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1.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(2): 255-257, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941566

RESUMO

Bacterial peritonitis is a key complication of Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) and a preventable cause of withdrawal from PD treatment. Infection generally arises from contamination with skin commensals during handling of the dialysis delivery system or from translocation of gastrointestinal organisms and more rarely from an environmental organism. Herein, we report the case of a 73-year-old admitted for PD-related peritonitis due to Roseomonas gilardii with an associated environmental exposure from a domestic plumbing issue. We describe the presentation, case, and antibiotic regimen progression from empiric therapy of ceftazidime and vancomycin IP to ciprofloxacin. We acknowledge the importance of performing laboratory sensitivities given the high antibiotic resistance of the Roseomonas genus. We offer that nephrologists should consider Roseomonas as a potential causative organism of peritonitis, especially when initial or further history reveals exposure to potentially contaminated water.

2.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947079

RESUMO

Breast cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality in the female population. Despite the campaigns for early detection, the improvement in procedures and treatment, drastic improvement in survival rate is omitted. Discovery of aquaporins, at first described as cellular plumbing system, opened new insights in processes which contribute to cancer cell motility and proliferation. As we discover new pathways activated by aquaporins, the more we realize the complexity of biological processes and the necessity to fully understand the pathways affected by specific aquaporin in order to gain the desired outcome-remission of the disease. Among the 13 human aquaporins, AQP3 and AQP5 were shown to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer indicating their role in the development of this malignancy. Therefore, these two aquaporins will be discussed for their involvement in breast cancer development, regulation of oxidative stress and redox signalling pathways leading to possibly targeting them for new therapies.

3.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799845

RESUMO

Legionella is able to remain in water as free-living planktonic bacteria or to grow within biofilms that adhere to the pipes. It is also able to enter amoebas or to switch into a viable but not culturable (VBNC) state, which contributes to its resistance to harsh conditions and hinders its detection in water. Factors regulating Legionella growth, such as environmental conditions, type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, presence of protozoa, spatial location of microorganisms, metal plumbing components, and associated corrosion products are important for Legionella survival and growth. Finally, water treatment and distribution conditions may affect each of these factors. A deeper comprehension of Legionella interactions in water distribution systems with the environmental conditions is needed for better control of the colonization. To this purpose, the implementation of water management plans is the main prevention measure against Legionella. A water management program requires coordination among building managers, health care providers, and Public Health professionals. The review reports a comprehensive view of the state of the art and the promising perspectives of both monitoring and disinfection methods against Legionella in water, focusing on the main current challenges concerning the Public Health sector.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831024

RESUMO

We consider a proposed system that would place sensors in a number of wastewater manholes in a community in order to detect genetic remnants of SARS-Cov-2 found in the excreted stool of infected persons. These sensors would continually monitor the manhole's wastewater, and whenever virus remnants are detected, transmit an alert signal. In a recent paper, we described two new algorithms, each sequentially opening and testing successive manholes for genetic remnants, each algorithm homing in on a neighborhood where the infected person or persons are located. This paper extends that work in six important ways: (1) we introduce the concept of in-manhole sensors, as these sensors will reduce the number of manholes requiring on-site testing; (2) we present a realistic tree network depicting the topology of the sewer pipeline network; (3) for simulations, we present a method to create random tree networks exhibiting key attributes of a given community; (4) using the simulations, we empirically demonstrate that the mean and median number of manholes to be opened in a search follows a well-known logarithmic function; (5) we develop procedures for determining the number of sensors to deploy; (6) we formulate the sensor location problem as an integer nonlinear optimization and develop heuristics to solve it. Our sensor-manhole system, to be implemented, would require at least three additional steps in R&D: (a) an accurate, inexpensive and fast SARS-Cov-2 genetic-remnants test that can be done at the manhole; (b) design, test and manufacture of the sensors; (c) in-the-field testing and fine tuning of an implemented system.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos , Esgotos/virologia , Humanos
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 277, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861359

RESUMO

The moisture content of the municipal solid waste (MSW) is a physical characteristic that plays a fundamental role in the stability and settlement of landfills. However, this physical index is difficult to monitor within the mass of landfilled MSW because it undergoes great variation due, mainly, to the heterogeneity and biodegradation of the waste. Brazilian MSW generally has a large amount of organic matter, that when biodegraded, generates a considerable volume of gases and fluids, aggravated by climatic conditions, such as high rainfall and temperatures. Hence, the importance of obtaining and evaluating the distribution of moisture content in the MSW mass over time. Currently, the electrical resistivity properties have been presented as an interesting approach to obtain the moisture content in landfills indirectly. This study aimed to apply geoelectrical methods as a tool to obtain and evaluate the moisture content distribution in an experimental cell of a sanitary landfill using Archie's law, which correlates the volumetric moisture content and electrical resistivity. Moisture content values were obtained in laboratory tests with MSW samples collected in two vertical holes and electrical resistivity measurements by means of vertical electrical sounding. The moisture content and the resistivity values of the samples were used to calculate the parameters a and m of Archie's law. This allowed to convert the resistivity tomography to moisture content tomography. The good correlation achieved between the moisture content calculated by Archie's law and that obtained from samples indicates that the use of electrical resistivity methods is useful to assess and monitor quantitatively the moisture content in landfills using Archie's law.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 278, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861382

RESUMO

The municipal solid waste (MSW) dump in Boragaon, Guwahati, lies on the fringe areas of the wetland, Deepor Beel, which is a Ramsar site. The study was undertaken to analyze the impact the solid waste dump has on the adjoining wetland. Five sampling locations (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) in the wetland were selected within a distance of 3000 m from the MSW dump for the continuous monitoring of the surface water and sediment of the wetland. Nineteen physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, air and water temperature, total hardness, alkalinity, turbidity, DO, free CO2, TDS, BOD, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, PO43-, SO42-) were analysed in the surface water, and 7 physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, %OC, %N, PO43-, K+, Na+) were analysed in sediment. Heavy metals Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn and As were analysed in surface water and sediment samples. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) applied on the surface water data have aptly described the source of contamination in the study area to be from the adjoining MSW dump site. The surface spread of contamination from the MSW dump towards the wetland was evident from the regression equations drawn from the sediment data. The mean concentration of Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd and As in surface water exceeded the MPL (maximum permissible limit) of WHO 2011 (World Health Organization). The pollution load index (PLI) of sediment in the wetland shows that the study area is under the category of "progressive deterioration".


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 279, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864156

RESUMO

In this study, a pretreatment method based on the QuEChERS method has been applied for simultaneously extracting 27 residual pharmaceuticals from wastewater solids. The extracted compounds have been analyzed using online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A recovery test was conducted according to the absorbent type, and buffers were added in the sample extraction step. The highest recovery efficiency could be observed when Na2SO4 was used as an absorbent and Na2EDTA was injected during the extraction process; the recovery efficiencies of the proposed method for the target compounds ranged from 61.3 to 137.2%, and the repeatability was 6.8%. These recovery and repeatability data showed that the proposed method could reliably analyze the 27 target residual pharmaceuticals. The concentrations of the target compounds were all below the limits of quantification: 830 ng g-1 for the target compounds in suspended solids, 2353 ng g-1 in activated sludge, and 1929 ng g-1 in waste sludge. The analytical method established in this study can be applied to quantify residual pharmaceuticals in solid samples and to investigate their behaviors in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 331: 125023, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798857

RESUMO

Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with solid content greater than 20% and chicken manure was investigated using leach-bed reactors in the framework of Middle East and North African countries. The objectives of the experiments were to determine the optimal ratio of organic fraction, chicken manure and solid inoculum, to compare temperature conditions and usage of liquid inoculum or water in percolation process. The highest specific methane yield (SMY) (236 LN ∙ kg-1 VS) was received in the reactors with 20/80 organic fraction/solid inoculum ratio under thermophilic conditions with liquid inoculum percolation. Under the same conditions but mesophilic temperature, SMY dropped by 12%. Replacing liquid inoculum by water led to 172 LN ∙ kg-1 VS. Addition of chicken manure to the substrate mixture positively influences a start-up phase and keeps pH in optimal range 6.5-8, despite the high ammonia concentration.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Digestão , Esterco , Metano
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 331: 125048, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798861

RESUMO

Shrub landscaping waste, derived from afforestation of city, has increased annually, making it a promising feedstock for energy production. In this work, the photo-fermentation bio-hydrogen production potential from shrub landscaping waste was evaluated. Eight kinds of shrub landscaping wastes (Photinia fraseri, Buxus megistophylla, Buxus sinica, Pittosporum tobira, Sabina Chinensis, Berberis thunbergii, Ligustrum vicaryi and Ligustrum quihoui) were selected as substrate and the photo-fermentation bio-hydrogen production process of which was optimized. Buxus megistophylla was found to be the most suitable substrate for photo-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. Moreover, the initial pH value, temperature and substrate concentration had significant influence on photo-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The maximum cumulated hydrogen yield of Buxus megistophylla was 73.82 ± 0.06 mL/g TS under the optimal conditions of light intensity of 3000 Lux, substrate mass concentration of 21.49 g/L, temperature of 29.78 °C, inoculant amount of 25% and initial pH value of 6.78.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Reciclagem , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 331: 125049, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798862

RESUMO

This study aimed to isolate psychrotrophic cellulose-degrading fungi and to investigate their application potential for composting in cold climate regions in China. One out of five psychrotrophic cellulose-degrading fungal isolates was identified as a novel fungal species, Aureobasidium paleasum sp. nov., with a strong straw degradation potential. Enzyme activity assays and FITR spectroscopy revealed high cellulolytic activities of this psychrotrophic fungus at lower temperatures, with high thermal adaptability from 5 °C to 50 °C (optimum at 10 °C). A. paleasum efficiently decomposed rice straws and cellulose at 10 °C compared to the common cellulose-degrading fungus Penicillium oxalicum. In comparison to P. oxalicum, A. paleasum shortened the thermophilic stage, enhanced compost maturity and improved compost quality. Our work suggests that the psychrotrophic fungus A. paleasum is efficient for rice straw degradation and composting at low temperatures, highlighting its application potential for composting in colder regions.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Oryza , China , Fungos , Penicillium , Solo , Temperatura
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Brasil , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1633-1648, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843748

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are highly complicated and dynamic systems and so their appropriate operation, control, and accurate simulation are essential. The simulation of WWTPs according to the process complexity has become an important issue in growing environmental awareness. In recent decades, artificial intelligence approaches have been used as effective tools in order to investigate environmental engineering issues. In this study, the effluent quality of Tabriz WWTP was assessed using two intelligence models, namely support Vector Machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). In this regard, several models were developed based on influent variables and tested via SVM and ANN methods. Three time scales, daily, weekly, and monthly, were investigated in the modeling process. On the other hand, since applied methods were sensitive to input variables, the Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis method was used to investigate the best-applied model dependability. It was found that both models had an acceptable degree of uncertainty in modeling the effluent quality of Tabriz WWTP. Next, ensemble approaches were applied to improve the prediction performance of Tabriz WWTP. The obtained results comparison showed that the ensemble methods represented better efficiency than single approaches in predicting the performance of Tabriz WWTP.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Inteligência Artificial , Redes Neurais de Computação , Incerteza , Águas Residuárias
13.
Nature ; 592(7854): 392-396, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854250

RESUMO

The largest effusive basaltic eruptions are associated with caldera collapse and are manifest through quasi-periodic ground displacements and moderate-size earthquakes1-3, but the mechanism that governs their dynamics remains unclear. Here we provide a physical model that explains these processes, which accounts for both the quasi-periodic stick-slip collapse of the caldera roof and the long-term eruptive behaviour of the volcano. We show that it is the caldera collapse itself that sustains large effusive eruptions, and that triggering caldera collapse requires topography-generated pressures. The model is consistent with data from the 2018 Kilauea eruption and allows us to estimate the properties of the plumbing system of the volcano. The results reveal that two reservoirs were active during the eruption, and place constraints on their connectivity. According to the model, the Kilauea eruption stopped after slightly more than 60 per cent of its potential caldera collapse events, possibly owing to the presence of the second reservoir. Finally, we show that this physical framework is generally applicable to the largest instrumented caldera collapse eruptions of the past fifty years.

14.
Circulation ; 143(15): 1528-1532, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844583
15.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112307, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798774

RESUMO

During the last decade, water demand and wastewater generation has increased due to urbanization around the globe which had led to an increase in the utilization of chemicals/synthetic polymers for treating the wastewaters. These synthetic polymers used during the coagulation/flocculation process are non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and have a potential neurotoxic and carcinogenic effect. From the literature it is clear that extracellular polymer substance (EPS) is a potential bioflocculant, moreover it is renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly, non-toxic as well as economically valued product. The various identification techniques and extraction methods of EPS are elaborated. Further application of EPS as absorbent in removing the dye from the industrial effluent is presented. Moreover EPS as a potential adsorbent for heavy metal removal from the various effluent is discussed. In addition, EPS is also utilized for soil remediation and soil erosion control. Mainly, EPS as bioflocculant in treating raw water, wastewater treatment, leachate and sludge management are summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Purificação da Água , Floculação , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799750

RESUMO

The inadequate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in fast-developing nations is a major public health problem. Trash collection is often inconsistent, leaving residents to use unsafe disposal methods such as incineration or unregulated dumping. The issue is especially pronounced in marginalized communities, where public service provision is scarce. Past research has identified factors that perpetuate harmful disposal practices. The current study expanded on previous work by exploring how individuals' perceptions of political, spatial, and economic marginalization affected their agency with regards to waste management. Researchers focused on a marginalized community in the Dominican Republic known as Esfuerzo de Paraíso. There, they conducted semi-structured interviews to explore residents' perceptions of marginalization at the individual, interpersonal, community, and institutional levels, and its effects on their agency. A qualitative coding process revealed that most community members were discontent with their trash disposal practices, but that long-standing marginalization left them feeling ill equipped to generate change at the individual level. Interviewees believed that change should be initiated at the community level and implemented with the support of institutional-level actors, namely the municipal government. Residents did not identify any non-governmental organizations as possible sources of help, which may suggest a limited view of institutional support networks.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Atitude , República Dominicana , Humanos , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805459

RESUMO

Water management plans (WMPs), sometimes referred to as risk management plans (RMPs) or water safety plans (WSPs), are not mandatory for hotels in many countries of the world, including the US. As such, many hotel personnel are uninformed of WMPs and the precautions to take if their hotel water system is compromised. The purpose of this study was to identify hotel personnel's knowledge and practices of WMPs through a survey incorporating the Health Belief Model (HBM). Data were collected from 59 hotels within Fulton County, Georgia, USA, through a questionnaire, and questions were developed tailored to the HBM. Significant associations were found between the perceived susceptibility of contracting a waterborne illness and WMP for hotel personnel as well as between cues to action and having a WMP in general linear models (p ≤ 0.05). The study concludes that many key personnel are not aware of WMPs. Many hotel facilities do not have a plan in place, and some facilities are unaware of a current plan is in place. The study findings provide insight into the importance of WMPs and the risk factors associated with microbial contamination in a hotel building's plumbing system. Future research and potential law change should be emphasized to increase hotel employees' and owner's WMP knowledge.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Georgia , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806044

RESUMO

In reverse green supply chain, the mixed collection channel strategy of green remanufacturer is analyzed by building a dynamic game model in which we consider that the green remanufacturer undertakes the environmental responsibility and the green collector shows strong fairness concern for the profit. We analyze the impact of the environmental responsibility level of the green remanufacturer, the preference coefficient of the green remanufacturer, the fairness concern coefficient of the green collector, and the coefficient of cross collection price on optimal decision and profit of the green remanufacturer. The result shows that (1) the green remanufacturer can further improve the collection price, so that it makes many more customers participate in the collection activity; (2) the green remanufacturer pays more attention to fulfill the environmental responsibility, which will increase the intensity of collection of the waste green product, and improve the collection price, as the old green product's remanufacturing cost is lower than the production cost of the new product, and it can improve the green remanufacturer's profits; (3) the green remanufacturer's profit in the mixed collection channel is higher than those in online or offline collection channels.


Assuntos
Comércio , Reciclagem , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões
19.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112475, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823445

RESUMO

The necessity for landfill leachate treatment is a requisite to reduce the environmental impact related to municipal solid waste landfills and different aspects must be considered while deciding for an appropriate treatment process. For example, it was demonstrated that the landfill leachate stabilization in tropical regions is achieved right after its first year of operation, requiring technologies capable of treating leachates of a higher recalcitrant character if compared to those leachates from temperate regions and same landfill age. In view of its complexity and variability, stand-alone processes (either biological or physicochemical) are often ineffective in attaining the threshold values for its discharge in receiving bodies. Due to that fact, full-scale facilities have adopted integrated routes, harvesting the benefits of both biological and physicochemical processes. The implementation of membrane bioreactors followed by polishing membrane separation process (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) seems to be a trend in leachate treatment by full-scale treatment plants. This technology is widely employed in China, European countries, and tropical countries as Brazil, generally with a treatment cost lower than the costs related to its disposal in domestic effluent collection systems. From the technologies already employed by full-scale facilities, four integrated routes were proposed for a sensitive analysis considering the treatment of a landfill leachate of different physicochemical characteristics. From all routes, those employing the membrane separation process as a polishing step had a better efficacy in attaining the threshold values for leachate disposal, being that an interesting alternative for leachate polishing by full-scale facilities.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Brasil , China , Europa (Continente) , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 301, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895899

RESUMO

The eco-efficiency evaluation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is used to know and improve the environmental and economic efficiency of these processes, systems, products, and services. The eco-efficiency evaluations in WWTP contemplate the inputs to be minimized, the desirable results to be maximized, and the undesired results to be minimized. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a widely used method to evaluate the eco-efficiency of WWTPs; integrating several approaches in a single index, traditional DEA models do not take into account the uncertainty in the data. This study evaluates the eco-efficiency of a sample of Catalan WWTPs, considering the uncertainty of the data (DEA tolerance model), and it is for the first time that together with CO2, other greenhouse gas (GHG) such as CH4 and N2O are considered as part of the process outputs. GHG emissions were quantified using methods reported in the literature. Seven hundred twenty-nine eco-efficiency scores were estimated for each WWTP instead of a single score like conventional DEA models, analyzing optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The WWTPs were classified according to the estimated eco-efficiency scores, accounting for the uncertainty in each of the scenarios, and demonstrating the changes in the performance of the WWTPs in the different scenarios. Only two WWTPs were eco-efficient in all the scenarios evaluated. This approach provides essential information to improve efficiency and innovation in the wastewater sector.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
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