Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 989
Filtrar
1.
Polymers (Basel) ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679313

RESUMO

Due to the environmental problems generated by petroleum derivative polymers as mentioned in Agenda 2030, the use of natural polymers is increasing. Among them, cellulose and chitin are the most widespread biopolymers available in nature. Chitosan, obtained from chitin, is a really good candidate to develop nanocarriers due to its polyelectrolyte nature and ease of chemical modification. However, chitosan presents a solubility drawback in an aqueous medium at physiological pH (pH = 7.4), which restricts its applicability in biomedicine. In this work, nanogels were successfully synthesized from chitosan systems with different water solubilities (chitosan, oligosaccharide chitosan, and quaternized chitosan) using the reverse microemulsion method and polyethylene glycol diacid (PEGBCOOH) as a covalent cross-linking agent. Cross-linking with PEGBCOOH was analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), which allowed for nanogels to be prepared whose size and swelling were comparatively studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential, respectively. The particle size of the swollen nanogels showed a different pH-responsive behavior that decreased for chitosan, increased for oligosaccharide chitosan, and remained constant for quaternized chitosan. Nevertheless, a drastic reduction was observed in all cases in the culture medium. Along the same line, the dispersibility of the synthesized nanogels in different media was comparatively evaluated, showing similar values for the nanogels prepared from soluble chitosans than for water insoluble chitosan as a consequence of the cross-linking with PEGBCOOH. After 6 months of storage of the dried nanogels, the water dispersibility values remained constant in all cases, demonstrating the stabilizing effect of the employed cross-linking agent and the potential use of synthesized nanogels as substrates for drug delivery.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 869: 161664, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681337

RESUMO

The widespread adoption of nuclear energy has increased the amount of radioactive cesium (Cs) that is discharged into waste streams, which can have environmental risks. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive summary of current advances in aqueous Cs removal by employing a bibliometric analysis. We collected 1580 articles related to aqueous Cs treatment that were published on the Web of Science database between 2012 and 2022. By applying bibliometric analysis combined with network analysis, we revealed the research distribution, knowledge base, research hotspots, and cutting-edge technologies in the field of aqueous Cs removal. Our findings indicate that China, Japan, and South Korea are the most productive countries with respect to Cs removal research. In addition, both historic events and environmental threats might have contributed to research in Asian countries having a higher focus on Cs removal as well as strong international cooperation between Asian countries. A detailed keyword analysis reveals the main knowledge base for aqueous Cs removal and highlights the potential of the adsorption-based method for treating Cs contamination. Furthermore, the results reveal that exploration of functional materials is a popular research topic in the field of Cs removal. Since 2012, novel materials, including Prussian blue, graphene oxide, hydrogel and nanocomposites, have been widely investigated because of their high capacity for Cs removal. On the basis of the detailed information, we report the latest research trends on aqueous Cs removal, and propose future research directions and describe the challenges related to effective Cs treatment. This scientometric review provides insights into current research hotspots and cutting-edge trends in addition to contributing to the development of this crucial research field.

3.
J Water Health ; 21(1): 47-65, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705497

RESUMO

This study evaluated the experience of implementing water safety plans (WSPs) in Vietnam. WSPs were introduced in Vietnam by the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the Ministry of Construction in 2006 and have been a mandatory requirement for municipal water supplies since 2012. Using a mixed-methods approach, we collected data on the perceived benefits and challenges of WSP implementation from 23 provincial water companies between August and November 2021. Potential public health benefits of improved water quality were a key motivation; 87% of the water utilities were also motivated by the risk of climate change and prepared response plans to climate-related extreme events as part of WSPs. A decrease in E. coli and an improvement in disinfectant residual in treated water were reported by 61 and 83% of the water supplies, respectively. Sixty-five percent of the water supplies also reported improved revenue and cost recovery. Key barriers to WSP implementation were a lack of WSP guidance suitable for the local context (87%) and insufficient funds for WSP implementation (43%). Our study highlights the need for improved support and capacity building along with locally suited guidance on WSP implementation and audit.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Abastecimento de Água , Vietnã , Qualidade da Água , Saúde Pública
4.
Chemosphere ; 314: 137678, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586446

RESUMO

Desulfurization wastewater in coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is a great environmental challenge. This study aimed at the current status and future research trends of desulfurization wastewater by bibliometric analysis. The desulfurization wastewater featured with high sulfate (8000 mg/L), chlorite (8505 mg/L), magnesium (2882 mg/L) and calcium (969 mg/L) but low sodium (801.82 mg/L), and the concentrations of the main contaminants were critically summarized. There was an increasing trend in the annual publications of desulfurization wastewater in the period from 1991 to 2021, with an average growth rate of 15%. Water Science and Technology, Desalination and Water Treatment, Energy & Fuels, Chemosphere, and Journal of Hazardous Materials are the top 5 journals in this field. China was the most productive country (58.3% of global output) and the core country in the international cooperation network. Wordcloud analysis and keyword topic trend demonstrated that removal/treatment of pollutants dominated the global research in the field of desulfurization wastewater. The primary technologies for desulfurization wastewater treatment were systematically evaluated. The physicochemical treatment technologies occupied half of the total treatment methods, while membrane-based integrated processes showed potential applications for beneficial reuse. The challenges and outlook on desulfurization wastewater treatment for achieving zero liquid discharge are summarized.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Bibliometria , Purificação da Água/métodos , Sulfatos , China
5.
Environ Manage ; 2022 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571621

RESUMO

This paper aims to examine the stakeholders' interaction in the water management system at the R'Dom Sub-basin (Morocco). For this purpose, The MACTOR participatory approach was implemented to involve all key water stakeholders and to analyze their interactions. The action system was characterized by the analysis of related water issues and relevant actors on the ground. Thus, ten actors and twelve objectives were identified and assessed in this study. The analysis of stakeholder role allowed to identify the typology of stakeholders according to their strategic objectives and to evaluate their power, influence and dependence, as well as their convergence in a global water cycle management. The results show a significant level of convergence among stakeholders, despite the existence of certain stakeholders who may be considered autonomous, given their low involvement in integrated water management. Furthermore, there was a limited involvement of stakeholders in certain strategic objectives such as capacity building, technical means, and awareness-raising actions. The paper shows the need to generate greater collaborative efforts among water stakeholders involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management in the R'Dom sub-basin.

6.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22283296

RESUMO

BackgroundDespite the public health significance of healthcare Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) service in reduction of nosocomial infection and improving quality of care is paramount little is known on the status of WASH service in a health care facility at the time of pandemic and the barriers that hinder the service in the health care setting in Ethiopia. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess status of basic water, sanitation, hand hygiene, healthcare waste management, and environmental cleanliness service and its barriers at public health care facilities in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2022. MethodsConvergent parallel mixed design was conducted among 86 public health care facilities located in Addis Ababa city. Stratified sampling technique was used to select health care facilities. A semi-structured observational checklist tool was used to measure the availability of services. For the qualitative study, semi-structured interview was conducted among 16 key informants and thematic data analysis was done to identify the barriers. FindingThis study found that no one healthcare facility had basic access to overall WASH services. The independent WASH domain analysis showed that, about 86% healthcare facilities had basic water access, 100% had limited sanitation access, 88.4% had limited hand hygiene service, 69.8% had limited healthcare waste management service, and 97.7% had limited environmental cleaning service. Built environments of WASH infrastructure; Resource availability and allocation; leadership and stakeholder participation; inadequate training and poor behaviour; and legal issues were identified barriers to provision of basic healthcare WASH services. Conclusion and recommendationThe availability of healthcare WASH services in Addis Ababa city remains far from the pace to achieve the sustainable goal target by 2025. The limited access to WASH services makes worsening the prevention and control of COVID-19 pandemics, healthcare acquired infection in the facility. The country need to act now on more financial investment, capacity building, facilitating committed leadership, and participation of stakeholders to ensuring basic WASH services at healthcare setting.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2142, 2022 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clean water and sanitation are global public health issues. Safe drinking water and sanitation are essential, especially for children, to prevent acute and chronic illness death and sustain a healthy life. The UN General Assembly announced the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets for the 2030 Agenda on 25 September 2015. SDG 6 is very important because it affects other SDG (1, 2,3,5,11,14 and 15). The present study deals with the national and state-wise analysis of the current status and to access deficiency of India's achievement towards SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation for all) for the 2030 agenda based on targets 6.1, 6.2,6.4,6.6 from 2012 to 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of different indicators of SDG 6 are collected from different secondary sources-NSS 69th (2012) and 76th (2018) round; CGWB annual report 2016-2017 and 2018-2019; NARSS (2019-2020); SBM-Grameen (2020). To understand overall achievement towards SDG 6 in the 2030 agenda, the goal score (arithmetic mean of normalised value) has been calculated. MAJOR FINDINGS: According to NSS data, 88.7% of Indian households had enough drinking water from primary drinking water sources throughout the year, while 79.8% of households had access to toilet facilities in 2018. As per the 2019-2021 goal score for States and UTs in rural India based on SDG 6 indicator, SDG 6 achiever States and UTs (100%) are Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. CONCLUSION: Drinking water and sanitation for all ensure a healthy life. It is a matter of concern for the government, policymakers, and people to improve the condition where the goal score and indicator value of SDG 6 are low.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saneamento , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Abastecimento de Água , Características da Família
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(59): 88383-88409, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327066

RESUMO

For millennium, mining sector is a source not only of mineral extraction for industrialization, economic expansion, and urban sprawling, but also of socio-environmental concern. It, therefore, has been the central attention of the business and public policy sustainable development scheme for several years. Thus, gradually, mining industries are getting involved with the concerns such as carbon emissions mitigation and carbon accounting to govern a rhetorical shift towards "sustainable mining". However, there is scarce knowledge about how the emergence of a "green and self-sustaining" forestry reclamation strategy coupled with potential carbon sequestration capacity in degraded mining areas will be an impeccable option for achieving sustainable development goal-13 (SDG-13: climate action) and ecosystem services during United Nation decade of ecosystem restoration. This paper reviews the extent to which reforestation and sustainable land management practices that employed to enhance ecosystem carbon pool and atmospheric CO2 sequestration capacity to offset CO2 emission and SOC (soil organic carbon) losses, as consequences of coal mining, to partially mitigate global climate crisis. Moreover, future research is required on mining innovation concepts and its challenges for designing an SDG impact framework, so that it not only synergies amongst SDGs, but also trade-offs between each individual "politically legitimized post-2015 development agenda" (i.e. UNSDGs) could be depicted in a systematic way. In a developing country like India, it is also an utmost need to assess the environmental impact and economic performance of such technological innovation and its possible synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Ecossistema , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Solo , Nações Unidas
9.
Adv Mar Biol ; 93: 117-145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435591

RESUMO

As a common concern of humankind, the governance of coastal and marine ecosystems is increasingly coming to the fore of the international community as part of the joint response to climate change. Since the signing of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea several decades ago, the international community has been exploring how international law can be improved in this respect. At present, the governance and international law of coastal and marine ecosystems in response to climate change are studied from theoretical and methodological perspectives. Extensive empirical studies help pinpoint specific issues related to each topic and provide valuable empirical references for both developed and developing countries. Based on social science publications, the authors use technical means to visualize research related to this topic, and conduct comprehensive reviews of these papers. They reveal that research based on these topics started late and is characterized by fragmentation. The research potential related to mentioned topic has yet to be explored extensively.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Humanos , Direito Internacional , Ciências Sociais , Cooperação Internacional
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429451

RESUMO

As an informal environmental regulation, public participation plays a vital role in the multi-governance environmental system. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs the game models of government enterprise, public enterprise and government public enterprise, and analyzes the impact of different intensity of government behavior and public participation on enterprise behavior strategies. The results show that: (1) In the two-party evolutionary game, the behavior of each stakeholder is related to its costs and benefits. Still, effective public participation allows the enterprise to choose legal discharge, even if the benefits of legal discharge are smaller than illegal discharge. (2) In the three-party evolutionary game, the steady-state conditions of government and the public are the same as those in two-party evolutionary game models. However, the decision-making behavior of enterprises also needed to consider the impact of public whistle-blowing on their reputation and image. (3) With the increase of the government's ecological protection publicity, subsidies, fines, public concern, and whistle-blowing, the evolution speed of the enterprise towards legal discharge is faster.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Governo , Custos e Análise de Custo , Água
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205866

RESUMO

Land use changes have a considerable impact on ecosystem services (ESs). In recent years, land use changes caused by urban expansion in Nanjing City have been obvious and are expected to further change in the future. Therefore, it is urgent to quantitatively assess ecosystem service value (ESV) changes caused by previous land use changes and future potential changes in Nanjing. In this study, land use data products based on remote sensing images, Dyna-CLUE model, and the ESV equivalent coefficient method were applied to assess the impact of land use changes on ESVs in Nanjing City over the past 23 years (1995-2018), and to forecast the changes of ESV in 2030. The results indicated that the total ESVs of Nanjing City displayed a trend of first increasing and then declining in 1995-2018. From the land use classification, the water area had the largest ESV in Nanjing, followed by arable land. Additionally, the regulating service value was the highest among the four primary ESs in Nanjing from 1995 to 2030, with the highest value of 13.73 billion yuan in 2015. Among the three forecast scenarios, the ecological protection scenario had the highest total ESV and was followed by the urban expansion and business as usual scenarios. These findings may assist for the scientific decision-making of sustainable land use and ecosystem management in Nanjing City.

12.
Biol Res Nurs ; : 10998004221132843, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gout is triggered by high urate levels and causes inflammation, pain, and an impaired quality of life. Immersion in water at 20-30°C reduces inflammation and pain in arthritis. Yet, relationships of immersion in water at 20-30°C with urate levels and the nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1) inflammasome have never been clarified. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of immersion in water at 20-30°C on urate levels, the NLRP1 inflammasome, pain, and quality of life among acute gout patients. METHODS: A community-based randomized control trial design was used with 2 parallel-intervention groups: immersion in water at 20-30°C (20 min/day for 4 weeks) group and a control group. In total, 76 eligible participants in Tomohon City, Indonesia, were assigned using block randomization. We analyze the results (coef. ß) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a generalized estimating equation model. We analyzed mediating effects using a path analysis. RESULTS: Significant pain alleviation (ß = -2.06 [95% CI = -2.67∼-1.45]; ß = -2.42 [95% CI = -2.97∼-1.87]) and improved quality of life (ß = 5.34 [95% CI = 3.12-7.57]; ß = 9.93 [95% CI = 7.02-12.83]) were detected at 2 and 4 weeks of follow-up compared to the pre-test and control group. Urate levels (ß = -0.34 [95% CI = -0.52∼-0.16]) were reduced at the 2-week follow-up, but there was no significant change in the NLRP1 inflammasome compared to the pre-test and control group after immersion in water at 20-30°C. Both the NLRP1 inflammasome (ß = -0.48 [95% CI = -0.63∼-0.34]); water 0.01) and urate levels (ß = -0.11 [95% CI = -0.24∼-0.03]; p < 0.01) had partial indirect (mediating) effects on the link between immersion in water at 20-30°C and pain at the 4-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Immersion in water at 20-30°C significantly decreased pain and increased the quality of life. Immersion in water at 20-30°C mediated NLRP1 and urate levels to decrease pain, although it had no significant effect on the NLRP1 inflammasome concentration after 4 weeks of follow-up and reduced urate levels only at 2 weeks after immersion in water at 20-30°C.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078845

RESUMO

Although an enormous amount of aid has been invested in water and sanitation, few studies have analyzed the criteria used by the international community to select recipient countries and allocate official development assistance (ODA). We examined whether ODA has been allocated in proportion to water and sanitation needs and whether this has improved over the past 18 years. For water, 141 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and least-developed countries (LDCs) were selected, whereas 104 LMICs and LDCs were chosen for sanitation due to a lack of data. For aid disbursement, we used ODA data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments (OECD) Creditor Reporting System (CRS) from 2002 to 2019. OECD CRS data on water and sanitation are available from 2002 onward. For water and sanitation coverage, we collected data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program from 2002 to 2019. We examined annual ODA trends and performed linear regression analysis adjusted for GNI per capita using log-transformed dependent variables. Neither total ODA nor ODA per capita was found to be associated with countries' needs for water and sanitation. For instance, no significant association was detected between at least basic water and sanitation coverage and total ODA per capita in 2019 (log coefficient: 0.002, p = 0.52). The global community needs to determine the reasons for and means of addressing this discrepancy.


Assuntos
Cooperação Internacional , Saneamento , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Água
14.
Sustain Sci ; 17(4): 1605-1618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919260

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nation's Agenda 2030 are formulated to promote the development of integrated, multisectoral policies that explicitly consider linkages across SDGs. Although multiple recent studies have tried to identify linkages across SDGs, the role of contextual factors in identifying SDG linkages is neither well described nor understood. For the case of SDG 2 and SDG 6, this study aims to (i) identify linkages-at country and SDG target level-through the application of various quantitative and qualitative identification methods, and (ii) explore contextual factors to explain the differences across identified linkages. Hereto, we first conducted a text analysis of 195 Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) reported by 159 countries from 2016 to 2020. Next, we synthesized linkages reported by previous qualitative studies and conducted a quantitative (correlation) analysis on the UN's SDG database. Last, we compared identified linkages across methods, paying special attention to the role of context. From the text analysis, we identified 221 country-specific linkages between 25 SDG target pairs and observed that countries increasingly report SDG linkages in their VNRs over time. Comparing text analysis, existing qualitative studies, and our quantitative correlation analysis, we found substantial differences between the number and nature of linkages identified. These differences can be explained in part by methodological considerations, but to a significant extent also by contextual factors, such as project design, technology application, phase of interventions, and project scale. We conclude by discussing the strengths and limitations of the methods involved, and suggestions for future studies. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11625-022-01158-3.

15.
Environ Manage ; 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962818

RESUMO

Collaborative governance has been viewed as an effective approach to solve the problem of environmental pollution. Recently, while some scholars have advanced the integral role of hierarchical interventions in collaborative processes and outcomes, less attention has been paid to the long-term evolution of hierarchical interventions through the lifecycle of collaboration. Based on the case study of water collaborations along the Maxi River in the Yangtze Delta region since 2001, this paper investigates the empirical evolution and influencing mechanisms of hierarchical interventions, primarily hands-off and hands-on interventions, at different collaboration development stages. The results show that collaborations along the Maxi River have experienced stages of activation, collectivity and institutionalization in the past twenty years, wherein the quality and extent of the collaborative dynamics have gradually enhanced. Hierarchical interventions are found to be context-specific, though both hands-off and hands-on intervention tools have potential to exert positive influence on the three collaborative dynamics (principled engagement, shared motivation and capacity building). Hands-on strategies, namely the superiors' direct participation or support, are of great importance in the initial stage when stakeholders have conflicts of interests/values or failed past experiences. As the collaborative process matures, the superordinate governments would usually adopt hands-off tools to provide an institutional framework and a legitimate basis, thereby fostering participants' interdependence and self-initiated motivations. Additionally, in Chinese context, hands-off tools tend to take more powerful effects than hands-on tools in the long term.

16.
Heliyon ; 8(8): e10126, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016521

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of soil and water conservation practices on crop income in the Tembaro district, Kembata Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia. We selected 236 households using stratified sampling. For this study, we collected primary data through structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, and interviews with key informants. Propensity score matching was used to investigate the impacts of soil conservation initiatives on agricultural income. Age, distance from the farmer's training center, total land size, extension contact, and training all influence participation in soil and water conservation practices. ATE revealed that crop income differed positively between the control and treatment groups. The total household income increased by 422 ETB as a result of participation in the program. This demonstrates the importance of soil and water conservation for boosting crop income. As a result, governmental and non-governmental development partners should invest in farmer capacity building through extension and training to achieve soil and water conservation goals while simultaneously addressing the livelihood issues of resource-dependent local farmers.

17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900978

RESUMO

The social network is a network of virtual relationships that can facilitate the development of a new society in which everyone can use online communication effectively. This article investigates and identifies the fundamental influences on the social network system, as well as the online behavior of the community users. This study was designed by any social network to help improve efficiency and offer people with services that match the needs of their communities. Furthermore, it increases participation in the equitable distribution of social benefits. This study investigates the critical factors that impact a community's view of community water user participation. The researcher sent a questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale to 1,000 community water customers and collected 627 valid replies. Data from 14 villages were sampled using a simple random sampling strategy to acquire the data. Subsequently, descriptive statistics are used to describe the data (frequency distributions, percentages, averages, medians, and standard deviation). Furthermore, PLS-SEM was used to examine the relationships between factors and to launch the conceptual model using PLS route modeling. This study reveals that digital technologies are crucial to increasing the expectations and happiness of the community through social networks. Multiple causes contribute to its expansion. In addition, this research provides an outstanding case study technique based on TAM and ECT to assess people's social networking and community participation habits. Additionally, community water providers participate in social networks by certifying that their expectations are met.


Assuntos
Apoio Social , Água , Comunicação , Participação da Comunidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Rede Social
18.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9056476, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719855

RESUMO

Illicit drug abuse and addiction are universal issues requiring international cooperation and interdisciplinary and multisectoral solutions. These addictive substances are utilized for recreational purposes worldwide, including in sub-Saharan Africa. On the other hand, conventional wastewater treatment facilities such as waste stabilization ponds lack the design to remove the most recent classes of pollutants such as illicit drug abuse. As a result, effluents from these treatment schemes contaminate the entire ecosystem. Public health officials are concerned about detecting these pollutants at alarming levels in some countries, with potential undesirable effects on aquatic species and increased health hazards through exposure to contaminated waters or recycling treated or untreated effluents in agriculture. Contaminants including illicit substances enter the environment by human excreta following illegal intake, spills, or through direct dumping, such as from clandestine laboratories, when their manufacturer does not follow accepted production processes. These substances, like other pharmaceuticals, have biological activity and range from pseudopersistent to highly persistent compounds; hence, they persist in the environment while causing harm to the ecosystem. The presence of powerful pharmacological agents such as cocaine, morphine, and amphetamine in water as complex combinations can impair aquatic organisms and human health. These compounds can harm human beings and ecosystem health apart from their low environmental levels. Therefore, this article examines the presence and levels of illicit substances in ecological compartments such as wastewater, surface and ground waters in sub-Saharan Africa, and their latent impact on the ecosystem. The information on the occurrences of illicit drugs and their metabolic products in the sub-Saharan Africa environment and their contribution to pharmaceutical load is missing. In this case, it is important to research further the presence, levels, distribution, and environmental risks of exposure to human beings and the entire ecosystem.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Drogas Ilícitas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , África ao Sul do Saara , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 238: 113626, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561547

RESUMO

Sustainable industrial development requires research on pollution control in industrial wastewater, particularly sulfate-rich wastewater, which poses a threat to the environment. This article differs from the previous sulfate wastewater treatment process and equipment review. Based on the quantitative analysis, this paper has determined some characteristics of the related literature on the pollution control technology of high-concentration sulfate wastewater to help researchers establish future research directions. From 1991-2020, the WoS database published 9473 articles related to high-concentration sulfate wastewater treatment technology. We used bibliometric analysis combined with social network analysis and s-curve technical analysis in this research. The United States was the first to start this type of research, Australia has insightful and instructive research articles in this area, and China is the most active in international cooperation. The keywords that appear most frequently in the dataset are degradation, adsorption, oxidation, reduction, and recovery. By S-curve fitting, it is known that biological treatment methods are closer to the maturity stage than physical and chemical treatment methods.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Bibliometria , Sulfatos , Tecnologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09419, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600434

RESUMO

Household drinking water quality is dependent on a number of determinants which could be arising at the source, during transportation or due to storage and handling practices. The challenge of unsafe water is even big in urban settings that are often characterized by exponential population growth, increased urbanization, industrialization and poor sanitary facilities. Contaminated water is a leading cause of water borne diseases which are a major public health and policy makers concern. In fact, Water borne diseases are third cause of mortality in Kenya whereas they are ranked second in Kisii. The study was designed to investigate the factors affecting household drinking water quality in Kisii Town that has four main zones which include: Mwembe, Jogoo, Nyanchwa and CBD. Demographics, level of awareness in terms of water quality as well as hygiene and sanitation practices of the study population were studied using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled by interviewing household heads from 422 sampled households. Qualitative data was also obtained by use of Focused group discussions (FGDs). Perspectives of key people such as public health officers were acquired through Key informant interviews (KIIs). The study found a significant relationship between household size and water quality in terms of presence of total coliforms. The following hygiene and sanitation factors were found to be having significant relationship with presence of E. coli in household drinking water; source of water (p = 0.002), transportation container (p = 0.029), covering during transportation (p = 0.012), storage container (p < 0.001), method of drawing from storage container (p < 0.001), feces disposal (p = 0.001) and garbage disposal method (p = 0.04). The conclusion of this study is that good hygiene and sanitation practices are important in ensuring total safety of drinking water at the point of use. There is therefore need for more capacity building in this region to ensure that people do not consume contaminated water which is a major contributing factor to water-borne diseases.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...