had a negative association with depressive symptoms (ß=-0.26, t=-6.25, P < 0.01), played a negative moderating role in the relationship between negative coping and depressive symptoms, and moderated the indirect effect of Covid-19 pandemic-related stress on depressive symptoms via negative coping. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study suggested that under the background of continuing pandemic, intervention or prevention of mental health problem is urgently needed for the international students, and depression may be alleviated through reducing negative coping and increasing perceived social support.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 19, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, confront healthcare workers (HCW) with increased exposure to potentially morally distressing events. The pandemic has provided an opportunity to explore the links between moral distress, moral resilience, and emergence of mental health symptoms in HCWs. METHODS: A total of 962 Canadian healthcare workers (88.4% female, 44.6 + 12.8 years old) completed an online survey during the first COVID-19 wave in Canada (between April 3rd and September 3rd, 2020). Respondents completed a series of validated scales assessing moral distress, perceived stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms, and moral resilience. Respondents were grouped based on exposure to patients who tested positive for COVID-19. In addition to descriptive statistics and analyses of covariance, multiple linear regression was used to evaluate if moral resilience moderates the association between exposure to morally distressing events and moral distress. Factors associated with moral resilience were also assessed. FINDINGS: Respondents working with patients with COVID-19 showed significantly more severe moral distress, anxiety, and depression symptoms (F > 5.5, p < .020), and a higher proportion screened positive for mental disorders (Chi-squared > 9.1, p = .002), compared to healthcare workers who were not. Moral resilience moderated the relationship between exposure to potentially morally distressing events and moral distress (p < .001); compared to those with higher moral resilience, the subgroup with the lowest moral resilience had a steeper cross-sectional worsening in moral distress as the frequency of potentially morally distressing events increased. Moral resilience also correlated with lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms (r > .27, p < .001). Factors independently associated with stronger moral resilience included: being male, older age, no mental disorder diagnosis, sleeping more, and higher support from employers and colleagues (B [0.02, |-0.26|]. INTERPRETATION: Elevated moral distress and mental health symptoms in healthcare workers facing a global crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic call for the development of interventions promoting moral resilience as a protective measure against moral adversities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Women Health ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001860

RESUMO

Pandemic process increase the vulnerability of women to intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is one of the greatest stress sources a woman can face. This study's purpose to determine effects of the Covid-19 pandemic process on the IPV status and perceived stress levels of women. The population of the descriptive study consisted 834 women working at a state university in Turkey's. 452 women who with intimate partner relationships were included in the sample. Data collection tools were applied via online survey link. The mean age of the women was 30.6 ± 4.20. The The Perceived Stress Scale mean scores of the women were 40.18 ± 3.20. They are not able to cope with stress effectively. It was determined that women participated the study were exposed to more IPV during the pandemic process. It was found that as the frequency of IPV increased, women's perception of stress also increased. Research such as this can be used to help inform decision-makers as they grapple with the adverse negative effects of public health safety measures related to Covid-19.

10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262136, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the emergency department (ED) has evolved into the de-facto site of care for a variety of substance use disorder (SUD) presentations, trends in ED utilization are an essential public health surveillance tool. Changes in ED visit patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic may reflect changes in access to outpatient treatment, changes in SUD incidence, or the unintended effects of public policy to mitigate COVID-19. We use a national emergency medicine registry to describe and characterize trends in ED visitation for SUDs since 2019. METHODS: We included all ED visits identified in a national emergency medicine clinical quality registry, which included 174 sites across 33 states with data from January 2019 through June 2021. We defined SUD using ED visit diagnosis codes including: opioid overdose and opioid use disorder (OUD), alcohol use disorders (AUD), and other SUD. To characterize changes in ED utilization, we plotted the 3-week moving average ratio of visit counts in 2020 and 2021 as compared to visit counts in 2019. FINDINGS: While overall ED visits declined in the early pandemic period and had not returned to 2019 baseline by June 2021, ED visit counts for SUD demonstrated smaller declines in March and April of 2020, so that the proportion of overall ED visits that were for SUD increased. Furthermore, in the second half of 2020, ED visits for SUD returned to baseline, and increased above baseline for OUD ever since May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observe distinct patterns in ED visitation for SUDs over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for OUD for which ED visitation barely declined and now exceeds previous baselines. These trends likely demonstrate the essential role of hospital-based EDs in providing 24/7/365 care for people with SUDs and mental health conditions. Allocation of resources must be directed towards the ED as a de-facto safety net for populations in crisis.

11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 15, 2022 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant influence on public mental health. Current efforts focus on alleviating the impacts of the disease on public health and the economy, with the psychological effects due to COVID-19 relatively ignored. In this research, we are interested in exploring the quantitative characterization of the pandemic impact on public mental health by studying an online survey dataset of the United States. METHODS: The analyses are conducted based on a large scale of online mental health-related survey study in the United States, conducted over 12 consecutive weeks from April 23, 2020 to July 21, 2020. We are interested in examining the risk factors that have a significant impact on mental health as well as in their estimated effects over time. We employ the multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) method to deal with missing values and take logistic regression with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) method to identify risk factors for mental health. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that risk predictors for an individual to experience mental health issues include the pandemic situation of the State where the individual resides, age, gender, race, marital status, health conditions, the number of household members, employment status, the level of confidence of the future food affordability, availability of health insurance, mortgage status, and the information of kids enrolling in school. The effects of most of the predictors seem to change over time though the degree varies for different risk factors. The effects of risk factors, such as States and gender show noticeable change over time, whereas the factor age exhibits seemingly unchanged effects over time. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results unveil evidence-based findings to identify the groups who are psychologically vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides helpful evidence for assisting healthcare providers and policymakers to take steps for mitigating the pandemic effects on public mental health, especially in boosting public health care, improving public confidence in future food conditions, and creating more job opportunities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This article does not report the results of a health care intervention on human participants.

12.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035185

RESUMO

The Palestinian community in Israel has experienced significant stressors historically, yet little research has assessed the strategies these individuals cope with stress. The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to assess coping resources among Palestinian adults. The present study explored the religious and personal resources adopted by Palestinians living in Israel to cope with the stress caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, and whether differences in using these resources were attributed to selective demographic variables. The sample consisted of 985 Palestinian adults, 58% of whom are women and 42% are men. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 50 years old (M = 35.8, SD =14.48), and they were chosen using convenience sampling from the Palestinian community living in Israel. Participants completed self-report questionnaires to report on their personal resources for coping with stress. Palestinian adults who participated in this study tended to rely more on faith in God, optimism, social and family support, having the self-control and self-efficacy, as well as subjective well-being, as resources for coping caused by crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, there were significant differences on these coping resources that attributed to selective demographic variables. The findings were discussed with relation to previous studies.

13.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-19, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035188

RESUMO

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a widespread psychiatric disorder. According to the transdiagnostic approach, death anxiety can underpin predominantly somatic manifestations of GAD. Personal resilience factors such as a sense of a meaningful life, and psychological hardiness, which can protect people from developing clinical symptoms, may be lower in individuals with GAD. So far, there has been no study examining the role of meaning in life dimensions, death anxiety, and hardiness in individuals with GAD in Turkey. Thus, we aimed to investigate to what extent the GAD sample differs from the non-anxious control group in terms of death anxiety, meaning in life dimensions, and hardiness. Secondly, we examined how conceptually predicted death anxiety by meaning in life dimensions and hardiness regardless of diagnosis, age, and gender. Just before the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic, we could only recruit 38 individuals with GAD and 31 non-anxious control subjects. The Death Anxiety Scale, The Meaning in Life Questionnaire and the Psychological Hardiness Scale were administered to all the participants. The one-way MANOVA results with Bonferroni adjustment revealed that individuals with GAD significantly differed from the control group in every way. Hierarchical regression analysis displayed that the presence of meaning made the most significant contribution in predicting death anxiety. In conclusion, existential issues such as death anxiety, hardiness, and meaningful life can be emphasized for the treatment of GAD, and the presence of meaning is the most crucial antidote to avoid death anxiety in all individuals.

14.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-7, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035190

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to determine the awareness of the Turkish society in COVID-19, and determine the anxiety stress levels. Research two months after the start of the outbreak in Turkey has reached 2163 individuals completed the online platform. The Integrated Anxiety Stress Scale significantly changed according to age, gender, marital status and working status after the pandemic. According to the results of multiple binary logistic regression analysis, individuals aged 50 and over, female gender, being single and not working after the pandemic for anxiety; female gender, being married, and post-pandemic study were found to be risk factors for Covid awareness. It is recommended that epidemic awareness studies and information sharing on controlled healing measures are planned considering the anxiety levels.

15.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035193

RESUMO

The present study aims to identify psychological factors affected by the COVID-19 pandemic given the information we have about reactions during previous pandemics, which documented features of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the relationship between health anxiety, symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, and coping mechanisms in the general population and among students. The study was conducted on Romanian population (n = 759), aged between 18-70 years old (M = 33.24), general population (n = 485), and students (n = 274). The results showed that the general population is more anxious when confronted with the new virus compared to students (t (757) = 1.902, p < .05, p = .029). Following the analysis of the hierarchical regression, the results revealed that when controlling the health anxiety variable, a high level of anxiety symptoms and stress, and a low level of depression symptoms could predict anxiety for COVID-19 (R 2 = .070, F change (3, 754) = 16.759, p ˂ .001). Also, we found that maladaptive strategies are the ones which explain the relationship between health anxiety and COVID-19-related anxiety (95% CI = .011 - .057). The results of this study bring extra knowledge and shed new light on the psychological aspects of the current sanitary crisis and contribute to the understanding of the way people relate to this disease.

16.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-16, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035200

RESUMO

With the record surge of positive cases in Southeast Asia, there is a need to examine the adverse mental effects of COVID-19 among the under-researched countries. This study aims to synthesize the extant literature reporting the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological outcomes of people in Southeast Asia, and its risk factors. A scoping review was adopted targeting articles published in PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus from January 2020 to March 30, 2021. Articles were screened using predetermined eligibility criteria, resulting in 26 papers. Elevated prevalence of adverse mental effects was noted in most of the countries as the pandemic progressed over time, with Malaysia and Philippines reporting higher prevalence rates. Mental decline was found to be more profound among the general population compared to healthcare workers and students. Dominant risk factors reported were age (younger), sex (females), education (higher), low coping skill and social/family support, and poor reliability in COVID-19 related information. Adverse mental effects were noted among population, healthcare workers and students in most of the Southeast Asian countries. Intervention and prevention efforts should be based at community-level and prioritize young adults, females, and individuals with dire financial constraints.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has been a big challenge for senior high school students in China who are facing tremendous pressure of the highly competitive College Entrance Examination. METHODS: To evaluate the psychological impact of the event in the population, we conducted an anonymous online survey among senior high school students in China between 26 Feb and 4 March, 2020. Information collected included demographic characteristics, attitude toward medical study, infection of COVID-19 in acquaintances, anxiety symptoms evaluated using the GAD-7, and health literacy level measured using the IDSHL. RESULTS: Of 21,085 participants, 3,575 (17.0%), 943 (4.5%) and 448 (2.1%) reported with mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. Female, higher academic year, worse self-evaluated academic performance, negative attitude toward medical study, living in Hubei province and having acquaintance infected with COVID-19 were significantly associated with anxiety level, while higher education level of mother and higher IDSHL score were associated with a lower risk. The score of IDSHL, particularly of the domain "infectious disease prevention", was associated with the GAD-7 score in a linear pattern (ß=-0.0371, p<0.01). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the cross-sectional study design unable to infer the casual relationship, anonymous survey, selection bias and self-reported anxiety disorder levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that COVID-19 outbreak may increase anxiety level in senior high school students in China. The anxiety related factors observed in this study may help to identify vulnerable individuals and develop interventions.

18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 147: 159-165, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038620

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted multiple domains of life including sleep. The present study used a longitudinal dataset (N = 671) and a person-centered analytic approach - latent profile analysis (LPA) - to elucidate the relationship between sleep and depression. We used LPA to identify profiles of sleep patterns assessed by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at the beginning of the study. The profiles were then used as a predictor of depression magnitude and variability over time. Three latent profiles were identified (medicated insomnia sleepers [MIS], inefficient sleepers [IS], and healthy sleepers [HS]). MIS exhibited the highest level of depression magnitude over time, followed by IS, followed by HS. A slightly different pattern emerged for the variability of depression: While MIS demonstrated significantly greater depression variability than both IS and HS, IS and HS did not differ in their variability of depression over time. Medicated insomnia sleepers exhibited both the greatest depression magnitude and variability than inefficient sleepers and healthy sleepers, while the latter two showed no difference in depression variability despite inefficient sleepers' greater depression magnitude than healthy sleepers. Clinical implications and limitations are discussed.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 41, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-focused psychotherapies for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans are efficacious, but there are many barriers to receiving treatment. The objective of this study was to determine if cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for PTSD among active duty military personnel and veterans would result in increased acceptability, fewer dropouts, and better outcomes when delivered In-Home or by Telehealth as compared to In-Office treatment. METHODS: The trial used an equipoise-stratified randomization design in which participants (N = 120) could decline none or any 1 arm of the study and were then randomized equally to 1 of the remaining arms. Therapists delivered CPT in 12 sessions lasting 60-min each. Self-reported PTSD symptoms on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) served as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Over half of the participants (57%) declined 1 treatment arm. Telehealth was the most acceptable and least often refused delivery format (17%), followed by In-Office (29%), and In-Home (54%); these differences were significant (p = 0.0008). Significant reductions in PTSD symptoms occurred with all treatment formats (p < .0001). Improvement on the PCL-5 was about twice as large in the In-Home (d = 2.1) and Telehealth (d = 2.0) formats than In-Office (d = 1.3); those differences were statistically large and significant (d = 0.8, 0.7 and p = 0.009, 0.014, respectively). There were no significant differences between In-Home and Telehealth outcomes (p = 0.77, d = -.08). Dropout from treatment was numerically lowest when therapy was delivered In-Home (25%) compared to Telehealth (34%) and In-Office (43%), but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: CPT delivered by telehealth is an efficient and effective treatment modality for PTSD, especially considering in-person restrictions resulting from COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02290847 (Registered 13/08/2014; First Posted Date 14/11/2014).

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057393, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use the digital story completion method to prompt participants to describe thoughts, fears and mental health experiences in response to a story stem about COVID-19, to capture a specific sociohistoric moment. DESIGN: We used digital story completion, a qualitative research method, to gather narratives from Australians coping with physical distancing and social restriction measures. Our reflexive thematic analysis of the data was underpinned by a constructionist approach to reflect the importance of social context in understanding health experiences. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 52 people living in Australia (aged 18 years and over). RESULTS: Four meta-themes were prevalent across 52 stories submitted: (1) expressions of mental distress linked to COVID-19; (2) various coping strategies offered by characters in stories; (3) narratives outlining social support offered to alleviate distress; and (4) specialised COVID-19 vocabulary. CONCLUSION: We cautiously propose that points of convergence across stories indicate a level of shared experience among participants relating to COVID-19 in Australia. We suggest this is due to intensive media coverage of the pandemic, persistent public health messaging, engagement with social media and instant messaging technologies, and extended lockdowns that impacted the mental health of vast numbers of Australians.

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