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1.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268803

RESUMO

BackgroundDue to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the planet is going through a historical time of exceptional concern and uncertainty, which impacts peoples mental health. Here, we explored the levels of depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and their relation with the degree of physical activity and social interaction during the pandemic. MethodsWe performed a structured survey containing the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 tests to evaluate depressive symptoms and GAD levels. We also asked about weekly physical activity and the level of social interaction. We surveyed two groups of University students in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: an internal group from the Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires (ITBA), and an external group of students from multiple universities. The survey was conducted in late October/early-November 2020, after a peak of contagions. Some of the participants were surveyed again in January 2021, during academic holidays and after a valley of contagion, for longitudinal analysis ResultsOur data show that men and women of both groups exhibited a significant positive linear correlation between depression and GAD levels. Moreover, low levels of depression and anxiety were associated with performing physical activity for more than two days a week and to longer periods of social interaction. Finally, the second survey revealed a decrease of the symptoms. ConclusionsOur results suggest that performing regular physical activity and avoiding long periods of social isolation gave benefits to mental health. We suggest that public policies could consider protecting these behaviors under health and safety standards.

2.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-476194

RESUMO

In July 2021, sixteen months into the Covid-19 pandemic, the institutional climate for PhD training in the School of Medicine was assessed for a second time. This survey of graduate students occurred 1 year after initial surveys of graduate students and training faculty in July 2020. The 2021 survey was completed by 99 PhD students in 11 PhD-granting programs. To allow comparisons between years, most of the 2021 questions were repeated with only minor edits. A few items were added to assess impacts of school-wide town hall meetings, a new PhD career club program, and enlarged mental health services. Several themes emerged. Students remain extremely concerned about the pandemics impact upon their training and long-term career prospects. They worry specifically about pandemic related reductions in research productivity and networking opportunities. Many students successfully adapted to laboratory research under pandemic restrictions but suffer from the continuing lack of social interaction even after in-person work hours increased. Symptoms of anxiety and/or depression persist amongst 46% of the students, as compared to 51% in 2020. Nearly 80% of students continue to report strong satisfaction with mentoring relationships with their dissertation advisors, but to lesser extents with programs (66%), departments or centers (71%), the School of Medicine (32%) and the University (49%). Students (26%) express interest in the Ombuds office that was announced in late 2021. Some students wrote that the medical school could do a better job in embracing diversity and inclusion and in mentor training, and many stated that town hall meetings do not serve them well. Coping mechanisms shared by some students demonstrate impressive resilience. These results present a mixed picture. While aspects of biomedical PhD training have begun to recover as the pandemic continues, long-term consequences of the disruption raise challenges that must be addressed by efforts to restore and improve the learning environment required for 21st century research education.

3.
Preprint em Inglês | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-475246

RESUMO

In July 2020, four months into the disruption of normal life caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, we assessed the institutional climate within the School of Medicine. Voluntary surveys were completed by 135 graduate students in 11 PhD-granting programs and by 83 members of the graduate training faculty. Several themes emerged. PhD students work hard, but the number of hours spent on research-related activities has declined during the pandemic. The students are worried about the pandemics impact on their research productivity, consequent delays in their graduation, and diminished future job prospects. Many late stage PhD students feel they do not have adequate time or resources to plan for their future careers. Symptoms of anxiety and/or depression are prevalent in 51% of the students, based on answers to standardized questions. Most students report they have strong mentoring relationships with their faculty advisors and like their programs, but they identify to a lesser extent with the medical school as a whole. Faculty think highly of their graduate students and are also worried about the pandemics impact upon productivity and the welfare of students. Students are interested in access to an Ombuds office, which is currently being organized by the medical school. Moving forward, the school needs to address issues of bias, faculty diversity, support for mentor training, professional development, and the imposter syndrome. We must also work to create a climate in which many more graduate students feel that they are valued members of the academic medicine community.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 301: 260-267, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has been a big challenge for senior high school students in China who are facing tremendous pressure of the highly competitive College Entrance Examination. METHODS: To evaluate the psychological impact of the event in the population, we conducted an anonymous online survey among senior high school students in China between 26 Feb and 4 March, 2020. Information collected included demographic characteristics, attitude toward medical study, infection of COVID-19 in acquaintances, anxiety symptoms evaluated using the GAD-7, and health literacy level measured using the IDSHL. RESULTS: Of 21,085 participants, 3,575 (17.0%), 943 (4.5%) and 448 (2.1%) reported with mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. Female, higher academic year, worse self-evaluated academic performance, negative attitude toward medical study, living in Hubei province and having acquaintance infected with COVID-19 were significantly associated with anxiety level, while higher education level of mother and higher IDSHL score were associated with a lower risk. The score of IDSHL, particularly of the domain "infectious disease prevention", was associated with the GAD-7 score in a linear pattern (ß=-0.0371, p<0.01). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included the cross-sectional study design unable to infer the casual relationship, anonymous survey, selection bias and self-reported anxiety disorder levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that COVID-19 outbreak may increase anxiety level in senior high school students in China. The anxiety related factors observed in this study may help to identify vulnerable individuals and develop interventions.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 38, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The support of students' academic well-being is one of the main agendas of medical education. For medical students, well-being can help prevent burnout and provides students with grounds for their future healthcare setting. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of motivated strategies for learning in the relationship between formative assessment and academic well-being. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 391 undergraduate students of medical sciences selected by a convenient sampling method. The measuring instruments used in this study included motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (Pintrich and De Groot), classroom assessment approaches questionnaire (Yousefi Afrashteh et al.) and Academic well-being Questionnaire (Pietarinen et al.). In order to analyze the data, SPSS-26 software was used for descriptive statistics and correlation matrix, and LISREL-10.20 software was used to do path analysis and determine the relationships between variables within the model. RESULTS: Findings showed that formative assessment is a significant resource in shaping subscale of motivated strategies for learning (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, cognitive strategies and self-regulation). Moreover, the results demonstrated that the self-regulated learning strategies is a crucial determinant of academic well-being and is a mediator between formative assessment and academic well-being. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the important value and necessity of formative assessment in medical science classes which can indirectly lead to improve students' academic well-being.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 8, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical students are vulnerable to test anxiety (TA), which impacts their professional lives and jeopardizes the optimal health care of their patients. The qualitative exploration of TA among medical students is crucial to understanding the problem. Hence, this study examined medical students' insights into TA and their suggestions on how to reduce it. METHODS: We conducted a phenomenological study on medical students at a public university. We utilized focus group discussions (FGDs) to investigate their experiences of TA. The FGDs were transcribed verbatim, and these transcripts were analyzed using Atlas.ti software. The thematic analysis followed the recommended guidelines. RESULTS: Seven FGD sessions were conducted with 45 students. Three major themes emerged: the students, their academic resources, and the examiner. Each theme comprised mutually exclusive subthemes. The "students" theme was divided into negative vs. positive thoughts and self-negligence vs. self-care, "academic recources" into heavy curriculum vs. facilitative curricular aids, and "examiner" into criticism vs. feedback and strict vs. kind approaches. CONCLUSION: This study provides a solid foundation for policymakers and decision makers in medical education to improve current assessment practices and student well-being. Medical students will be able to significantly alter and reduce TA if they are provided with additional psychological support and their examiners are trained on how to deal with examinees.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ansiedade aos Exames
7.
School Ment Health ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003376

RESUMO

Schools are the most common venue in which children and youth receive mental health services. To organize delivery of mental health care to such a large number of children, use of school teams is often recommended. Yet, there is limited empirical literature about the composition of school mental health teams or teams' relations to service provision. This study investigated team composition, including team multidisciplinarity (number of different types of professionals) and the presence of a community provider, and the relations of these two variables to service provision at Tier 1 (mental health promotion), Tier 2 (early intervention) and Tier 3 (intensive treatment) for 386 schools representing different school sizes, locations, and urbanicity. Results suggested team multidisciplinarity and the presence of a community provider were related to more frequent endorsement of service provision at schools. Practice and research implications are discussed including possible application to hiring decisions and further research with longitudinal data and information on service quality. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12310-021-09493-z.

8.
SSM Popul Health ; 17: 100994, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005184

RESUMO

Background: Nearly one-third of secondary school students report experiencing depressive symptoms in the past year. Existing research suggests that increasing rates of depression are due in part to increasing income inequality. The aim of this study is to identify mechanisms by which income inequality contributes to depression among Canadian secondary school students. Methods: We used data from a large sample of Canadian secondary school students that participated in the 2017/18 wave of the Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol, Smoking, and Sedentary behaviour (COMPASS) study. The sample included 61,642 students across 43 Census divisions (CDs) in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. We used multilevel path analysis to determine if the relationship between CD-level income inequality and depression was mediated by student's psychosocial well-being and/or social cohesion. Results: Attending schools in CDs with higher income inequality was related to higher depression scores among Canadian secondary students [unstandardized ß (ß) = 5.36; 95% CI = 0.74, 9.99] and lower psychosocial well-being (ß = -14.83, 95% CI = -25.05, -4.60). Income inequality was not significantly associated with social cohesion, although social cohesion was associated with depression scores among students (ß = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.34, -0.28). Discussion: Findings from this study indicate that income inequality is associated with adolescent depression and that this relationship is mediated by psychosocial well-being. This study is the first of its kind in Canada to assess the mechanisms by which income inequality contributes to adolescent depression. These findings are applicable to school-level programs addressing mental health.

9.
SSM Popul Health ; 17: 101008, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005188

RESUMO

Objectives: Undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (UndocuAPI) comprise 25% of undocumented students. Yet few studies have examined UndocuAPI mental health in the context of the contradictory political environment which encompasses both inclusionary policies, such as Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), and exclusionary policies, like immigration enforcement. Methods: Using cross-sectional survey data collected in 2019 from UndocuAPI college students and recent alumni in California (n = 174), we used multiple logistic regression to estimate the effect of DACA status on clinical levels of depressive symptoms. We tested whether immigration enforcement experiences mediated this relationship using the Karlson, Holm, and Breen (KHB) method. Results: Adjusted logistic regression results revealed that UndocuAPI with DACA had significantly lower odds of depression (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.79). Out of five immigration enforcement factors, limited contact with friends and family (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.13) and fearing deportation most or all of the time (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.15, 11.34) were associated with significantly higher odds of depression. However, we did not detect a statistically significant mediation effect of immigration enforcement using KHB decomposition. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the benefits of DACA protected UndocuAPI in California from depressive symptoms, even when accounting for immigration enforcement experiences. Because it was unclear whether immigration enforcement mediates DACA, future research should investigate the underlying mechanisms between immigration policies and mental health with larger samples. Practitioners should consider the short-term need for mental health support and legal services for UndocuAPI students as well as the long-term goal to decriminalize immigrant communities to advance racial health equity.

10.
Am J Pharm Educ ; : 8917, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012944

RESUMO

Objective. This scoping review updates a 2018 review of suicide prevention (SP) training programs for community and student pharmacists. Five scholarly databases were searched for articles published between January 2018 and December 2020. Articles were excluded if they: 1) did not describe an educational or training program for pharmacists or student pharmacists; 2) did not explicitly include suicide; 3) focused solely on attitudes; or 4) did not provide sufficient detail to evaluate program content. The quality of each study was examined using a quality assessment tool.Findings. Seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most trainings (86%) were delivered live with interactive, or role play scenarios to promote verbal and behavioral skill practice. About half (57%) assessed changes in knowledge and fewer programs (29%) assessed changes in communication. All assessed the ability to identify suicide warning signs and included referral resources. Six studies were assessed for quality; 67% had a rating of good, and 33% were rated as fair.Summary. Given the increase in suicide rates nationally, it is likely that pharmacists will encounter a patient in need of suicide prevention services. Since 2018, seven new SP training programs for community and student pharmacists have been reported, which demonstrates growing interest in SP training in the pharmacy profession. When integrated in PharmD curricula, trainings may help prepare the pharmacy workforce for encounters with patients in crisis. The impact of training on self-efficacy and communication skills warrants additional attention. Variation between programs should be evaluated to understand which instructional methods best prepare pharmacy professionals to engage in suicide prevention.

11.
J Community Health ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013979

RESUMO

Youth experiencing homelessness experience violence victimization, substance use, suicide risk, and sexual risk disproportionately, compared with their stably housed peers. Yet few large-scale assessments of these differences among high school students exist. The youth risk behavior survey (YRBS) is conducted biennially among local, state, and nationally representative samples of U.S. high school students in grades 9-12. In 2019, 23 states and 11 local school districts included a measure for housing status on their YRBS questionnaire. The prevalence of homelessness was assessed among states and local sites, and relationships between housing status and violence victimization, substance use, suicide risk, and sexual risk behaviors were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with stably housed students, students experiencing homelessness were twice as likely to report misuse of prescription pain medicine, three times as likely to be threatened or injured with a weapon at school, and three times as likely to report attempting suicide. These findings indicate a need for intervention efforts to increase support, resources, and services for homeless youth.

13.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211068982, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991380

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND METHODS: We surveyed a large sample of health-related sciences undergraduate students at the Medical University of Gdansk (MUG), Poland in a pilot study to assess self-reported somatic/mental health-related issues, measure the level of burnout using Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), the presence of depressive symptoms with Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) and assess the problematic alcohol intake (CAGE questionnaire). Additionally, stress coping mechanisms were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 864 students participated in the survey. The mean total OLBI and PHQ-9 scores equalled 43.3 ± 2.7 and 11.3±5.8 points, respectively. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 21.6% of students. Three most prevalent stress coping mechanisms included TV binge-watching, binge-eating and cigarette chain smoking (51.0%, 45.0% and 28.0% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are required to confirm the obtained results, assess, and monitor trends and set-up interventions to improve the welfare of health-related science MUG students.

14.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; : 1-11, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991414

RESUMO

This article explores the role of traditional leadership in partnership policing to prevent crimes, violence and injuries associated with traditional customs at initiation schools in Giyani and Malamulele, Limpopo Province, South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 key role-players including tribal chiefs, indunas and headmen, representatives from the South African Police Service (SAPS), three other relevant government departments and members of the local Community Police Forum (CPF). Between 2006 and 2016 in Limpopo Province, 39 deaths of and 815 injuries to initiates were reported. Injuries, violence, and crimes committed against these initiates, botched circumcisions, septicaemia, gangrene, kidney failure, penile amputations, and assault, create difficulties not only for traditional leaders, but also for the SAPS. The findings of this study suggest that the role of traditional leaders in partnership policing in the Giyani and Malamulele districts in Limpopo to prevent crimes, violence and injuries associated with the practice of traditional customs at initiation schools has not been as successful as prescribed by the relevant policies and legislation. This article concludes with recommendations to develop a multi-stakeholder partnership policing strategy to enhance the role of traditional leaders to prevent this phenomenon.

15.
Nurs Forum ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature has investigated the association of this phenomenon and Internet addiction. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted to elucidate the predictive associations among these concepts among students. OBJECTIVE: This study reported students' cyberchondria and Internet addiction, and it examined whether cyberchondria predicts Internet addiction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, cross-sectional data were collected using a web survey from a convenience snowball sample of 143 students enrolled in e-learning courses at a governmental university. RESULTS: A moderate level of cyberchondria and a mild level of Internet addiction was evident among students. A moderate level of cyberchondria and a mild level of Internet addiction was evident among students. Moderate to high significant correlations were reported among the studied concepts and with the sample's characteristics. Cyberchondria and unavailability of the Internet at school were predictors of Internet addiction. IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare providers, including nurses, should provide information that preserves students' mental health during stressful periods such as the COVID-19 pandemic and should offer clear instructions on stress and anxiety management during such times. A longer scale, especially for cyberchondria, is warranted in future research with a random and larger sample. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that cyberchondria serves as a predictor of Internet addiction, contrary to findings of previous studies. Various psychosocial interventions should always be initiated to help students prevent or address cyberchondria and Internet addiction.

16.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(1): 29-35, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nursing students often experience anxiety and stress from the expectations to develop clinical reasoning skills, internalize new knowledge, and learn to care for patients. Previous research has proposed reflective thinking as a tool to lessen anxiety and promote metacognition. This article examines the role of journaling in promoting reflection among undergraduate nursing students. METHOD: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used to conduct the review. Concepts for journaling and nursing students were searched in four databases. Data were extracted from 19 sources to identify study type, participants, descriptions of journaling, and findings. RESULTS: Studies took place in a variety of clinical and classroom settings; the majority used a guided format. Various frameworks and tools were used to provide conceptual support. CONCLUSION: Most studies found journaling to be effective in promoting reflection and the development of clinical judgment and emotional competency. However, more studies are needed to develop appropriate rubrics for assessment. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(1):29-35.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Aprendizagem
17.
Tob Use Insights ; 15: 1179173X211065997, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035235

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite declines in cigarette smoking in the US, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased among middle and high school students. In 2014, New York City (NYC) implemented Tobacco 21 (T21) to prohibit sales to anyone under age 21. Our study goal was to measure the effectiveness of T21 on e-cigarette use. Methods: We used the New York State (NYS) Youth Tobacco Survey-a biennial, school-based, self-administered survey. We explored middle (N = 5249) and high (N = 7296) school NYC students' (male and female) current (past 30 days') e-cigarette use from 2014 (pre-T21) to 2018 (post-T21). Results were compared with students in the rest of NYS (ROS). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses assessed correlates of e-cigarette use, beliefs about harmfulness, addictiveness, and susceptibility. Results: NYC high school students' current e-cigarette use increased from 2014 to 2018 (8.1% vs 23.5%, P < .001). Middle school students' use increased between 2014 (4.8%) and 2016 (9.0%) yet reversed by 2018 (5.7%) (2014 vs 2018, P = .576). ROS middle school (2.2% vs 7.4%, P < .001) and high school (12.0% vs 29.3%, (P < .001) use increased from 2014 to 2018. Willingness to try e-cigarettes among those who had never tried an e-cigarette was twice as high (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.15-3.17) among NYC high school students in 2018 compared with 2014. Conclusions: E-cigarette use increased among NYC high school students despite T21. T21 may have reduced use among middle school students over time. Programs that denormalize e-cigarettes and policies that further restrict access are needed to decrease youth e-cigarette use.

18.
Ir J Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors for mental health across student cohorts to guide mental health provision. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the My World Survey 2-Post Second Level (MWS2-PSL) were used. The sample consisted of N = 9935 students (18-65 years) from 12 third-level institutions (7 out of 7 universities and 5 out of 14 Institute of Technologies (IoTs)) across Ireland. Key outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and suicidality. Risk factors included drug/alcohol use, risky sexual behaviours and exposure to stressors. Protective factors included coping strategies, help-seeking, resilience, self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism and social support. These factors were profiled by degree type (undergraduate, postgraduate taught, postgraduate research), access route, and institution type (IoT, university). Chi-square tests of Independence and one-way ANOVAs compared groups on key risk and protective factors. RESULTS: A total 71% of respondents were female, 85% were aged 23 or under and there was a 2.2% response rate in IoTs versus 10.6% in university students. Undergraduates demonstrated higher levels of depression, anxiety, self-harm and suicidal ideation than postgraduates. Undergraduates showed higher risk and lower protective factors than postgraduates. Students attending Institutes of Technology reported higher levels of depression and anxiety, lower protective and higher risk factors than university students. CONCLUSION: In this sample of students, undergraduates, especially those attending Institutes of Technology, were at increased risk of mental health difficulties. Findings suggest the need to tailor interventions to meet cohort needs, and consider the differing vulnerabilities and strengths across student cohorts. Due to limitations of this study, such as selection bias, further research is warranted.

19.
Violence Against Women ; : 10778012211068063, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040708

RESUMO

Campus-based sexual violence and sexual harassment (SVSH) are prevalent issues that impact students detrimentally. Guided by community-based participatory research, this qualitative study assessed undergraduate students' perceptions of available campus SVSH resources, gaps in services, and recommendations for solutions for SVSH at three universities in California via interviews and focus groups. Approximately half of participants were unaware of available SVSH services, while others had varying knowledge of service availability and experiences with services. Students want better-funded, trauma-informed, and survivor-centered services and providers who share their identities and lived experiences. We provide multi-level student-centered solutions to improve current campus-based SVSH prevention efforts.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 300: 249-254, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fact that depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and often co-occur has been well documented. The present study hypothesized that loneliness and interpersonal trust mediate the relationship between depression and social anxiety, with self-esteem playing a moderating role. METHODS: 1021 college students completed the interpersonal trust scale (ITS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), UCLA loneliness scale, self-esteem scale (SES), and social avoidance and distress (SAD) scale. And descriptive statistical analysis and correlation analysis, structural equation model analysis were conducted. RESULTS: 1) The correlations between depression, loneliness, interpersonal trust, self-esteem and social avoidance were all statistically significant. 2) Loneliness and interpersonal trust mediated the relationship between depression and social avoidance. 3) Self-esteem moderated the relationship between interpersonal trust and social avoidance. Specifically, compared with individuals who had high self-esteem, social avoidance in those with low self-esteem individuals was more susceptible to the effects of interpersonal trust. LIMITATIONS: First, the questionnaire data may be influenced by social approval. Second, most of the participants were college students. Finally, the causal relationship between the variables could not be inferred. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that loneliness and interpersonal trust played mediating roles between depression and social avoidance, and the relationship between interpersonal trust and social avoidance was moderated by self-esteem. It provides a new way to explain the mechanism of depression, and a new perspective for the clinical intervention of depression, that is, from the perspective of their self-experience and self-esteem.

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