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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986775

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are rodent viruses that have been identified as etiologic agents of 2 diseases of humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathiaepidemica (NE) in the Old World and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Orthohantavirus is a genus of sin- gle-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavi- rales. The important reservoir of Hantaviruses is rodents. Each virus serotype has its unique rodent host species and is transmitted to human beings with the aid of aerosolized virus, which is shed in urine, fae- ces and saliva and hardly by a bite of the contaminated host. Andes virus is the only Hantavirus identified to be transmitted from human-to-human and its major signs and symptoms include fever, headache, mus- cle aches, lungs filled with fluid etc. In the early 1993, this viral syndrome appeared in the Four Cor- ner location in the south western United States. The only accepted therapeutics for this virus is Ribavirin. Recently, serological examinations to identify Hantavirus antibodies have become most popular for in- vestigation among humans and rodent reservoirs.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 104(5-1): 054401, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942722

RESUMO

The spatial critical shelter sizes above which populations would survive are investigated for the infection of hantavirus among rodent populations surrounded by a deadly environment. We show that the critical shelter sizes for the infected population and the susceptible population are different due to symmetry breaking in the reproduction and the transmission processes. Therefore, there exists a shelter size gap within which the infected population becomes extinct while only the susceptible population survives. With the field data reported in the literature, we estimate that, if one confines the rodent population within a stripe region surrounded by a deadly environment with the shorter dimension between 335.5±27.2m and 547.9±78.3m, the infected population would become extinct. In addition, we introduce two factors that influence the movement of rodents, namely, the spatial asymmetry of the landscape and the sociality of rodents, to study their effects on the shelter size gap. The effects on the critical size due to environmental bias are twofold: it enhances the overall competition among rodents which increases the critical size, but on the other hand it promotes the spread of the hantavirus which reduces the critical size for the infected population. On the contrary, the sociality of rodents gives rise to a more localized population profile which promotes the spread of the hantavirus and reduces the shelter size gap. The results shed light on a possible strategy of eliminating hantavirus while preserving the integrity of food webs in ecosystems.

3.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 748232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966803

RESUMO

Rodents are important hosts of hantaviruses, and lungs and kidneys are known to be the preferred organs of these viruses. Recently, hantaviruses were detected in liver samples from wild rodents in Hungary and the United States, and feeder rats in the Netherlands. However, few studies have detected hantaviruses in the liver of rats from China. In this study, hantaviruses were investigated in liver samples from R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi trapped in urban areas of southern China. A total of 461 R. norvegicus and 64 R. tanezumi were trapped. Using a pan-hantavirus PCR method, hantaviruses were detected in liver, lung, and serum samples from these animals. About 7.43% of liver samples were positive for Seoul virus (SEOV). The detection rate of SEOV in liver samples from R. norvegicus (8.24%) was higher than that from R. tanezumi (1.56%), suggesting the predominant role of R. norvegicus in the transmission of SEOV in urban areas of China. Three R. norvegicus had SEOV RNA in their liver samples but not in their lung samples, suggesting that the liver might be one of the targeted organs of SEOV. The first full SEOV protein-coding sequences (CDS) of the S and M segments, and partial CDS of the L segment from R. tanezumi were amplified. Several full and partial CDS of the S, M, and L segments from R. norvegicus were also obtained. The SEOV sequences obtained from different animals were highly similar, suggesting the cross-species transmission potential of SEOV between R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi.

4.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834957

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that can cause serious human disorders, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. As the main risk factor for human infections is the interaction with rodents, occupational groups such as farmers and forestry workers are reportedly at high risk, but no summary evidence has been collected to date. Therefore, we searched two different databases (PubMed and EMBASE), focusing on studies reporting the prevalence of hantaviruses in farmers and forestry workers. Data were extracted using a standardized assessment form, and results of such analyses were systematically reported, summarized and compared. We identified a total of 42 articles, including a total of 28 estimates on farmers, and 22 on forestry workers, with a total workforce of 15,043 cases (821 positive cases, 5.5%). A pooled seroprevalence of 3.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.2-6.2) was identified in farmers, compared to 3.8% (95% CI 2.6-5.7) in forestry workers. Compared to the reference population, an increased occurrence was reported for both occupational groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.875, 95% CI 1.438-2.445 and OR 2.892, 95% CI 2.079-4.023 for farmers and forestry workers, respectively). In summary, our analyses stress the actual occurrence of hantaviruses in selected occupational groups. Improved understanding of appropriate preventive measures, as well as further studies on hantavirus infection rates in reservoir host species (rodents, shrews, and bats) and virus transmission to humans, is needed to prevent future outbreaks.

5.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2021: 8800500, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603804

RESUMO

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) can occur after infection with Hantavirus which can occur by inhaling aerosolized rodent urine, feces, and saliva contaminated with the virus. It presents with the rapid development of pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock with the hallmark being microvascular leakage. We report a patient with a history of alcohol abuse and recent exposure to mice and sick kittens who presented with cough with sputum production, shortness of breath, orthopnea, and new-onset lower extremity edema. Imaging revealed bilateral infiltrates more common on the left with an unremarkable echocardiogram. Testing for COVID-19, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), influenza, bacterial pneumonia including tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, Blastomyces, and Coccidiodes was negative. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage revealed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) and were negative for acid-fast bacilli and Nocardia cultures. He was further tested for Hantavirus, Q fever, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, and empiric treatment with doxycycline initiated. His Hantavirus IgM antibody came back positive. Human Hantavirus infection occurs after inhalation of infected rodent excreta; fortunately, human-to-human transmission has not been documented. HCPS most commonly occurs due to the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), has a case fatality rate of 50%, and is a notifiable disease in the United States. It has 3 distinct phases, prodromal, cardiopulmonary, and convalescent/recovery. The cardiopulmonary phase occurs from increased permeability of pulmonary capillaries and in severe cases can progress to cardiogenic shock. Diagnosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG Hantavirus antibodies. Treatment is mainly supportive; however, patients are usually treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics while workup is underway. In animal models, ribavirin and favipiravir are only effective when administered in the prodromal phase. If suspicion of Hantavirus infection exists, early mobilization to the intensive care unit for treatment is recommended. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been suggested to improve outcomes in severe HCPS with refractory shock.

6.
Mol Ecol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614264

RESUMO

The natural host ranges of many viruses are restricted to very specific taxa. Little is known about the molecular barriers between species that lead to the establishment of this restriction or generally prevent virus emergence in new hosts. Here, we identify genomic polymorphisms in a natural rodent host associated with a strong genetic barrier to the transmission of European Tula orthohantavirus (TULV). We analysed the very abrupt spatial transition between two major phylogenetic clades in TULV across the comparatively much wider natural hybrid zone between evolutionary lineages of their reservoir host, the common vole (Microtus arvalis). Genomic scans of 79,225 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 323 TULV-infected host individuals detected 30 SNPs that were consistently associated with the TULV clades CEN.S or EST.S in two replicate sampling transects. Focusing the analysis on 199 voles with evidence of genomic admixture at the individual level (0.1-0.9) supported statistical significance for all 30 loci. Host genomic variation at these SNPs explained up to 37.6% of clade-specific TULV infections. Genes in the vicinity of associated SNPs include SAHH, ITCH and two members of the Syngr gene family, which are involved in functions related to immune response or membrane transport. This study demonstrates the relevance of natural hybrid zones as systems not only for studying processes of evolutionary divergence and speciation, but also for the detection of evolving genetic barriers for specialized parasites.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2707-2710, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545791

RESUMO

Andes virus, an orthohantavirus endemic to South America, causes severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome associated with human-to-human transmission. No approved treatments or vaccines against this virus are available. We show that a combined treatment with 2 monoclonal antibodies protected Syrian hamsters when administered at midstage or late-stage disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus , Hantavirus , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Cricetinae , Infecções por Hantavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mesocricetus , América do Sul
8.
J Virol ; 95(23): e0153421, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549977

RESUMO

Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV), a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that is carried and transmitted by the North American deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus, can cause infection in humans through inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. This infection can lead to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which has an ∼36% case-fatality rate. We used reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to confirm SNV infection in a patient and identified SNV in lung tissues in wild-caught rodents from potential sites of exposure. Using viral whole-genome sequencing (WGS), we identified the likely site of transmission and discovered SNV in multiple rodent species not previously known to carry the virus. Here, we report, for the first time, the use of SNV WGS to pinpoint a likely site of human infection and identify SNV simultaneously in multiple rodent species in an area of known host-to-human transmission. These results will impact epidemiology and infection control for hantaviruses by tracing zoonotic transmission and investigating possible novel host reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Orthohantaviruses cause severe disease in humans and can be lethal in up to 40% of cases. Sin Nombre orthohantavirus (SNV) is the main cause of hantavirus disease in North America. In this study, we sequenced SNV from an infected patient and wild-caught rodents to trace the location of infection. We also discovered SNV in rodent species not previously known to carry SNV. These studies demonstrate for the first time the use of virus sequencing to trace the transmission of SNV and describe infection in novel rodent species.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hantavirus is known to be transmitted from rodents to humans. However, some reports from Argentina and Chile have claimed that the hantavirus strain - Andes virus (ANDV) - can cause human-to-human transmission of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for human-to-human transmission of hantavirus. METHODS: We searched PubMed (inception to 28 February 2021), Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, LILACS and SciELO (inception to 3 July 2020) and other sources. We included studies that assessed whether interpersonal contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed hantavirus infection led to human-to-human transmission. Two reviewers conducted screening, selection, data extraction, and risk of bias (RoB) assessment. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity. With the exception of one prospective cohort study of ANDV in Chile with serious RoB, evidence from comparative studies (strongest level of evidence available) does not support human-to-human transmission of hantavirus infection. Non-comparative studies with a critical RoB suggest that human-to-human transmission of ANDV may be possible. CONCLUSIONS: The balance of the evidence does not support the claim of human-to-human transmission of ANDV. Well-designed cohort and case-control studies that control for co-exposure to rodents are needed to inform public health recommendations.

10.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021324, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses can cause serious human diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS). European Hantavirus are usually associated with HFRS, and their geographical distribution mirrors the ecology of reservoir host species. Epidemiology of HFRS is well-studied in Western Europe, but data from Italy are fragmentary. METHODS: We searched into two different databases (PubMed and EMBASE), focusing on studies reporting the prevalence of Hantaviruses in Italy. Data were extracted using a standardized assessment form, and results of the analyses were systematically reported, summarized and compared. RESULTS: We identified a total of 18 articles, including 12 reports (total population: 5,336 subjects, 1981-2019) and 6 case reports (1984-2019). In total, 200 subjects exhibited some degree of seropositivity, with a pooled seroprevalence of 1.7% (95% confidence interval 0.7%-4.0%) in the general population. Higher occurrence was reported in selected subgroups, i.e. acute (28.7%, 95%CI 22.1-36.2) and chronic (6.6%, 95%CI 4.7-9.1) renal failure, forestry workers (3.0%, 95%CI 1.4-6.5, actual range 0.0 to 10.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In the last decade, no human cases of hantavirus infection have been officially reported in Italy. However, our analysis stresses the actual occurrence of Hantavirus among general population and in selected population groups. Further studies on hantavirus infection rates in reservoir host species (rodents, shrews, and bats) and virus transmission to humans are needed to prevent outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus , Hantavirus , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal , Infecções por Hantavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Virusdisease ; : 1-13, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518804

RESUMO

Bats have a primeval evolutionary origin and have adopted various survival methods. They have played a central role in the emergence of various viral diseases. The sustenance of a plethora of virus species inside them has been an earnest area of study. This review explains how the evolution of viruses in bats has been linked to their metabolic pathways, flight abilities, reproductive abilities and colonization behaviors. The utilization of host immune response by DNA and RNA viruses is a commencement of the understanding of differences in the impact of viral infection in bats from other mammals. Rabies virus and other lyssa viruses have had long documented history as bat viruses. While many others like Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Hantavirus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and other new emerging viruses like Sosuga virus, Menangle and Tioman virus are now being studied extensively for their transmission in new hosts. The ongoing pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus has also been implicated to be originated from bats. Certain factors have been linked to spillover events while the scope of entitlement of other conditions in the spread of diseases from bats still exists. However, certain physiological and ecological parameters have been linked to specific transmission patterns, and more definite proofs are awaited for establishing these connections.

12.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372492

RESUMO

The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) in multiple species of shrews, moles and bats has revealed a complex evolutionary history involving cross-species transmission. Seewis virus (SWSV) is widely distributed throughout the geographic ranges of its soricid hosts, including the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) and Siberian large-toothed shrew (Sorex daphaenodon), suggesting host sharing. In addition, genetic variants of SWSV, previously named Artybash virus (ARTV) and Amga virus, have been detected in the Laxmann's shrew (Sorex caecutiens). Here, we describe the geographic distribution and phylogeny of SWSV and Altai virus (ALTV) in Asian Russia. The complete genomic sequence analysis showed that ALTV, also harbored by the Eurasian common shrew, is a new hantavirus species, distantly related to SWSV. Moreover, Lena River virus (LENV) appears to be a distinct hantavirus species, harbored by Laxmann's shrews and flat-skulled shrews (Sorex roboratus) in Eastern Siberia and far-eastern Russia. Another ALTV-related virus, which is more closely related to Camp Ripley virus from the United States, has been identified in the Eurasian least shrew (Sorex minutissimus) from far-eastern Russia. Two highly divergent viruses, ALTV and SWSV co-circulate among common shrews in Western Siberia, while LENV and the ARTV variant of SWSV co-circulate among Laxmann's shrews in Eastern Siberia and far-eastern Russia. ALTV and ALTV-related viruses appear to belong to the Mobatvirus genus, while SWSV is a member of the Orthohantavirus genus. These findings suggest that ALTV and ALTV-related hantaviruses might have emerged from ancient cross-species transmission with subsequent diversification within Sorex shrews in Eurasia.

13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 169, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of all known pathogenic orthohantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) usually occurs via inhalation of aerosols contaminated with viral particles derived from infected rodents and organ manifestation of infections is characterized by lung and kidney involvement. Orthohantaviruses found in Eurasia cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and New World orthohantaviruses cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). However, cases of infection with Old World orthohantaviruses with severe pulmonary manifestations have also been observed. Therefore, human airway cells may represent initial targets for orthohantavirus infection and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of infections with Eurasian orthohantaviruses. METHODS: We analyzed the permissiveness of primary endothelial cells of the human pulmonary microvasculature and of primary human epithelial cells derived from bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli for Old World orthohantavirus Puumala virus (PUUV) in vitro. In addition, we examined the expression of orthohantaviral receptors in these cell types. To minimize donor-specific effects, cells from two different donors were tested for each cell type. RESULTS: Productive infection with PUUV was observed for endothelial cells of the microvasculature and for the three tested epithelial cell types derived from different sites of the respiratory tract. Interestingly, infection and particle release were also detected in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells although expression of the orthohantaviral receptor integrin ß3 was not detectable in these cell types. In addition, replication kinetics and viral release demonstrate enormous donor-specific variations. CONCLUSIONS: The human respiratory epithelium is among the first targets of orthohantaviral infection and may contribute to virus replication, dissemination and pathogenesis of HFRS-causing orthohantaviruses. Differences in initial pulmonary infection due to donor-specific factors may play a role in the observed broad variance of severity and symptoms of orthohantavirus disease in patients. The absence of detectable levels of integrin αVß3 surface expression on bronchial and small airway epithelial cells indicates an alternate mode of orthohantaviral entry in these cells that is independent from integrin ß3.

14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208398

RESUMO

Tula orthohantavirus (TULV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus with broad geographical distribution in Europe. Its major reservoir is the common vole (Microtus arvalis), but TULV has also been detected in closely related vole species. Given the large distributional range and high amplitude population dynamics of common voles, this host-pathogen complex presents an ideal system to study the complex mechanisms of pathogen transmission in a wild rodent reservoir. We investigated the dynamics of TULV prevalence and the subsequent potential effects on the molecular evolution of TULV in common voles of the Central evolutionary lineage. Rodents were trapped for three years in four regions of Germany and samples were analyzed for the presence of TULV-reactive antibodies and TULV RNA with subsequent sequence determination. The results show that individual (sex) and population-level factors (abundance) of hosts were significant predictors of local TULV dynamics. At the large geographic scale, different phylogenetic TULV clades and an overall isolation-by-distance pattern in virus sequences were detected, while at the small scale (<4 km) this depended on the study area. In combination with an overall delayed density dependence, our results highlight that frequent, localized bottleneck events for the common vole and TULV do occur and can be offset by local recolonization dynamics.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Hantavirus/genética , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
mBio ; 12(4): e0253120, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225492

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are a group of emerging pathogens capable of causing severe disease upon zoonotic transmission to humans. The mature hantavirus surface presents higher-order tetrameric assemblies of two glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, which are responsible for negotiating host cell entry and constitute key therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that recombinantly derived Gn from Hantaan virus (HTNV) elicits a neutralizing antibody response (serum dilution that inhibits 50% infection [ID50], 1:200 to 1:850) in an animal model. Using antigen-specific B cell sorting, we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exhibiting neutralizing and non-neutralizing activity, termed mAb HTN-Gn1 and mAb nnHTN-Gn2, respectively. Crystallographic analysis reveals that these mAbs target spatially distinct epitopes at disparate sites of the N-terminal region of the HTNV Gn ectodomain. Epitope mapping onto a model of the higher order (Gn-Gc)4 spike supports the immune accessibility of the mAb HTN-Gn1 epitope, a hypothesis confirmed by electron cryo-tomography of the antibody with virus-like particles. These data define natively exposed regions of the hantaviral Gn that can be targeted in immunogen design. IMPORTANCE The spillover of pathogenic hantaviruses from rodent reservoirs into the human population poses a continued threat to human health. Here, we show that a recombinant form of the Hantaan virus (HTNV) surface-displayed glycoprotein, Gn, elicits a neutralizing antibody response in rabbits. We isolated a neutralizing (HTN-Gn1) and a non-neutralizing (nnHTN-Gn2) monoclonal antibody and provide the first molecular-level insights into how the Gn glycoprotein may be targeted by the antibody-mediated immune response. These findings may guide rational vaccine design approaches focused on targeting the hantavirus glycoprotein envelope.

16.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066592

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing of infectious agents enables the identification and characterization of emerging viruses. The MinION device is a portable sequencer that allows real-time sequencing in fields or hospitals. Hantaan orthohantavirus (Hantaan virus, HTNV), harbored by Apodemus agrarius, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and poses a critical public health threat worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using nanopore sequencing for whole-genome sequencing of HTNV from samples having different viral copy numbers. Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing was performed in A. agrarius lung tissues collected from the Republic of Korea. Genomic sequences of HTNV were analyzed based on the viral RNA copy numbers. Amplicon-based nanopore sequencing provided nearly full-length genomic sequences of HTNV and showed sufficient read depth for phylogenetic analysis after 8 h of sequencing. The average identity of the HTNV genome sequences for the nanopore sequencer compared to those of generated from Illumina MiSeq revealed 99.8% (L and M segments) and 99.7% (S segment) identities, respectively. This study highlights the potential of the portable nanopore sequencer for rapid generation of accurate genomic sequences of HTNV for quicker decision making in point-of-care testing of HFRS patients during a hantavirus outbreak.


Assuntos
Vírus Hantaan/genética , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Murinae/virologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Geografia Médica , Vírus Hantaan/classificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Roedores/virologia , Carga Viral
17.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is well-known in South and North America; however, not enough data exist for the Caribbean. The first report of clinical orthohantavirus infection was obtained in Barbados, but no other evidence of clinical orthohantavirus infections among adults in the Caribbean has been documented. METHODS: Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests followed by confirmatory testing with immunofluorescent assays (IFA), immunochromatographic (ICG) tests, and pseudotype focus reduction neutralization tests (pFRNT), we retrospectively and prospectively detected orthohantavirus-specific antibodies among patients with febrile illness in Barbados. RESULTS: The orthohantavirus prevalence rate varied from 5.8 to 102.6 cases per 100,000 persons among febrile patients who sought medical attention annually between 2008 and 2016. Two major orthohantavirus epidemics occurred in Barbados during 2010 and 2016. Peak orthohantavis infections were observed observed during the rainy season (August) and prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than males and in patients from urban parishes than rural parishes. CONCLUSIONS: Orthohantavirus infections are still occurring in Barbados and in some patients along with multiple pathogen infections (CHIKV, ZIKV, DENV and Leptospira). Orthohantavirus infections are more prevalent during periods of high rainfall (rainy season) with peak transmission in August; females are more likely to be infected than males and infections are more likely among patients from urban rather than rural parishes in Barbados.

18.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 22-27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666908

RESUMO

While grappling with the implications of the current COVID-19 pandemic, we have perhaps overlooked recent history dealing with previous outbreaks. In the spring of 1993, America was presented with an outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome caused by the Sin Nombre virus. This article recounts the investigation into this disease and discusses the spectrum of issues that medical communities must face as it deals with a mysterious outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(1): 147-152, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486690

RESUMO

Hantaviruses, albeit reported more than 40 years ago, are now considered emerging viruses' because of their growing importance as human pathogens. Hantavirus created focal news when the paradoxical spread was reported during the world's pandemic battle of the COVID-19, killing a man in Yunnan province of China, further jeopardizing the existing of the human race on the planet earth. In recent years an increasing number of infections and human-to-human transmission is creating a distressing situation. In this short communication, we have focused on the biology, pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology and future perspective of the Hantaviruses. Our understandings of hantavirus related pandemics and syndrome are limited, the contributing environmental factors, the cellular and viral dynamics in transmission from natural reservoirs to humans and finally, the virology in humans is quite intricate. Priorities for future research suggest that setting up scientific collaboration, the funding, and encouragement of health ministries and the research institutes should take admirable steps to build an understanding of this virus. Discovering new drugs or other therapeutic molecules such as vaccines takes a longer time. Thus with the recent artificial intelligence (AI) technology, the rifle for impending new medicines should be hastened. Last but not least, a data-sharing platform should be provided where all the researchers should share and make available all the necessary information such as genomics, proteomics, host-factors, and other epigenetics information, which will encourage the research collaboration in the preparation against the Hantaviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Hantavirus/fisiologia , Pandemias , Geografia , Hantavirus/imunologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Ligação Viral
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(2)2021 01 11.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491638

RESUMO

In Denmark, most cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE) occur on the island of Funen and are caused by the transmission of Puumala hantavirus to humans from the bank vole. This is a case report comprising four cases of NE occurring in close vicinity to Silkeborg, Jutland, where the disease is not usually seen. NE is characterised by increased vascular permeability, and patients present with flu-like symptoms progressing to acute kidney injury. When NE occurs in areas where it has not traditionally been endemic, awareness of the disease is important to ensure proper diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hantavirus , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal , Virus Puumala , Animais , Arvicolinae , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Humanos
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