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1.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260521997457, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663256

RESUMO

Gender inequality and violence against women are present in every society and culture around the world. The intensities vary, however, based on the local guiding norms and established belief systems. The society of Nepal is centered on traditional belief systems of gender roles and responsibilities, providing greater male supremacy and subordination for the females. This has led to the development and extensive practices of social gender hierarchal systems, producing several inequalities and violence toward women. This study has utilized Forum Theater interventions as a method of raising awareness in 10 villages in eastern Nepal. The study aimed to understand the perception and changes in the community and individuals from the interactive Forum Theater performances on pertinent local gender issues. We conducted 6 focus group discussions and 30 individual interviews with male and female participants exposed to the interventions. The data analysis utilized the constructivist grounded theory methodology. The study finds that exposure and interactive participation in the Forum Theater provide the audience with knowledge, develop empathy toward the victim, and motivate them to change the situation of inequality, abuse, and violence using dialogues and negotiations. The study describes how participation in Forum Theater has increased individual's ability for negotiating changes. The engagement by the audience in community discussions and replication of efforts in one of the intervention sites show the level of preparedness and ownership among the targeted communities. The study shows the methodological aspects of the planning and performance of the Forum Theater and recommends further exploration of the use of Forum Theater in raising awareness.

2.
Violence Against Women ; : 1077801221996463, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750243

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a qualitative study on the context and different forms of violence committed against women and girls in South Sudan. The study documents many forms of sexual and physical violence against women and girls in South Sudan, including conflict-related sexual violence, intimate partner violence, nonpartner sexual violence, child and forced marriage, and abduction. Violence occurred during three overarching contexts: armed conflict, gender inequality, and the economic crisis. The custom of bride price, combined with the economic crisis, is a key driver of many other forms of violence.

3.
Med Sci Law ; 61(2): 147-149, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632014

RESUMO

Accusations of witchcraft and witch-hunting activities remain serious problems in Nepal, where many women are subjected to violence or torture following accusation and persecution. Many experience serious physical and mental injury, and some die. However, most of these incidents are not reported because women and their families fear reprisals. Poverty, systemic gender inequality and weak state laws provide a context in which this behaviour occurs. Allegations of witchcraft will, however, not be fully eradicated without improvements in education and legal safeguards.

4.
Violence Against Women ; : 1077801220978803, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432876

RESUMO

Violence against women (VAW) is currently one of the main problems in El Salvador, which leads the ranking of femicides in the world. We conducted the first national survey on VAW in El Salvador following the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology, to determine the impact of violence on women's mental health (N = 1,274). Women who had experienced intimate partner violence showed significantly poorer mental health and more suicidal ideations. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with the experience of all forms of violence, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and stressful life experiences. The results are discussed in connection with the primary care protocols and the design of public policies.

5.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 15(1): [1-20], jan. 2021.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1147651

RESUMO

Objetivo: apreender, nas lembranças de filhos em história de vida, o sentido e o significado da convivência familiar com pais alcoolistas. Método: trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo, exploratório, com ênfase na História Oral de Vida, realizado com cinco filhos de pais alcoolistas por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Analisaram-se os dados pela Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: percebeu-se que o adoecimento é concomitante, dos pais em virtude do uso abusivo do álcool e dos filhos que estão em convivência com ele e vivenciaram situações de conflitos e violência. Descreveram-se, ainda, os sentimentos ambíguos desenvolvidos pelos filhos a partir da relação com o pai, como vergonha, medo, estresse, angústia, mas, na fase adulta, houve a ressignificação da convivência no cuidado com o pai por meio da identificação dos sentimentos de tolerância e respeito. Conclusão: identificou-se que a reabilitação psicossocial dos filhos possibilitou a ressignificação da relação com o pai. Aponta-se para a importância de os profissionais de saúde estabelecerem estratégias de cuidado aos alcoolistas e aos filhos, que são cuidadores e vivenciam situações de codependência e sofrimentos emocionais na relação com o familiar alcoolista.(AU)


Objective: to learn, in the memories of children in their life history, the meaning and significance of family life with alcoholic parents. Method: this is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study, with emphasis on Oral History of Life, carried out with five children of alcoholic parents through semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed through Content Analysis. Results: it was noticed that the illness is concomitant, of the parents due to the abusive use of alcohol and of the children who are in coexistence with it and have experienced situations of conflicts and violence. The ambiguous feelings developed by the children from the relationship with the father were also described, such as shame, fear, stress, anguish, but, in the adult phase, there was the resignification of the coexistence in the care with the father through the identification of the feelings of tolerance and respect. Conclusion: it was identified that the psychosocial rehabilitation of the children enabled the resignification of the relationship with the father. It was pointed out the importance of health professionals to establish strategies to care for alcoholics and their children, who are caregivers and experience situations of codependence and emotional suffering in the relationship with the alcoholic family member.(AU)


Objetivo: aprehender, en la memoria de los niños en la historia de vida, el sentido y el significado de la vida familiar con padres alcohólicos. Método: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, con énfasis en la Historia de Vida Oral, realizado con cinco hijos de padres alcohólicos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los datos se analizaron mediante Análisis de Contenido. Resultados: se notó que la enfermedad es concomitante, de los padres por el uso abusivo del alcohol y de los hijos que conviven con él y vivieron situaciones de conflicto y violencia. También se describieron los sentimientos ambiguos desarrollados por los hijos a partir de la relación con el padre, como vergüenza, miedo, estrés, angustia, pero, en la edad adulta, se dio un nuevo sentido de convivencia en el cuidado del padre al identificar sentimientos de tolerancia y respeto. Conclusión: se identificó que la rehabilitación psicosocial de los niños permitió redefinir la relación con el padre. Se señala la importancia de que los profesionales de la salud establezcan estrategias de atención para los alcohólicos y sus hijos, quienes son cuidadores y viven situaciones de codependencia y sufrimiento emocional en la relación con el familiar alcohólico.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Mental , Codependência Psicológica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Relações Familiares , Relações Pai-Filho , Alcoólicos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Memória , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Violência Doméstica , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1133833

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Examinar e mapear as evidências científicas acerca das percepções das mulheres em situação de violência quanto aos serviços de apoio social formal. Método Scoping Review, conforme Joanna Briggs Institute e a questão norteadora: "Qual a percepção das mulheres em situação de violência ao buscar atendimento profissional nos serviços de apoio?". Inclusos estudos nacionais, internacionais, primários, abordagens qualitativas, quantitativas, métodos mistos, idiomas inglês, português e espanhol, no espaço temporal de 2014 a 2019. Realizadas buscas em sete bases de dados, encontrados 1557 artigos e selecionados 16 como amostra final. Resultados Os atendimentos evidenciaram a escuta ativa, criação de vínculo e articulação dos serviços. Como também a falta de acolhimento; sentimento de insegurança, medo e humilhação. O processo de capacitação foi estabelecido pelos artigos como ferramenta aos profissionais, na promoção de abordagem direcionada e individualizada. Conclusões e considerações para a prática O acolhimento e vínculo propiciado por alguns serviços de apoio resultou em propostas de mudanças e suscitou nas mulheres reflexão, confiança e busca para saída do ciclo da violência. O contrário gerou afastamento dos serviços e consequente permanência junto ao agressor.


RESUMEN Objetivo Examinar y mapear la evidencia científica sobre las percepciones de las mujeres en situación de violencia con respecto a los servicios formales de apoyo social. Método Revisión de alcance, según el Instituto Joanna Briggs, cuya pregunta guía fue: "¿Cuál es la percepción de las mujeres en situación de violencia cuando buscan asistencia profesional en los servicios de apoyo?". Incluye estudios nacionales, internacionales, enfoques primarios, cualitativos, cuantitativos, métodos mixtos, idiomas inglés, portugués, español, en el período de 2014 a 2019. Se realizaron búsquedas en siete bases de datos, se encontraron 1557 artículos y se seleccionaron 16 como muestra final. Resultados Las consultas mostraron una escucha activa, creando vínculos y articulando servicios. Así como la falta de recepción; sentimiento de inseguridad, miedo y humillación. El proceso de capacitación fue establecido por los artículos como una herramienta para profesionales, en la promoción de enfoque dirigido e individualizado. Conclusiones y consideraciones para la práctica La bienvenida y el vínculo brindado por algunos servicios de apoyo, dieron lugar a propuestas de cambios y despertaron en las mujeres la reflexión, la confianza y la búsqueda de una salida del ciclo de violencia. Lo contrario ha llevado a la eliminación de los servicios y consecuente permanencia con el agresor.


ABSTRACT Objective To examine and map the scientific evidence about the perceptions of women in situations of violence regarding formal social support services. Method A Scoping Review, according to the Joanna Briggs Institute, with the following guiding question: "What is the perception of the woman in situations of violence when seeking professional assistance in support services?" Including national, international studies, primary, qualitative, quantitative approaches, mixed methods, English, Portuguese, and Spanish languages, in the period from 2014 to 2019. Searches were carried out in seven databases, 1,557 articles were found and 16 were selected as the final sample. Results The consultations showed active listening, creating bonds and articulating services. As well as lack of reception; feeling of insecurity, fear and humiliation. The training process was established by the articles as a tool for professionals, in promoting a targeted and individualized approach. Conclusions and considerations for the practice The welcoming and bond provided by some support services, resulted in proposals for changes and aroused in women reflection, confidence and the search for an exit from the cycle of violence. The opposite has led to removal of services and consequent permanence with the aggressor.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Apoio Social , Violência contra a Mulher , Percepção , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pessoal de Saúde , Acolhimento , Apego ao Objeto
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e037993, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attitudes justifying intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) can play an essential role in explaining the prevalence of such public health problem. The study aim was to explain attitudes justifying IPVAW identifying individual and societal risk factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multilevel cross-sectional study of the World Values Survey (WVS) in 54 global countries. PARTICIPANTS: A representative transnational community-based sample of 81 516 participants (47.8% male, 52.1% female), aged mean of 42.41. MEASURES: Attitudes justifying IPVAW, sociodemographic, sexism, self-transcendence and conservation values were measured using questions from WVS. Country and regional gender inequality were assessed by Gender Inequality Index. RESULTS: Around 16% (intraclass correlation=0.16) of individual differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW are explained by countries. Statistically significant predictors at individual and country level were: sex (B=-0.24, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.22), age (B=-0.08 to -0.25, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.03), marital status (B=0.09 to 0.23, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.33), educational level (B=-0.10 to -0.14, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04), self-transcendence values (B=-0.10, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.12), sexism (B=0.21, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.28), country (B=2.18, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) and regional (B=2.23, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.42) gender inequality. Country gender inequality (B=-0.18, p=0.12) and regional gender inequality (B=-0.21, p=0.10) did not moderate the associations between self-transcendence values and attitudes justifying IPVAW. In the same way for sexism, data did not provide support for a moderating role of country gender inequality (B=0.22, p=0.26) and regional gender inequality (B=0.10, p=0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Individual and country predictors accounted for differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW. However, neither gender inequality of country nor gender inequality of region interacted with sexism and self-transcendence values. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

8.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMO

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Dependência Psicológica , Manobra Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMO

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Processos Grupais , Motivação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Violence Against Women ; : 1077801220971360, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227227

RESUMO

Past failures to mobilize communities in collective action against violence against women (VAW) have been ascribed to contextual challenges, but researchers have not systematically mapped community capacity for collective action against VAW. We conducted a mixed methods study in Mumbai, India using quantitative data from a household survey (n = 2,642) and qualitative data from 264 community meetings. We found attitudes supporting gender inequality and violence coexisted with significant enthusiasm and support for collective action against VAW. These findings open up avenues for policymakers to treat communities as less vulnerable and more capable of changing situations and problems that affect them.

11.
Heliyon ; 6(10): e05334, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150213

RESUMO

Domestic violence in South Africa is a consequence of the complex interplay of patriarchy, culture, and the negative masculine construct. The patriarchal cultural beliefs and traditions that emphasise on male assertiveness and domination of women influence the constructions of masculinity and reinforce domestic violence. The goal of this article was to highlight a relationship between culture, constructions of masculinity, and domestic violence in South Africa. Through adopting an African feminist lens, this paper unpacks how structures of patriarchy manifest in the traditional African context in which many men in South Africa construct and perform their masculinity and the embodied meaning attached to it. The paper argues that gender hierarchy and normative masculine and feminine roles prevalent in most South African cultures have implications for domestic violence. It argues that the inflexible gender hierarchy, which is enforced through culture and the dominant position of men in the home influence domestic violence. The article concludes that attempts to address domestic violence in South Africa must focus on changing patriarchal cultural norms and promote peaceful masculinity.

12.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520966668, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047645

RESUMO

The most important thing learned about intimate partner violence (IPV) over the last 20 years is that violence is gendered and can be learned after faced and can only be understood in the context of gender inequality. To promote gender equality, a number of legal reforms and policies have been put in place over the last decade. The main problem is that there is relationship between all the socioeconomic and demographic factors. This begs the question, does the high educational level, social and economic status of a woman put her at lower risk of experiencing domestic violence? The study hypothesizes that those socioeconomic factors such as literacy, political rights, urbanization, laws against violence, the annual income of women, and the number of women in the labor force can affect IPV prevalence. The study uses secondary data concerning socioeconomic factors from 26 predominantly Muslim countries in Asia-Pacific and North Africa. Findings from the study show that socioeconomic factors such as literacy, political rights, a higher level of urbanization, and the laws against violence have significant impacts and may decrease the prevalence of IPV. However, other socioeconomic factors such as the annual income of women and increased women in the labor force produced unclear results. The test for collinearity on the impacts of each socioeconomic factor against one another was found to be insignificant.

13.
Health Place ; 64: 102365, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838891

RESUMO

Gender-based violence can include, but is not limited to, domestic violence, intimate partner violence, rape, and intimate partner homicide. It is well-established that gender inequality is the main driver of gender-based violence. However, little work has attempted to unpack how gender-based violence perpetuates within the neighbourhood context, and whether 'liveability' attributes might intersect with gender inequality and violence. We systematically reviewed quantitative evidence examining associations between gender-based violence and several liveability neighbourhood-level factors. MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus databases yielded 1822 potentially relevant articles. 50 articles met inclusion criteria. Neighbourhood social capital was most consistently associated with reduced gender-based violence. Few studies examined built environment attributes (e.g. gambling venue densities, access to services). Future research is needed to more deeply examine how combinations of salutogenic or pathogenic neighbourhood attributes may reinforce or prevent violence.

14.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 178-185, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115967

RESUMO

Introducción: Un concepto es una idea acerca de algo o de una acción. Objetivo: Analizar el concepto "Violencia de Género" desde la perspectiva evolutiva de Rodgers. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizó el análisis evolutivo de conceptos mediante revisión de literatura publicada entre los años 2000 y 2018. Criterios de inclusión: Artículos de investigación, de implementación de estrategias, de política, tesis, libros, capítulos de libro y reportes, en las bases de datos Lilacs, Ebsco, SciELO, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Académico; también se incluyeron documentos de organizaciones internacionales, publicados del año 2000 al año 2018, en Español, Inglés o Portugués, y que pertenecieran al contexto iberoamericano. Resultados: La Violencia de género consiste en un fenómeno de orden estructural, social y político; resultado de la discriminación estructural originado por un sistema sexo-género-patriarcado. Se encontraron términos relacionados como inequidad de género, control, relaciones asimétricas y términos subrogados como violencia de pareja, contra la mujer y doméstica. Conclusiones: La violencia de género, constituye una violación a los derechos humanos, afecta la dignidad, la integridad física y moral, la libertad y la autonomía.


Introduction: A concept is an idea about something or an action. Objective: To analyze the concept of "Gender Violence" from the Rodgers' evolutionary perspective. Materials and methods: An evolutionary analysis of this concept was carried out through a review of literature published between 2000 and 2018. The inclusion criteria were: research articles related to implementation of strategies and politics; thesis; books; book chapters; and reports. They were found in the databases of Lilacs, Ebsco, SciELO, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The review also included documents from international organizations published from 2000 to 2018 in Spanish, English or Portuguese, which discussed Ibero-American issues. Results: Gender violence is a phenomenon with structural, social and political dimensions and is caused by the structural discrimination triggered by a sex-gender-patriarchy system. Related terms such as gender inequality, control, asymmetric relationships were found. Likewise, surrogate terms, i.e., violence against intimate partners, women and domestic violence, were also identified. Conclusions: Gender violence constitutes a violation against human rights that affects the dignity, physical and moral integrity, freedom, and autonomy of people.


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência de Gênero , Violência contra a Mulher , Análise de Dados
15.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520927504, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508233

RESUMO

Community norms provide social scripts and pathways to accruing social capital that can alter a woman's risk of experiencing sexual intimate partner violence (IPV). These norms are in turn influenced by the structural environment in which they exist. Missing from the literature is an understanding of how an individual's departure from community norms-positive deviance-influences the risk of sexual IPV and how this effect may vary across structural environments. Demographic and Health Survey data from 32 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were stratified into six structural environments by two fundamental structural factors: level of gender inequality and prevalence of sexual IPV. To examine how transcending community norms shape the odds of reporting sexual IPV across environments, six identical multilevel models were fit including statistical deviation from 13 community norms as key covariates. Positive deviance from community norms is associated with both increased and decreased odds of reporting sexual IPV and the nature of these relationships vary by structural environment. Positive deviance had a greater effect on reporting sexual IPV in highly unequal societies. Positive deviance from fertility preferences and controlling behavior was associated with increased odds of sexual IPV across contexts. The accrual of social capital and differences in female autonomy across environments may be two ways positive deviance alters sexual IPV risk. A better understanding of how the salience of community norms varies by structural environment and how transcending these norms shapes the risk for sexual violence may help highlight pathways for interventions to change restrictive social norms and increase female empowerment without increasing the risk of sexual IPV.

16.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520922358, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438884

RESUMO

This qualitative study sought to explore the shared risk factors and social norms that may underpin the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and violence against other marginalized household members in the home. Data are drawn from participants who completed either in-depth interviews (N = 51 men, N = 52 women participants) or focus groups (N = 22 men, N = 23 women participants) and were living in two distinct humanitarian settings: North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Northern Shan State and Southern Kachin State, Myanmar. Within this overarching objective, attention to these shared drivers for violence in the home, which may arise from people having multiple and interacting social identities, such as disability status, gender, and age, was explored through an inclusion lens and inductive coding approaches. Findings point to risk factors of violence in the home at all levels of the ecological model, which are underpinned at the macro level by gender inequality, armed conflict, and political instability, among other factors. With the community and family levels, gender inequality manifested in norms related to the acceptability of violence, family reputation, and aged and gendered power hierarchies within the home. Shared risk factors of violence at these levels also included displacement/migration-related stressors, inconsistent income, and lack of community resources to support families, especially for those with disabilities. At the most time-proximal level, interactions between role (non)fulfillment, inability of families to meet their basic needs, alcohol and substance abuse, and abusive expressions of anger were found to catalyze instances of violence in the home. The conceptual model also illuminates potential levers and inclusive entry points that prevent violence in the home for diverse women, children, persons with disabilities, and older persons. Key attention to addressing gender inequality and acceptance of violence must be a cornerstone of sustainable programming, alongside complementary approaches that address other shared risk factors.

17.
Heliyon ; 6(5): e03829, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426532

RESUMO

Improving female empowerment is an important human rights and development goal that needs better monitoring. A number of indices have been developed to track female empowerment at the national level, but these are incomplete and may obscure important sub-national variation. We developed the Female Empowerment Index (FEMI) to track multiple domains of women's empowerment at the sub-national level. The index is based on six categories of empowerment: violence against women, employment, education, reproductive healthcare, decision making, and access to contraceptives. The FEMI has a range of zero to one (low to high empowerment), and it is calculated as the mean proportion of positive outcomes in the six categories. To provide a proof of concept, we computed the FEMI for Nigeria and its 36 states from five Demographic and Health Surveys between the years of 1990 and 2013, using questions asked to 98,542 women between 15 and 49 years old. At the national level, the FEMI increased from 0.34 to 0.48. However, there was substantial sub-national variation, with state-level values ranging from 0.16-0.60 in 1990 to 0.19-0.73 in 2013. Our findings thus illustrate the importance of considering sub-national variation in female empowerment. The FEMI can be readily computed for other countries, and its ability to track spatial and temporal variation in woman's empowerment across a broad set of categories may make it more useful than existing approaches.

18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: e218119, jan.-maio 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1143518

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer como se constituíram as vivências na família de origem de homens envolvidos em relações conjugais violentas. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa exploratória. Foram entrevistados nove homens autores de violência doméstica, respondendo a processos judiciais com base na Lei º 11.340/2006 (Lei Maria da Penha). Utilizou-se análise temática como método de análise de dados, sendo abordados três temas neste trabalho: negligência afetiva, exposição à violência física na infância e figura masculina de referência. Os resultados foram analisados sob a perspectiva da Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano. Conclui-se que a construção das masculinidades desses homens sofreu influência de suas vivências anteriores, pautadas por modelos parentais severos, abusivos e negligentes. A figura de referência masculina também é vista como ausente e rígida, exercendo controle sobre o microssistema familiar. Essas experiências podem revelar a construção de um modelo no qual o homem acredita que seu papel também deva ser desempenhado por controle e domínio baseados na violência. Desta forma, isso pode ser considerado um fator de risco para o envolvimento em relações conjugais violentas, já que revela a fragilidade na construção do vínculo de confiança e reverbera nos relacionamentos vividos durante a vida adulta. É importante que esses homens tenham espaços de reflexão sobre suas ações em âmbito conjugal, a fim de ressignificar as experiências de abuso sofridas na infância.


Abstract The aim of this study was to know how the experiences in the family of origin of men involved in intimate partner violence was constituted. Nine male perpetrators of domestic violence were interviewed, responding to lawsuits based on the Brazilian Federal Act 11,340 of 2006 (as known as the Maria da Penha Law). Results were examined using thematic analysis. In this paper, three themes will be presented: affective neglect, exposure to physical violence in childhood and male reference figure. The results were analyzed from the perspective of the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. It was concluded that the construction of the masculinities of these men was influenced by their previous experiences, ruled by severe, abusive and negligent parental models. The male reference figure is also seen as absent and rigid, exercising control over the family microsystem. These experiences may reveal the construction of a model in which men believe that their role must also be played through control and domination based on violence. In this way, this can be considered a risk factor for involvement in intimate partner violence since it reveals the fragility in the construction of the trust bond and reverberation in the relationships lived during the adult life. It is important that these men have spaces for reflection on their actions in the marital intimate context, in order to resignify the experiences of the abuse suffered during childhood.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer cómo se constituyeron las vivencias en la familia de origen de hombres involucrados en relaciones conyugales violentas. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa exploratoria. Se entrevistó a nueve hombres autores de violencia doméstica, que respondían a procesos judiciales con base en la Ley Brasileña 11.340 de 2006 (conocida como Ley Maria da Penha). Se utilizó el análisis temático como método de análisis de datos, y se abordó tres temas en este trabajo: negligencia afectiva, exposición a la violencia física en la infancia y figura masculina de referencia. Los resultados fueron analizados bajo la perspectiva de la teoría bioecológica del desarrollo humano. Se concluye que la construcción de las masculinidades de estos hombres sufrió influencia de sus vivencias anteriores, pautadas por modelos parentales severos, abusivos y negligentes. La figura de referencia masculina también es vista como ausente y rígida, ejerciendo el control sobre el microsistema familiar. Estas experiencias pueden revelar la construcción de un modelo en el que el hombre cree que su papel también debe desempeñarse por medio del control y el dominio basados en la violencia. De esta forma, esto puede ser considerado un factor de riesgo para la participación en relaciones conyugales violentas, ya que revela la fragilidad en la construcción del vínculo de confianza y reverbera en las relaciones vividas durante la vida adulta. Es importante que estos hombres tengan espacios de reflexión sobre sus acciones en el ámbito conyugal, a fin de resignificar las experiencias de abuso sufridas en la infancia.

19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(2): 481-484, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318368

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a sensitive, growing, and preventable health issue that affects many people around the world with significant physical and psychological impacts. Factors associated with an increased risk of perpetrating violence include low education, child maltreatment and exposure to violence in the family, attitudes accepting of violence, and gender inequality. However, encounters between victims exposed to IPV and healthcare providers are often not satisfactory, and therefore, several barriers preventing healthcare providers from responding to IPV have been documented. More efforts are needed at different levels to implement preventive measures and to improve the detection and management of IPV victims, especially at front-line health settings like family practices and emergency care services. Several interventions have been suggested to improve the healthcare responses to IPV, including developing protocols, training of health professionals to raise the awareness of providers, transferring know-how, and convincing them to respond to IPV.

20.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(1): 75-88, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196857

RESUMO

No disponible


Violence against women is a problem with multiple determinants. Specifically, the following study aims to analyze the correlation between emotional dependence and gender violence in male aggressors. Participants in this pilot study were 53 men between ages of 20 and 71 (M= 43.17; DT= 12.507), attending the intervention program for aggressors in the service of handling penalties and alternative measures (Principado de Asturias, España). A direct correlation between emotional dependence and intimate partner violence could not be established. However, a correlation between psychological and physical violence was established, psychological psychological violence being the most frequent. Also it was observed a high number of external causes reported by the participants. Violent behaviors carried out within the couple would result from a combination of both individual variables of the aggressor and their environment. Suggestions are made for future interventions seeking to reduce the incidence of such aggressions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Agressão/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Criminosos/psicologia , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Fissura , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
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