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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5991-6003, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The recent monkeypox disease outbreak is another significant threat during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This viral disease is zoonotic and contagious. The viral disease outbreak is considered the substantial infection possessed by the Orthopoxvirus family species after the smallpox virus' obliteration, a representative of the same family. It has potentially threatened the Republic of Congo's regions and certain African subcontinent zones. Although repeated outbreaks have been reported in several parts of the world, as conferred from the epidemiological data, very little is explored about the disease landscape. Thus, here we have reviewed the current status of the monkeypox virus along with therapeutic options available to humanity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have accessed and reviewed the available literature on the monkeypox virus to highlight its epidemiology, pathogenicity, virulence, and therapeutic options available. For the review, we have searched different literature and database such as PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, etc., using different keywords such as "monkeypox", "Orthopox", "smallpox", "recent monkeypox outbreak", "therapeutic strategies", "monkeypox vaccines", etc. This review has included most of the significant references from 1983 to 2022. RESULTS: It has been reported that the monkeypox virus shows a remarkable similarity with smallpox during the ongoing outbreak. Sometimes, it creates considerable confusion due to misdiagnosis and similarity with smallpox. The misdiagnosis of the disease should be immediately corrected by rendering some cutting-edge techniques especially intended to isolate the monkeypox virus. The pathophysiology and the histopathological data imply the immediate need to design effective therapeutics to confer resistance against the monkeypox virus. Most importantly, the potential implications of the disease are not given importance due to the lack of awareness programs. Moreover, specific evolutionary evidence is crucial for designing effective therapeutic strategies that confer high resistance, particularly against this species. CONCLUSIONS: The review focuses on a brief overview of the recent monkeypox virus outbreak, infection biology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic aspects. Such an attempt will support researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals for better treatment and containment of the infection caused by the monkeypox virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Varíola dos Macacos , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Pandemias
2.
Am J Nurs ; 122(10): 60-63, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136031

RESUMO

The stage for the current outbreaks may have been set when global smallpox vaccination ended.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vacinação
5.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146766

RESUMO

Beginning in May 2022, a novel cluster of monkeypox virus infections was detected in humans. This virus has spread rapidly to non-endemic countries, sparking global concern. Specific vaccines based on the vaccinia virus (VACV) have demonstrated high efficacy against monkeypox viruses in the past and are considered an important outbreak control measure. Viruses observed in the current outbreak carry distinct genetic variations that have the potential to affect vaccine-induced immune recognition. Here, by investigating genetic variation with respect to orthologous immunogenic vaccinia-virus proteins, we report data that anticipates immune responses induced by VACV-based vaccines, including the currently available MVA-BN and ACAM2000 vaccines, to remain highly cross-reactive against the newly observed monkeypox viruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Vaccinia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Vaccinia/prevenção & controle , Vírus Vaccinia/genética
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 960-966, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111711

RESUMO

The guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of monkeypox (2022 edition) issued by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China introduces the key knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of human monkeypox (HMPX) and does not systematically introduce the sampling methods and requirements of specimens for HMPX etiology testing and the discrepancy in diagnostic criteria between China and overseas. However, the doctors who are not engaged in dermatology lack understanding of the sampling methods and requirements of specimens for laboratory diagnosis of HMPX, and there are few relevant references available. This article collects the information on the diagnosis and treatment of HMPX, so as to provide a reference for learning, understanding, and application of this guideline.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , China , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/terapia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15983, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156077

RESUMO

While mankind is still dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic, a case of monkeypox virus (MPXV) has been reported to the WHO on May 7, 2022. Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that has been a public health threat, particularly in Africa. However, it has recently expanded to other parts of the world, so it may soon become a global issue. Thus, the current work was planned and then designed a multi-epitope vaccine against MPXV utilizing the cell surface-binding protein as a target in order to develop a novel and safe vaccine that can evoke the desirable immunological response. The proposed MHC-I, MHC-II, and B-cell epitopes were selected to design multi-epitope vaccine constructs linked with suitable linkers in combination with different adjuvants to enhance the immune responses for the vaccine constructs. The proposed vaccine was composed of 275 amino acids and was shown to be antigenic in Vaxijen server (0.5311) and non-allergenic in AllerTop server. The 3D structure of the designed vaccine was predicted, refined and validated by various in silico tools to assess the stability of the vaccine. Moreover, the solubility of the vaccine construct was found greater than the average solubility provided by protein-Sol server which indicating the solubility of the vaccine construct. Additionally, the most promising epitopes bound to MHC I and MHC II alleles were found having good binding affinities with low energies ranging between - 7.0 and - 8.6 kcal/mol. According to the immunological simulation research, the vaccine was found to elicit a particular immune reaction against the monkeypox virus. Finally, the molecular dynamic study shows that the designed vaccine is stable with minimum RMSF against MHC I allele. We conclude from our research that the cell surface-binding protein is one of the primary proteins involved in MPXV pathogenesis. As a result, our study will aid in the development of appropriate therapeutics and prompt the development of future vaccines against MPXV.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Subunidades
10.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 25: 297-322, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130588

RESUMO

The World Health Organization, has declared the recent multiregional outbreak of monkeypox, a global public health emergency. Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral infection endemic to the west and central Africa. It belongs to the Poxviridae family, the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and the Orthopoxvirus genus. The Poxviridae family generally consists of complex, large, enveloped, and linear double-stranded DNA viruses. The initial clinical symptoms of monkeypox are often fever, severe headache, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, and fatigue. The skin lesions typically erupt within 1-3 days of the onset of fever. The rash tends to be more localized on the face and extremities than on the trunk. Monkeypox is often a self-limiting infection, and symptoms last from 2 to 4 weeks. It is isolated from various species, but the exact natural host is uncertain. Monkeypox is transmitted by close contact with infected humans or animals. Currently, no specific medication is available for monkeypox, and the existing therapeutics are the anti-viral agents approved for smallpox infection, including tecovirimat, cidofovir, and brincidofovir. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous for treating vaccination complications. It is diagnosed by PCR. There are currently two vaccines licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. According to the WHO guidance, the first-generation smallpox vaccines held in national reserves of some countries are not recommended as they do not meet the current safety and manufacturing standards. The interim guidance indicates that new and safer (second- and third generation) vaccines for smallpox, may be beneficial for monkeypox prevention, including JYNNEOS, which has been approved for the prevention of monkeypox. Human monkeypox was first reported in 1970. Since then, it has caused several outbreaks, mainly in central and west Africa. The first monkeypox outbreak outside of Africa occurred in the United States in 2003, linked to contact with infected pet prairie dogs. More recently (2018-2021), monkeypox cases have been reported in travelers from Nigeria to the United Kingdom, Israel, Singapore, and the US. Since May 2022, multiple monkeypox cases have been confirmed in several non-endemic countries, raising the concern of an emerging global pandemic. This review is an updated overview of our current state of knowledge regarding monkeypox virology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, epidemiology, vaccines, diagnosis, and treatment options.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola , Vacinas , Animais , Cidofovir , DNA , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(10): 597-613, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064780

RESUMO

Monkeypox virus (MPXV), which causes disease in humans, has for many years been restricted to the African continent, with only a handful of sporadic cases in other parts of the world. However, unprecedented outbreaks of monkeypox in non-endemic regions have recently taken the world by surprise. In less than 4 months, the number of detected MPXV infections has soared to more than 48,000 cases, recording a total of 13 deaths. In this Review, we discuss the clinical, epidemiological and immunological features of MPXV infections. We also highlight important research questions and new opportunities to tackle the ongoing monkeypox outbreak.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(37): 1190-1195, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107794

RESUMO

Currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for human monkeypox are available. Tecovirimat (Tpoxx), however, is an antiviral drug that has demonstrated efficacy in animal studies and is FDA-approved for treating smallpox. Use of tecovirimat for treatment of monkeypox in the United States is permitted only through an FDA-regulated Expanded Access Investigational New Drug (EA-IND) mechanism. CDC holds a nonresearch EA-IND protocol that facilitates access to and use of tecovirimat for treatment of monkeypox.§ The protocol includes patient treatment and adverse event reporting forms to monitor safety and ensure intended clinical use in accordance with FDA EA-IND requirements. The current multinational monkeypox outbreak, first detected in a country where Monkeypox virus infection is not endemic in May 2022, has predominantly affected gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (1,2). To describe characteristics of persons treated with tecovirimat for Monkeypox virus infection, demographic and clinical data abstracted from available tecovirimat EA-IND treatment forms were analyzed. As of August 20, 2022, intake and outcome forms were available for 549 and 369 patients, respectively; 97.7% of patients were men, with a median age of 36.5 years. Among patients with available data, 38.8% were reported to be non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 99.8% were prescribed oral tecovirimat, and 93.1% were not hospitalized. Approximately one half of patients with Monkeypox virus infection who received tecovirimat were living with HIV infection. The median interval from initiation of tecovirimat to subjective improvement was 3 days and did not differ by HIV infection status. Adverse events were reported in 3.5% of patients; all but one adverse event were nonserious. These data support the continued access to and treatment with tecovirimat for patients with or at risk for severe disease in the ongoing monkeypox outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/tratamento farmacológico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Estados Unidos
13.
Med Lett Drugs Ther ; 64(1658): 137-139, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094551
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 985450, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091024

RESUMO

The emerging monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus that causes infections in humans similar to smallpox. Since May 2022, cases of monkeypox (MPX) have been increasingly reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) worldwide. Currently, there are no clinically validated treatments for MPX infections. In this study, an immunoinformatics approach was used to identify potential vaccine targets against MPXV. A total of 190 MPXV-2022 proteins were retrieved from the ViPR database and subjected to various analyses including antigenicity, allergenicity, toxicity, solubility, IFN-γ, and virulence. Three outer membrane and extracellular proteins were selected based on their respective parameters to predict B-cell and T-cell epitopes. The epitopes are conserved among different strains of MPXV and the population coverage is 100% worldwide, which will provide broader protection against various strains of the virus globally. Nine overlapping MHC-I, MHC-II, and B-cell epitopes were selected to design multi-epitope vaccine constructs linked with suitable linkers in combination with different adjuvants to enhance the immune responses of the vaccine constructs. Molecular modeling and structural validation ensured high-quality 3D structures of vaccine constructs. Based on various immunological and physiochemical properties and docking scores, MPXV-V2 was selected for further investigation. In silico cloning revealed a high level of gene expression for the MPXV-V2 vaccine within the bacterial expression system. Immune and MD simulations confirmed the molecular stability of the MPXV-V2 construct, with high immune responses within the host cell. These results may aid in the development of experimental vaccines against MPXV with increased potency and improved safety.


Assuntos
Vacinas , Vacinologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Humanos , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Vacinologia/métodos , Proteínas Virais/genética
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