Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 109
Filtrar
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5983-5990, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently monkeypox cases have been reported from many non-endemic countries. The objective of this article is to bring out the epidemiology, mode of transmission, clinical features, genetic clades, and molecular properties of monkeypox virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature review was conducted on monkeypox, using databases PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, PMC and Cochrane Library, for the period between 1985 to 2022. RESULTS: Genetically monkeypox virus can be classified into Central African clade and Western African clades. The sequence similarity between the two strains was found to be 99.5%. However, some significant differences were found in the virulent and nonvirulent genes of the strains, such as BR-203, BR-209, COP-C3L b and COP-H5R, COP-A9L, COP-A50R, and COP-A36R, respectively. Human to human transmission occurs after exposure to respiratory droplets, oral secretions, contact with lesions, fomites, and direct/sexual contact. Monkeypox can also be transmitted from the infected mother to the fetus through the placenta leading to congenital infection. In May 2022 several cases have been reported from Europe, North America, and Australia, particularly from homosexual men. CONCLUSIONS: Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease which was prevalent in Central and Western African countries. Recently, human to human spread was noticed in developed countries of Europe, North America and Australia. Despite with a close genetic similarity between the two clades, the Central African strain is comparatively very virulent with high mortality. Monkeypox should be considered a re-emerging, neglected disease and proper measures like hand hygiene, wearing masks and vaccination to the high-risk groups are advised.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , África , Austrália , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética
6.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146818

RESUMO

An ongoing monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries has resulted in the declaration of a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). Though monkeypox has long been endemic in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, relatively little is known about its ecology, epidemiology, and transmission. Here, we consider the relevant research on both monkeypox and smallpox, a close relative, to make inferences about the current outbreak. Undetected circulation combined with atypical transmission and case presentation, including mild and asymptomatic disease, have facilitated the spread of monkeypox in non-endemic regions. A broader availability of diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and targeted education, combined with a better understanding of the routes of transmission, are critical to identify at-risk populations and design science-based countermeasures to control the current outbreak.

10.
Ecohealth ; 2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029356

RESUMO

Monkeypox (MPX) is an emergent severe zoonotic disease resembling that of smallpox. To date, most cases of human MPX have been reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). While the number of cases has increased steadily in the DRC over the last 30 years, the environmental risk factors that drive the spatiotemporal dynamics of MPX transmission remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the spatiotemporal associations between environmental risk factors and annual MPX incidence in the DRC. All MPX cases reported weekly at the health zone level over a 16-year period (2000-2015) were analyzed. A Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear mixed model was conducted to identify the spatiotemporal associations between annual MPX incidence and three types of environmental risk factors illustrating environment as a system resulting from physical, social and cultural interactions Primary forest (IRR 1.034 [1.029-1.040]), economic well-being (IRR 1.038 [1.031-1.047]), and temperature (IRR 1.143 [1.028-1.261]) were positively associated with annual MPX incidence. Our study shows that physical environmental risk factors alone cannot explain the emergence of MPX outbreaks in the DRC. Economic level and cultural practices participate from environment as a whole and thus, must be considered to understand exposure to MPX risk Future studies should examine the impact of these factors in greater detail.

11.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(5): 687-692, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924712

RESUMO

Monkeypox 2022 exhibits unprecedented human-to-human transmission and presents with different clinical features than those observed in prior outbreaks. Previously endemic only to West and Central Africa, the monkeypox virus spread rapidly world-wide following confirmation of a case in the United Kingdom on May 7, 2022 of an individual that had traveled to Nigeria. Detection of cases with no travel history confirms on-going community spread. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals will likely encounter patients suspected or confirmed to have monkeypox, previously a rare disease and therefore unfamiliar to most clinicians. Consequently, it is critical for EMS medical directors to immediately implement policies and procedures for EMS teams - including emergency medical dispatchers - to identify potential monkeypox cases. These must include direction on actions EMS professionals should take to protect themselves and others from virus transmission. Monkeypox 2022 may manifest more subtly than it has historically. Presentations include a subclinical prodrome and less dramatic skin lesions - potentially limited to genital or anal body regions - which can be easily confused with dermatologic manifestations of common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While most readily spread by close contact with infectious skin lesions on a patient, it is also transmissible from fomites, such as bed sheets. Additionally, droplet transmission can occur, and the virus can be spread by aerosolization under certain conditions. The long incubation period could have profound negative consequences on EMS staffing if clinicians are exposed to monkeypox. This report summarizes crucial information needed for EMS professionals to understand and manage the monkeypox 2022 outbreak. It presents an innovative Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool for use by EMS policymakers, educators, and clinicians on the frontlines who may encounter monkeypox patients. Patients are identified as potentially exposed or infected after an initial assessment of risk factors with associated signs and symptoms. Prehospital workers must immediately don personal protective equipment (PPE) and isolate infectious patients. Also, EMS professionals must report exposures to their agency infection control officer and alert health authorities for non-transported patients. Prehospital professionals play a crucial role in emerging and re-emerging infectious disease mitigation. The monkeypox 2022 3I Tool includes knowledge essential for all clinicians, plus specific information to guide critical actions in the prehospital environment.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Varíola dos Macacos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Viagem
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2082-2086, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960543

RESUMO

After community transmission of monkeypox virus was identified in Europe, interviews of 45 case-patients from England indicated transmission in international sexual networks of gay and bisexual men since April 2022. Interventions targeting sex-on-premises venues, geospatial dating applications, and sexual health services are likely to be critical for outbreak control.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Bissexualidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Comportamento Sexual
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 2078-2081, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994726

RESUMO

We analyzed the first 255 PCR-confirmed cases of monkeypox in Italy in 2022. Preliminary estimates indicate mean incubation period of 9.1 (95% CI 6.5-10.9) days, mean generation time of 12.5 (95% CI 7.5-17.3) days, and reproduction number among men who have sex with men of 2.43 (95% CI 1.82-3.26).


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Reprodução
16.
17.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(109): 11-29, 20220000. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392440

RESUMO

El virus de la viruela símica es un orthopoxvirus de características zoonóticas endémico en las regiones de África Central y África Occidental, donde causa brotes desde 1970. En las últimas décadas se registró un aumento exponencial de casos, probablemente asociado a la disminución en la inmunidad conferida por la vacuna antivariólica, discontinuada luego de la erradicación de la viruela. En los últimos años se registraron casos esporádicos fuera del continente africano, siempre relacionados epidemiológicamente a la permanencia en áreas endémicas o contacto con animales infectados. Desde el 13 de mayo de 2022 se encuentra en curso el mayor brote de viruela símica registrado fuera de las áreas endémicas de África, con casos en los cinco continentes. La extensión, el impacto y la duración del brote permanecen aún inciertos.


Monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus with zoonotic characteristics endemic in Central and West Africa regions, where it has caused outbreaks since 1970. An exponential increase in cases has been registered in the last decades, probably associated with a decrease in the immunity conferred by the smallpox vaccine, discontinued after smallpox eradication. In recent years, sporadic cases have been reported outside the African continent, always epidemiologically related to permanence in endemic areas or contact with infected animals. Since May 13, 2022, the largest monkeypox outbreak ever reported outside Africa endemic areas, with cases on the five continents, is unfolding. The extent, impact and duration of this outbreak still remain uncertain


Assuntos
Humanos , Vacinas , Orthopoxvirus/imunologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/terapia , Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Varíola dos Macacos/terapia , Varíola dos Macacos/transmissão , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(27)2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801518

RESUMO

By 22 June 2022, 521 cases of monkeypox were notified in Germany. The median age was 38 years (IQR: 32-44); all cases were men. In Berlin, where 69% of all cases occurred, almost all were men who have sex with men. Monkeypox virus likely circulated unrecognised in Berlin before early May. Since mid-May, we observed a shift from travel-associated infections to mainly autochthonous transmission that predominantly took place in Berlin, often in association with visits to clubs and parties.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/transmissão , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Berlim/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/etiologia , Viagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...