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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233780, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153469

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and blood biochemical reference information is important to establish physiological status of freshwater stingray populations and improve care and management protocols in artificial environments. Here, we used a commercial freshwater stingray with high mortality rates in the market (Potamotrygon magdalenae), as an example to understand how artificial environments and handling protocols influence physiological status of captive freshwater stingrays. To this purpose, blood from five adult males and six adult females was collected to perform complete blood counts and blood chemistry analyses. All sampled animals showed good body condition with no differences between sexes. Differences between sexes were only found for the differential count of lymphocytes. Red blood results were consistent with previously studied potamotrygonids while white blood results showed higher values of leukocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils and lymphocytes in P. magdalenae compared to other Potamotrygonids. All types of leukocytes described for elasmobranchs were found except neutrophils and basophils. Blood metabolites showed an influence of ex situ diet in total protein, triglycerides and cholesterol. Glucose results were consistent while urea showed lower levels than those recorded for other freshwater stingrays. These results highlight the importance of physical, physiological and health analysis in freshwater stingrays as a part of welfare assessment to improve monitoring protocols and survival rates in public or private aquaria.


Resumo A informação de referência hematológica e bioquímica do sangue é importante para estabelecer o estado fisiológico das populações de arraias de água doce e melhorar os protocolos de cuidado e manejo em ambientes artificiais. Aqui, usamos uma espécie comercial de arraia de água doce com elevadas taxas de mortalidade no mercado (Potamotrygon magdalenae) como espécie exemplo para compreender de que modo os ambientes artificiais e os protocolos de manipulação influenciam o estado fisiológico das arraias de água doce em cativeiro. Para este fim, foi coletado sangue de cinco machos adultos e seis fêmeas adultas para realizar contagens completas de células sanguíneas e análises bioquímicas de sangue. Todos os animais amostrados mostraram boa condição corpórea, sem diferenças entre os sexos. Diferenças entre os sexos foram encontradas só na contagem diferencial de linfócitos. Os resultados de células sanguíneas vermelhas foram consistentes com potamotrigonídeos previamente estudados, enquanto o leucograma revelou valores mais elevados de leucócitos, trombócitos, heterófilos e linfócitos em P. magdalenae, em comparação com outros potamotrigonídeos. Todos os tipos de leucócitos descritos para elasmobrânquios foram encontrados, exceto para neutrófilos e basófilos. Todos os tipos de leucócitos descritos para elasmobrânquios foram encontrados, exceto para neutrófilos e basófilos. Os metabólitos do sangue mostraram influência da dieta ex situ nas proteínas totais, triglicerídeos e colesterol. Os resultados da glicose foram consistentes, enquanto a ureia mostrou níveis mais baixos do que os registrados para outras espécies de arraias de água doce. Os resultados da glicose foram consistentes, enquanto a ureia mostrou níveis mais baixos em P. magdalenae. Estes resultados enfatizam a importância da análise física, fisiológica e de saúde em arraias de água doce como parte da avaliação do bem-estar para melhorar os protocolos de monitoramento e as taxas de sobrevivência em aquários públicos ou privados.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 954-961, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153438

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of present study is to characterize the resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from aquaculture excavated ponds and masonry tanks (6 samples) in southern Brazil. Samples were cultured in selective medium, 10 colonies were randomly selected from each sample, which were identified by MALDI-TOF and tested against 13 antimicrobials. The presence of resistance (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB and msrC) and virulence (ace, esp, agg, cylA and gelE) genes were determined by PCR. A total of 79 enterococci were identified, and Entecococcus faecalis (44.3%) and E. casseliflavus (36.7%) were the most prevalent species isolated. Sixty-five strains (82.3%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, whereas 27 (34.2%) strains were multiresistant. The overall percentages of antimicrobial resistant isolates were: 58.2% to rifampicin, 40.5% to fluoroquinolones, 36.7% to erythromycin and 30.4% to tetracycline. The tetL and tetM genes were found in 57.7% of the tetracycline-resistant strains; and msrC in 31.01% of erythromycin-resistant strains. The most frequently detected virulence factors were ace and gelE genes. Although limited to a single farm, these data suggest that aquaculture may be a reservoir of resistant and virulent enterococci. This study is the first step towards enhancing our understandingof distribution, resistance and virulence profile in enterococci isolated from fish farming environments in the south Brazil.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo apresentado é caracterizar o perfil de resistência e virulência de enterococos isolados de viveiros escavados e tanques de alvenaria (6 amostras) de uma pisicultura no Sul do Brasil. As amostras foram cultivadas em meio seletivo, 10 colônias foram selecionadas aleatoriamente de cada amostra, que foram identificadas por MALDI-TOF e testadas contra 13 antimicrobianos. A presença de genes de resistência (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB e msrC) e virulência (ace, esp, agg, cylA e gelE) foi determinada por PCR. Foram identificados 79 enterococos, sendo Entecococcus faecalis (44,3%) e E. casseliflavus (36,7%) as espécies mais frequentes isoladas. Sessenta e cinco cepas (82,3%) eram resistentes a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados, enquanto 27 (34,2%) eram multirresistentes. As porcentagens gerais de isolados resistentes a antimicrobianos foram: 58,2% para rifampicina, 40,5% para fluoroquinolonas, 36,7% para eritromicina e 30,4% para tetraciclina. Os genes tetL e tetM foram encontrados em 57,7% das cepas resistentes à tetraciclina; e msrC em 31,01% das cepas resistentes à eritromicina. Os fatores de virulência mais comumente detectados foram ace e gelE. Embora limitados a uma única fazenda, esses dados indicam que a aquicultura pode ser uma fonte de enterococos resistentes e virulentos. Este estudo é o primeiro passo para melhorar nosso entendimento da distribuição, resistência e perfil de virulência em enterococos isolados de ambientes de piscicultura no sul do Brasil.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 741-749, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153398

RESUMO

Abstract Birds play a key role in ecosystem dynamics, including urban and rural areas, bringing environmental quality improvements and ecological stability. Species contribute directly to natural regeneration of vegetation and succession processes, by offering ecosystem services as seed dispersal, an important role in human-modified areas. We studied the assemblages of fruit-eating birds in riparian environments of Monjolinho basin, central São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Birds were recorded in 41 points distributed in riparian ecosystems alongside waterbodies, in landscapes with five types of surrounding matrices: urban, periurban, farmland, and native vegetation. We described how assemblages are structured aiming to evaluate the possible influence of seasonality and landscape type. We recorded 39 bird species that can play a role as seed-dispersers, 32 in wet season and 32 in dry season. There were no significant differences in the diversity and dominance of species between seasons considering the entire area, indicating stability of basic assemblage structure. However, total number of individuals of all species recorded in different landscapes were influenced by seasonality. Also, the composition and abundance of species significantly changed between seasons, leading to a high dissimilarity with almost 50% of the species contributing with almost 90% of the observed variation. A higher taxonomic diversity and distinctness pointed to a wider array of possible seed dispersal services in natural areas, while the lowest values of indexes were found in human-modified areas. The higher number of non-related bird species during dry season contrasted with the higher number of individuals during wet season, indicating that there is more possible ecosystem services offered by frugivorous birds in driest period of the year, while in the rainy period the carrying capacity of the riparian environments was increased.


Resumo As aves desempenham um papel chave na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, incluindo áreas urbanas e rurais, e trazem melhorias na qualidade ambiental e estabilidade ecológica. As espécies contribuem diretamente com a regeneração natural da vegetação e processos de sucessão por oferecerem serviços ecossistêmicos como a dispersão de sementes, um papel fundamental em áreas alteradas. Nós estudamos a assembleia de espécies de aves que se alimentam de frutos em ambientes ripários da bacia do rio Monjolinho, região central do estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. As aves foram registradas em 41 pontos distribuídos em ecossistemas ripários ao longo dos corpos d'água, em paisagens com quatro tipos de matrizes em seu entorno: urbana, periurbana, rural e vegetação nativa. Nós descrevemos como as assembleias estão estruturadas, objetivando avaliar a possível influência da sazonalidade e do tipo de paisagem do entorno. Foram registradas 39 espécies de aves que podem desempenhar o papel de dispersoras de sementes, sendo 32 espécies no período chuvoso e 32 no período seco. Não foi detectada diferença significativa na diversidade e dominância de espécies entre estações em toda área de estudo, indicando estabilidade da estrutura básica das assembleias. Entretanto, o número total de indivíduos de todas as espécies registrados nas diferentes paisagens foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Além disso, a composição e abundância de espécies mudou significativamente entre as estações, levando a uma alta dissimilaridade com quase 50% das espécies contribuindo com quase 90% da variação observada. A diversidade e distinção taxonômicas mais altas apontam para maior variedade de serviços ecossistêmicos possíveis relacionados à dispersão de sementes em áreas naturais, enquanto os menores valores desses índices foram encontrados em áreas antropizadas. Um maior número de espécies distintas com menor proximidade taxonômica durante a estação seca, em contraste com um alto número de indivíduos observados na estação chuvosa, indica que existe uma maior gama de possíveis serviços ecossistêmicos oferecidos pelas aves frugívoras no período mais seco do ano, enquanto no período de maior pluviosidade os ecossistemas apresentaram maior capacidade suporte.

4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978067

RESUMO

The use of creep feeding for preweaning piglets is important to improve the performance of the piglets. The objective of this experiment was evaluate the effect of using or altering the position of piglet's creep feeder during lactation on piglet's performance and on behavior of piglets and sows kept in a hot climate environment. Forty-five sows and their litters at 10 days of lactation were randomly distributed into three treatments: front feeder (FF) - near the side of the sow's head; back feeder (BF) - near the side of the rump of the sow; and no feeder (NF). All piglets were weighed individually to evaluate the average weight, weight gain and coefficient of variation of the weight. Behavior assessments of the piglets and sows were recorded in 3 period. At 15 and 21 d, piglets of the FF treatment were heavier (P ≤ 0.0001) than piglets of the other treatments. At 10-21d piglets of FF treatment had 76.2% less belly nosing behavior than the NF piglets (P=0.015). The treatments had no impact on behavior of the sows. The creep feeders positioned in the front of the farrowing crate increased piglet growth rate and decreased frequency of belly nosing behavior.

5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20201282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978068

RESUMO

Arid lands provide several products and services to humankind, but human activities affect this environment, increasing the extinction risk of the native species. Thus, to successfully conserve the biodiversity of these ecosystems, it is necessary to identify which environmental factors influence the spatial distribution of the organisms that offer these benefits. Darkling beetles play a relevant role on the functioning of deserts. Although these insects are among the most abundant and diverse in these environments, there is no agreement on the relative importance that different environmental factors have as determinants of their spatial distribution. In this work, we assessed the role of climate, vegetation, and soil variables as factors that determine distribution patterns of darkling beetles within the Natural Protected Area Península Valdés (Northeastern Patagonia). Five groups of environmental units were identified, each one with an exclusive tenebrionid species assemblage and different species diversity. The most influential environmental variables were temperature, precipitations, and soil texture. Results suggest that the magnitude of several ecosystem processes may vary among the groups of environmental units. We recommend prioritizing the conservation of the five groups of environmental units and incorporating the darkling beetles-environment relationship in future conservation strategies for arid Patagonia.

6.
Codas ; 33(2): e20190128, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the factors associated with the cognitive development of children from 24 to 42 months of age, as well as to characterize the availability of toys and resources present in the family environment, and the parental practices that signal family stability. METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted with children regularly enrolled in public and private educational institutions of a medium-sized city. Cognitive development was assessed by means of the Bayley test and the quality of the environment was evaluated using the Adapted Family Environment Resource Inventory (FERI). The children were allocated into two groups based on the cognitive test result and compared regarding activities performed at home; reports of outings and trips in the last year; presence of regular scheduled activities; activities developed with parents; toys the child has or has had; presence of newspapers, magazines, and books at home; the person responsible for monitoring the child during day-care; and routines of the child and family. RESULTS: Of the 104 children evaluated, 72% were enrolled in the public education network and 69% belonged to economic classes C and D. Regarding cognitive development, 55% had above-average development. In the bivariate analysis, it was observed that greater availability of toys and materials for the child and higher economic levels were related to better scores on the cognitive development test. These remained as predictors of cognitive development in binary logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Greater availability of resources in the family environment and economic levels were positively associated with cognitive development in children.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that contaminates healthcare environments causing healthcare-associated outbreaks. The mechanisms facilitating contamination are not established. METHODS: C. auris was quantified in residents' bilateral axillary/inguinal composite skin swabs and environmental samples during a point-prevalence survey at a ventilator-capable skilled-nursing facility (vSNF A) with documented high colonization prevalence. Environmental samples were collected from all doorknobs, windowsills and handrails of each bed in 12 rooms. C. auris concentrations were measured using culture and C. auris-specific qPCR. The relationship between C. auris concentrations in residents' swabs and associated environmental samples were evaluated using Kendall's tau-b (τb) correlation coefficient. RESULTS: C. auris was detected in 70 /100 tested environmental samples and 31/ 57 tested resident skin swabs. The mean C. auris concentration in skin swabs was 1.22 x 10 5 cells/mL by culture and 1.08 x 10 6 cells/mL by qPCR. C. auris was detected on all handrails of beds occupied by colonized residents, as well as 10/24 doorknobs and 9/12 windowsills. A positive correlation was identified between the concentrations of C. auris in skin swabs and associated handrail samples based on culture (τb = 0.54, p = 0.0004) and qPCR (τb = 0.66, p = 3.83e -6). Two uncolonized residents resided in beds contaminated with C. auris. CONCLUSIONS: Colonized residents can have high C. auris burdens on their skin, which was positively related with contamination of their surrounding healthcare environment. These findings underscore the importance of hand hygiene, transmission-based precautions, and particularly environmental disinfection in preventing spread in healthcare facilities.

8.
J Radiat Res ; 62(Supplement_1): i15-i20, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978174

RESUMO

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to whole body exposure (WBE) presents various clinical pictures, occasionally leading to fatal consequences. In this report, the literature providing details of the clinical course of severe ARS owing to WBE is reviewed and the lessons learned from recent accidents are discussed, to better prepare for another radiological event. Studies investigating radiological accidents that provided details of medical care for severe ARS were searched in official reports from the International Atomic Energy Agency and through the databases of PubMed, Medline, CiNii and Google Scholar and reviewed. Four fatal cases of severe ARS due to WBE in Soreq 1990 and Nesvizh 1992, and two cases in JCO Tokaimura 1999 were reviewed. A common set of medical interventions was carried out, that put a focus on medical management assuming the occurrence of hematopoietic disorders. However, clinicians were faced with a mixture of chronic hematological and non-hematological events including persistent gastrointestinal disorders, gradual and progressive skin disorders, liver and renal dysfunction and respiratory failure. Clinical pictures following high-dose WBE have become more complicated as treatment modalities improve. To address these issues, a concept of severe ARS due to WBE has been proposed with respect to radiation-induced multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (RI-MODS) and failure (RI-MOF). These patients need to be managed at institutions where multidisciplinary, resource-intensive therapy can be provided.

9.
J Radiat Res ; 62(Supplement_1): i101-i106, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978180

RESUMO

It is crucial to evaluate ethical issues regarding evacuation orders, especially after a nuclear disaster. After the Fukushima accident in 2011, the Japanese government ordered the affected people to evacuate. The evacuation orders have now been lifted in many areas. A risk trade-off analysis between benefits and risk associated with returning home would help in evaluating the justification for the lifting of the evacuation order in the aftermath of a nuclear disaster. Here, we performed a risk trade-off analysis among people returning home after the lifting of an evacuation order between an increase in emotional happiness (positive effect) and loss of life expectancy due to additional radiation exposure (negative effect), using a happy life expectancy (HpLE) indicator. Emotional happiness was estimated using questionnaires distributed among the affected people who lived in municipalities where evacuation orders were lifted. Loss of life expectancy was estimated under a scenario that returnees received 20 mSv in the year of return and subsequent radiation exposure. Increase in emotional happiness due to returning home was ~1-2 orders of magnitude higher among women aged 20, 40 and 65 years than the loss of life expectancy due to additional radiation exposure. This finding has implications for the justification for the lifting of evacuation orders.

10.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978264

RESUMO

Contaminants alter the quantity and quality of insect prey available to terrestrial insectivores. In agricultural regions, the quantity of aquatic insects emerging from freshwaters can be impacted by insecticides originating from surrounding croplands. We hypothesized that, in such regions, adult aquatic insects could also act as important vectors of pesticide transfer to terrestrial food webs. To estimate insect-mediated pesticide flux from wetlands embedded in an important agricultural landscape, semi-permanently and temporarily ponded wetlands were surveyed in cropland and grassland landscapes across a natural salinity gradient in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota (USA) during the bird breeding season in 2015 and 2016 (N = 14 and 15 wetlands, respectively). Current-use pesticides, including the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides bifenthrin and imidacloprid, were detected in newly emerged insects. Detection probabilities were similar in insects emerging from agricultural and grassland wetlands. Biomass of emerging aquatic insects decreased 43% and insect-mediated pesticide flux increased 50% along the observed gradient in concentrations of insecticides in emerging aquatic insects (from 3 to 577 ng total insecticide g-1 insect). Overall, adult aquatic insects were estimated to transfer between 2-µg and 180-µg total pesticide wetland-1 d-1 to the terrestrial ecosystem. In one of the two study years, biomass of emerging adult aquatic insects was also 73% lower from agricultural than grassland wetlands and was dependent on salinity. Our results suggest that accumulated insecticides reduce availability of adult aquatic insect prey for insectivores and potentially increase insectivore exposure to insect-borne pesticides. Adult aquatic insects retain pesticides across metamorphosis and may expose insectivores living near both agricultural and grassland wetlands to dietary sources of toxic chemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978266

RESUMO

As a result of military activities, unexploded ordnance and discarded military munitions are present in underwater environments, which has resulted in the release of munitions constituents including the high explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), along with their primary degradation products, to the water column and adjacent sediments. The present study focused on the characterization of underwater exposure and concentrations of energetics such as TNT and RDX at the former Vieques Naval Training Range at Bahia Salina del Sur (BSS; Vieques, Puerto Rico, USA), a bay with documented high incidence of munitions. In situ passive sampling using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was used for the detection and quantification of constituents in water at target locations approximately 15-30 cm from 15 individual potentially leaking munitions, and also at 15 unbiased locations approximately evenly spaced across the Bay. For comparison with POCIS-derived concentrations, grab samples were taken at the POCIS target locations. POCIS-derived and averaged grab samples agreed within a factor of 3. When detected, munitions constituent concentrations (primarily TNT and RDX) were observed at ultra-trace concentrations (as low as 4 ng/L for RDX), except 30 cm from one General Purpose bomb where the TNT concentration was 5.3 µg/L, indicating that low level contamination exists at BSS on a very localized scale despite the relatively high density of munitions, similar to previously reported results for other munitions sites around the world. Sediment and porewater sampled at four stations where munitions constituents were detected in the water column had concentrations below detection (approximately 5 µg/kg and 5 ng/L, respectively), suggesting that the sediment was not a sink for these constituents at those locations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Liver Int ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure of immunologic homeostasis and resultant hepatocyte destruction in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is likely result of environmental triggers within a permissive genetic architecture. AIMS: We aimed to identify risk factors associated with AIH in a well-phenotyped AIH cohort. METHODS: We prospectively collected environmental questionnaires from 358 AIH cases 563 healthy controls. Response frequencies were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for age at recruitment, sex, and education. RESULTS: AIH cases were more likely to ever have a urinary tract infection (UTI) (53.6% vs 33.9%, p < 0.001) and recurrent UTI (more than 1 per year) (23.5% vs 15.9%, p=0.002) compared to controls. Female cases more frequently had ever used oral contraceptives (83.0% vs 73.7%, p = 0.006), fewer pregnancies (median=1 vs 3, p < 0.001), and less often used hormone replacement therapy compared to controls (28.5% vs 60.1%, p < 0.001). Current smoking was more prevalent in cases (18.9% vs 7.4%, p = 0.022), yet no difference according to historical smoking behaviors were observed. Finally, cases were less likely to have history of mumps (32.4% vs 53.1%, p = 0.011) and rheumatic fever (1.1% vs 4.4%, p = 0.028), but reported higher vaccination frequency to chicken pox (38% vs 28.1%), measles (66.5% vs 39.3%), mumps (58.7% vs 34.6%), rubella (55.3% vs 32.7%), pertussis (59.8% vs 40.1%), and pneumococcus (47.2% VS 39.4%) (p < 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Environmental factors are important in AIH pathogenesis. Replication of these findings and prospective examination may provide new insight into AIH onset and outcomes.

13.
Environ Manage ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978824

RESUMO

The EU Water Framework Directive requires the development of management responses aimed towards improving water quality as a result of improving ecosystem health (system state). Ecosystems have potential to supply a range of services that are of fundamental importance to human well-being, health, livelihoods and survival, and their capacity to supply these services depends on the ecosystem condition (its structure and processes). According to the WFD, Programmes of Measures should be developed to improve overall water status by reducing anthropogenic catchment pressures to levels compatible with the achievement of the ecological objectives of the directive, and when designed and implemented properly should improve the ecological condition of aquatic ecosystems that the delivery of ecosystem services depends on. Monitoring and evaluation of implemented measures are crucial for assessing their effectiveness and creating the agenda for consecutive planning cycles. Considering the challenges of achieving water status improvements, and the difficulties of communicating these to the wider public, we develop a framework for the evaluation of measures cost-effectiveness that considers ecosystem services as the benefits from the reduction of pressures on water bodies. We demonstrate its application through a case study and discuss its potential to facilitate the economic analysis required by the directive, and that most European water authorities had problems with. Findings demonstrate the potential of the methodology to effectively incorporate ecosystem services in the assessment of costs and benefits of proposed actions, as well as its potential to engage stakeholders.

14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978908

RESUMO

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall association between maternal exposure to pesticides and risk of ASD in offspring. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the PsycINFO were searched until December 30, 2020 to include eligible studies. Eight studies with 50,426 participants, 5810 of whom had ASD, were involved in the study. Overall, the summary OR (95% confidence interval) of ASDs in offspring for maternal exposure to pesticide estimated by residential proximity measures and self-report was 1.88 (1.10-3.20). However, maternal exposure to pesticide measured by biomarkers was not associated with an increased risk of ASDs (pooled OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.83-1.54). Further well-designed studies are needed to confirm our findings.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978949
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978950

RESUMO

Despite that commuters spend only 5.5% of their time in cabin vehicles, their exposure to harmful air pollutants, originated from the vehicle itself, and traffic emission is considered significant. In this study, two passenger cars with different type of fuels were investigated in terms of air quality and thermal comfort of their cabin. Investigation was performed in the city of Kozani, Northern Greece. Moreover, air samples near the exhausts were taken, in order to compare concentration of compounds found indoors. Twelve volatile organic compounds and CO2 were measured inside the cabin when the cars were stopped, when idle and when they were cruising in medium and heavy traffic roads, under various ventilated conditions. Thermal comfort was investigated while driving the cars through the city traffic. Results showed that the air around the diesel exhaust is less affected by emissions from the engine compared to LPG fuel. This is reflected to the TVOC measured into the cabin. Results also revealed that the air quality of a diesel fuel moving car with open windows is only affected by the traffic emissions from neighbouring vehicles, while for the car with LPG fuel, the self-pollution from its own exhaust might contribute together with the outdoor air.

17.
New Phytol ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932292

RESUMO

Identifying the contours and correlates of species turnover is central to understanding the nature of biogeographical regions. The Hengduan Mountains region of south-central China (HMR) is well known for its high diversity of plants, but its boundaries and internal floristic structure are poorly understood, especially in relation to geographical and environmental factors. With data on occurrences and elevational ranges of seed plants across the HMR and adjacent areas of the greater Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we identified motifs (distinct species assemblages) by Grade of Membership models, and characterized relative contributions of geography, elevation, and climate to their spatial patterns. Motifs segregate primarily by latitude, elevation, and correlated environmental variables, most sharply across the tropical-temperate divide. Secondarily, they segregate by longitude and geographical features, and reveal a novel divide across the Jinsha River. A core set of motifs corresponds to previous delineations of the HMR. The HMR biodiversity hotspot is more a mosaic of floristic elements than a cohesive entity. Grade of Membership models effectively reveal the geographical contours of biotic structure, and are a valuable new tool for biogeographical analysis.

18.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932243

RESUMO

To cope with abiotic stresses, the halophytes use various tolerance mechanisms that are not all known for some species of halophytes. This work aimed to model the responses of two halophytes, Limonium pruinosum and Limonium tunetanum, to changing environmental conditions over a year in Sabkha biotope, Tunisia. Our findings indicated that the model could describe well the seasonal variations of all studied traits over a year in this region (R2  > 0.80). The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and mineral composition (i.e., Sodium [Na+ ], potassium [K+ ], calcium [Ca2+ ], and magnesium [Mg2+ ] concentrations] in the soil significantly varied during the year (P < 0.01). The highest soil Na+ concentration was found during the dry period (June-August), which matched with a high Na+ content in the aerial parts (i.e., 2455.1 and 3366.0 µmol g-1 SDM in August for L. pruinosum and L. tunetanum, respectively). This accumulation is concomitant with a deficit in nutrients, particularly K+ and Mg2+ and, to a lesser extent, Ca2+ . Following these disturbances, both species decreased their photosynthetic activity, water potential as well as the relative water content to a lesser extent, especially in August. To counteract these harmful effects, these species have accumulated organic substances, but in a different way. Indeed, L. pruinosum accumulated sucrose, fructose, and citrate, while L. tunetanum accumulated sucrose, xylitol, citrate, and malate, indicating a major role of these osmolytes in the stress tolerance mechanisms. In both species, the results also showed that all traits were highly correlated with the edaphic variables (i.e., pH, EC, Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ concentrations) and with temperature as the climatic variable.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 549-563, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932421

RESUMO

Biological polyesters of hydroxyacids are known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). They have proved to be an alternative, environmentally friendly and attractive candidate for the replacement of petroleum-based plastics in many applications. Many bacteria synthesize these compounds as an intracellular carbon and energy compound usually under unbalanced growth conditions. Biodegradability and biocompatibility of different PHA has been studied in cell culture systems or in an animal host during the last few decades. Such investigations have proposed that PHA can be used as biomaterials for applications in conventional medical devices such as sutures, patches, meshes, implants, and tissue engineering scaffolds as well. Moreover, findings related to encapsulation capability and degradation kinetics of some PHA polymers has paved their way for development of controlled drug delivery systems. The present review discusses about bio-plastics, their characteristics, examines the key findings and recent advances highlighting the usage of bio-plastics in different medical devices. The patents concerning to PHA application in biomedical field have been also enlisted that will provide a brief overview of the status of research in bio-plastic. This would help medical researchers and practitioners to replace the synthetic plastics aids that are currently being used. Simultaneously, it could also prove to be a strong step in reducing the plastic pollution that surged abruptly due to the COVID-19 medical waste.

20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 366-374, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IGEDEPP (Interaction of Gene and Environment of Depression during PostPartum) is a prospective multicenter cohort study of 3310 Caucasian women who gave birth between 2011 and 2016, with follow-up until one year postpartum. The aim of the current study is to describe the cohort and estimate the prevalence and cumulative incidence of early and late-onset postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: Socio-demographic data, personal and family psychiatric history, as well as stressful life events during childhood and pregnancy were evaluated at baseline. Early and late-onset PPD were assessed at 8 weeks and 1 year postpartum respectively, using DSM-5 criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of early-onset PPD was 8.3% (95%CI 7.3-9.3), and late PPD 12.9% (95%CI 11.5-14.2), resulting in an 8-week cumulative incidence of 8.5% (95%CI 7.4-9.6) and a one-year cumulative incidence of PPD of 18.1% (95%CI: 17.1-19.2). Nearly half of the cohort (N = 1571, 47.5%) had a history of at least one psychiatric or addictive disorder, primarily depressive disorder (35%). Almost 300 women in the cohort (9.0%) reported childhood trauma. During pregnancy, 47.7% women experienced a stressful event, 30.2% in the first 8 weeks and 43.9% between 8 weeks and one year postpartum. Nearly one in five women reported at least one stressful postpartum event at 8 weeks. CONCLUSION: Incident depressive episodes affected nearly one in five women during the first year postpartum. Most women had stressful perinatal events. Further IGEDEPP studies will aim to disentangle the impact of childhood and pregnancy-related stressful events on postpartum mental disorders.

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