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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04021, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868672

RESUMO

Background: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. NCDs are responsible for an increased number of deaths worldwide, including in developing countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among youth and adults in a peri-urban area of Maputo city, Mozambique, and to assess their social and behavioral determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Maputo city. We measured BMI and interviewed 15-64-year-old inhabitants to assess sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics using the STEPwise Approach methodology. A household wealth index was derived through Principal Component Analysis of various household assets and physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers and accelerometers. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine associations between overweight/obesity and social and behavioral determinants. Results: Among a total of 931 participants, the prevalence of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was 30.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 28.0, 33.9) and 12.6% (95% CI = 10.4, 14.7), respectively; one in every 10 youths and adults were underweight. Being female, older and living in a wealthier household were found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Those with higher levels of education were found to have a reduced risk of being obese compared to those with no or lower levels of education. Behavioral risk factors (diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption and physical activity) did not significantly increase the risk of overweight and obesity. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in this peri-urban part of the Mozambican capital, where underweight is still present in youth and adults, confirming that the country is facing a double burden of malnutrition. Social determinants of health should be taken into consideration in the design and implementation of NCD prevention programs.

2.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of mobile technology has given rise to the development of mobile health (mHealth) applications aimed at treating and preventing a wide range of health conditions. However, evidence on the use of mHealth in high disease burdened settings such as sub-Sharan Africa is not clear. Given this, we systematically mapped evidence on mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review study guided by the Arksey and O'Malley's framework, Levac et al. recommendations, and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. We thoroughly searched the following databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL with full text via EBSCOhost; PubMed; Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant articles from the inception of mHealth technology to April 2020. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles using the eligibility criteria as reference. This study employed the mixed methods appraisal tool version 2018 to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Out of the 798 articles identified, only 12 published articles presented evidence on the availability and use of mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA since 2010. Of the 12 studies, four studies were conducted in Kenya; two in Malawi; two in Nigeria; one in South Africa; one in Zimbabwe; one in Mozambique, and one in Lesotho. Out of the 12 studies, one reported the use of mHealth for diseases diagnosis; three reported the use of mHealth to manage HIV; two on the management of HIV/TB; two on the treatment of malaria; one each on the management of hypertension; cervical cancer; and three were not specific on any disease condition. All the 12 included studies underwent methodological quality appraisal with a scored between 70 and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that there is limited research on the availability and use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa. We, therefore, recommend primary studies focusing on the use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa.

3.
Neurology ; 96(6): 274-286, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningioangiomatosis is a poorly studied, rare, benign, and epileptogenic brain lesion. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that surgical resection and a short-time interval to surgery improves epileptic seizure control, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of meningioangiomatosis cases. METHODS: Using PRISMA-IPD guidelines, the authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of histopathologically-proven meningioangiomatosis cases. Literature search in French and English languages (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Science Citation Index) including all studies (January 1981 to June 2020) dealing with histopathologically-proven meningioangiomatosis, without age restriction. We assessed clinical, imaging, histomolecular, management, and outcome findings of patients with meningioangiomatosis. RESULTS: Two-hundred and seven cases of meningioangiomatosis from 78 studies were included. Most meningioangiomatosis was sporadic, preferentially concerned male patients, younger than 20 years old, and allowed a functionally independent status. Epileptic seizure was the main symptom, with 81.4% of patients having uncontrolled seizures at the time of surgery. Meningioangiomatosis mainly had frontal (32.3%) or temporal (30.7%) locations. Imaging presentation was heterogeneous, and the diagnosis was often missed preoperatively. The histopathologic pattern was similar whatever the clinical presentation, and immunohistochemistry had limited diagnostic value. On molecular analysis, allelic loss at 22q12 was more frequent in samples of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma (37.5%) than in isolated meningioangiomatosis (23.1%). Time interval from diagnosis to surgery (p = 0.011) and lack of surgical resection of the meningioangiomatosis (p = 0.009) were independent predictors of postoperative seizure control. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to low scientific evidence, a multicentric prospective study should help refining the management of meningioangiomatosis.


Assuntos
Angiomatose , Encefalopatias , Epilepsia , Meninges , Angiomatose/complicações , Angiomatose/diagnóstico , Angiomatose/cirurgia , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/cirurgia , Humanos , Meninges/patologia
4.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 41(2): 119-123, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252586

RESUMO

Researchers have identified cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases as being the principal pathologies of increased aged standardized death rates (ASDRs) among noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The objective of this study was to compare the change in the ASDR of these principal NCDs between the years 2010 and 2016 in Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. ASDR data were collected from the 2016 Global Health Estimate. Among the selected Southern African countries for both 2010 and 2016, the order of prevalence of NCDs linked to increased ASDR was cardiovascular diseases (both cardiac and stroke), cancer, diabetes mellitus, and chronic respiratory diseases. The percentage of the total number of NCDs linked to increased ASDR in relation to total deaths increased from 43.8% (in 2010) to 51.0% (in 2016) from (p < .0001). The percentage of principal NCDs in relation to total ASDR increased from 33.0% (in 2010) to 38.2% (in 2016; p < .0001).

5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1843, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and its prevalence has been rising in low- and middle-income countries. The current study describes HTN prevalence in central Mozambique, association between wealth and blood pressure (BP), and HTN monitoring and diagnosis practice among individuals with elevated BP. METHODS: The study used data from a cross-sectional, representative household survey conducted in Manica and Sofala provinces, Mozambique. There were 4101 respondents, aged ≥20 years. We measured average systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) from three measurements taken in the household setting. Elevated BP was defined as having either SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mmHg. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 36.7 years old, 59.9% were women, and 72.5% were from rural areas. Adjusting for complex survey weights, 15.7% (95%CI: 14.0 to 17.4) of women and 16.1% (13.9 to 18.5) of men had elevated BP, and 7.5% (95% CI: 6.4 to 8.7) of the overall population had both SBP ≥140 and DBP ≥90 mmHg. Among participants with elevated BP, proportions of participants who had previous BP measurement and HTN diagnosis were both low (34.9% (95% CI: 30.0 to 40.1) and 12.2% (9.9 to 15.0) respectively). Prior BP measurement and HTN diagnosis were more commonly reported among hypertensive participants with secondary or higher education, from urban areas, and with highest relative wealth. In adjusted models, wealth was positively associated with higher SBP and DBP. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found evidence of positive association between wealth and BP. The prevalence of elevated BP was lower in Manica and Sofala provinces than the previously estimated national prevalence. Previous BP screening and HTN diagnosis were uncommon in our study population, especially among rural residents, individuals with lower education levels, and those with relatively less wealth. As the epidemiological transition advances in Mozambique, there is a need to develop and implement strategies to increase BP screening and deliver appropriate clinical services, as well as to encourage lifestyle changes among people at risk of developing hypertension in near future.

6.
Arch Public Health ; 78(1): 109, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NDC), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, poses a significant threat to global health. Obesity and overweight constitute major risk factors of NCDs such as heart diseases, diabetes, and kidney disease, and as a result, contribute significantly to the development of chronic morbidities, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of premature death. This study described evidence on the prevalence, incidence, and trends of childhood overweight and obesity in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review employing the Arksey and O'Malley framework, Levac et al. recommendations, and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. To obtain relevant published articles for this review, we performed a comprehensive keywords search in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost platform for studies published between 2009 and June 2019. Guided by the eligibility criteria, title and abstracts, as well as the full-text articles were independently screened in parallel by two investigators. All relevant data were independently extracted by two investigators using a piloted form designed in Microsoft and thematic analysis conducted. RESULTS: Of the 81 included studies obtained from 250,148 potentially eligible articles, the majority (25) conducted in South Africa followed by 18 in Nigeria. Six studies were conducted in Ethiopia (6), Tanzania (5), Kenya (4), Cameroon (4), Ghana (3), Uganda (2), Mozambique (2), and Sudan (2). One study each was conducted in Botswana, Gambia, Lesotho, Mauritius, Seychelles, Togo, and Zimbabwe. The remaining three articles were multi-country studies. Most (81.5%) of the included studies were cross-sectional surveys and the majority (79) focused on both male and female participants. The majority (80/81) of the included studies reported on the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, 8 on the trends of childhood overweight/obesity, and one presented evidence on the incidence of childhood overweight and obesity in SSA. CONCLUSION: This review demonstrates limited studies on childhood overweight/obesity in most SSA countries although the included studies suggest an increasing burden. Considering the consequences of childhood obesity, there is a need for more primary researches to inform policies decision and implementation to halt the rise of childhood obesity/overweight in SSA.

7.
Glob Cardiol Sci Pract ; 2020(1): e202002, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150147

RESUMO

The epidemiology of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) remains unclear in Africa, where health systems do not reach the majority of the population and heath information systems are poorly developed. In this context, registries are particularly important in gathering crucial information on PVD, aiming at improving knowledge of the epidemiology and/or quality of care. While population-based registries are the main tool to identify incident cases, and be a better indicator of pulmonary vascular disease burden, hospital-based registries can give an indication of the demand for specific care services, which is useful for health policy and planning. The only registry for pulmonary hypertension in Africa - the Pan African Pulmonary Hypertension Cohort (PAPUCO) - involved four countries, and was a pragmatic study that revealed a unique pattern of environmental risks, issues related to low access to health care, and ill-equipped health facilities for diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension. In addition, disease specific registries for conditions such as congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease uncovered high occurrence of PVD that can be managed and/or prevented with improvements in community awareness, surveillance, management and prevention. It is suggested that existing networks of experts and researchers develop regional registries to determine the epidemiology of PVD in Africa, assess geographic, environmental and seasonal differentials, as well as inform policy and care provision in the continent.

8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(10): 661-670, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177756

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the prevalence and prognosis of proteinuria at enrolment in the 27 intervention clusters of the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia cluster randomized trials. Methods: We identified pregnant women eligible for inclusion in the trials in their communities in four countries (2013-2017). We included women who delivered by trial end and received an intervention antenatal care visit. The intervention was a community health worker providing supplementary hypertension-oriented care, including proteinuria assessment by visual assessment of urinary dipstick at the first visit and all subsequent visits when hypertension was detected. In a multilevel regression model, we compared baseline prevalence of proteinuria (≥ 1+ or ≥ 2+) across countries. We compared the incidence of subsequent complications by baseline proteinuria. Findings: Baseline proteinuria was detected in less than 5% of eligible pregnancies in each country (India: 234/6120; Mozambique: 94/4234; Nigeria: 286/7004; Pakistan: 315/10 885), almost always with normotension (India: 225/234; Mozambique: 93/94; Nigeria: 241/286; Pakistan: 264/315). There was no consistent relationship between baseline proteinuria (either ≥ 1+ or ≥ 2+) and progression to hypertension, maternal mortality or morbidity, birth at < 37 weeks, caesarean section delivery or perinatal mortality or morbidity. If proteinuria testing were restricted to women with hypertension, we projected annual cost savings of 153 223 981 United States dollars (US$) in India, US$ 9 055 286 in Mozambique, US$ 53 181 933 in Nigeria and US$ 38 828 746 in Pakistan. Conclusion: Our findings question the recommendations to routinely evaluate proteinuria at first assessment in pregnancy. Restricting proteinuria testing to pregnant women with hypertension has the potential to save resources.

9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 994-1000, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031087

RESUMO

Mozambique is located on the East Coast of Africa and was one of the last countries affected by COVID-19. The first case was reported on 22 March 2020 and since then the cases have increased gradually as they have in other countries worldwide. Environmental and population characteristics have been analyzed worldwide to understand their possible association with COVID-19. This article seeks to highlight the evolution and the possible contribution of risk factors for COVID-19 severity according to the available data in Mozambique. The available data highlight that COVID-19 severity can be magnified mainly by hypertension, obesity, cancer, asthma, HIV/SIDA and malnutrition conditions, and buffered by age (youthful population). Due to COVID-19 epidemic evolution, particularly in Cabo Delgado, there is the need to increase laboratory diagnosis capacity and monitor compliance of preventive measures. Particular attention should be given to Cabo Delgado, including its isolation from other provinces, to overcome local transmission and the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medisan ; 24(5): 847-860, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135207

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: Algunos estudios resaltan la presencia de manifestaciones psiquiátricas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. La depresión es el trastorno mental más frecuente en diabéticos; se considera que 1 de cada 3 pacientes con diabetes tienen depresión y, a su vez, el riesgo de tener un trastorno depresivo es 2 veces mayor que en la población general. Objetivo: Identificar algunos factores asociados con la depresión en pacientes diabéticos y su efecto en el control glucémico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 457 pacientes diabéticos, atendidos en el Hospital Central de Nampula, Mozambique, desde marzo de 2014 hasta diciembre de 2016. Como principales variables figuraron: frecuencia de los síntomas de depresión, trastornos depresivos, características sociodemográficas, eventos vitales actuales y control glucémico. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen y como estadística inferencial la prueba de X2 de independencia y odds ratio, con un intervalo de confianza de 95 %. Resultados: La frecuencia de síntomas de depresión y de trastornos depresivos en la consulta externa fue de 32,3 y 24,3 %, respectivamente. Los factores mayormente asociados con la depresión fueron: el sexo femenino, estar viudo o divorciado y ser ama de casa. Por otra parte, experimentar 2 o más eventos vitales actuales incrementó la probabilidad de depresión y esta última se asoció con un mal control glucémico (p<0,05). Conclusiones: La frecuencia de depresión en pacientes diabéticos es elevada y está asociada con algunas variables sociodemográficas, con eventos vitales actuales y con un mal control glucémico.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Some studies emphasize the presence of psychiatric signs in patients with diabetes mellitus. The depression is the most frequent mental disorder in diabetic patients; it is considered that 1 out of 3 patients with diabetes have depression and, in turn, the risk of having a depressive disorder is 2 times higher than in the general population. Objective: To identify some factors associated with the depression in diabetic patients and their effect in the glycemic control. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 457 diabetic patients, assisted in the Central Hospital of Nampula, Mozambique, was carried out from March, 2014 to December, 2016. As main variables we can mention: frequency of the depression symptoms, depressive disorders, sociodemographic characteristics, current vital events and glycemic control. The percentage was used as summary measure and as inference statistics the chi-squared test of independence and odds ratio, with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: The frequency of depression symptoms and depressive disorders in the outpatient service was 32.3 and 24.3 %, respectively. The factors mostly associated with the depression were: the female sex, being widower or divorced and being a housewife. On the other hand, to experience 2 or more current vital events increased the depression probability and the latter was associated with a poor glycemic control (p <0.05). Conclusions: The frequency of depression in diabetic patients is high and it is associated with some sociodemographic variables, with current vital events and with a poor glycemic control.

11.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 553-563, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To overcome the three delays in triage, transport and treatment that underlie adverse pregnancy outcomes, we aimed to reduce all-cause adverse outcomes with community-level interventions targeting women with pregnancy hypertension in three low-income countries. METHODS: In this individual participant-level meta-analysis, we de-identified and pooled data from the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised controlled trials in Mozambique, Pakistan, and India, which were run in 2014-17. Consenting pregnant women, aged 12-49 years, were recruited in their homes. Clusters, defined by local administrative units, were randomly assigned (1:1) to intervention or control groups. The control groups continued local standard of care. The intervention comprised community engagement and existing community health worker-led mobile health-supported early detection, initial treatment, and hospital referral of women with hypertension. For this meta-analysis, as for the original studies, the primary outcome was a composite of maternal or perinatal outcome (either maternal, fetal, or neonatal death, or severe morbidity for the mother or baby), assessed by unmasked trial surveillance personnel. For this analysis, we included all consenting participants who were followed up with completed pregnancies at trial end. We analysed the outcome data with multilevel modelling and present data with the summary statistic of adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs (fixed effects for maternal age, parity, maternal education, and random effects for country and cluster). This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42018102564. FINDINGS: Overall, 44 clusters (69 330 pregnant women) were randomly assigned to intervention (22 clusters [36 008 pregnancies]) or control (22 clusters [33 322 pregnancies]) groups. 32 290 (89·7%) pregnancies in the intervention group and 29 698 (89·1%) in the control group were followed up successfully. Median maternal age of included women was 26 years (IQR 22-30). In the intervention clusters, 6990 group and 16 691 home-based community engagement sessions and 138 347 community health worker-led visits to 20 819 (57·8%) of 36 008 women (of whom 11 095 [53·3%] had a visit every 4 weeks) occurred. Blood pressure and dipstick proteinuria were assessed per protocol. Few women were eligible for methyldopa for severe hypertension (181 [1%] of 20 819) or intramuscular magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia (198 [1%]), of whom most accepted treatment (162 [89·5%] of 181 for severe hypertension and 133 [67·2%] of 198 for pre-eclampsia). 1255 (6%) were referred to a comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility, of whom 864 (82%) accepted the referral. The primary outcome was similar in the intervention (7871 [24%] of 32 290 pregnancies) and control clusters (6516 [22%] of 29 698; adjusted OR 1·17, 95% CI 0·90-1·51; p=0·24). No intervention-related serious adverse events occurred, and few adverse effects occurred after in-community treatment with methyldopa (one [2%] of 51; India only) and none occurred after in-community treatment with magnesium sulfate or during transport to facility. INTERPRETATION: The CLIP intervention did not reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future community-level interventions should expand the community health worker workforce, assess general (rather than condition-specific) messaging, and include health system strengthening. FUNDING: University of British Columbia, a grantee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35: 95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636993

RESUMO

Pope Francis visited Mozambique from September 4-6, 2019. During the visit, a real-time surveillance system for mass gathering events was implemented in all places where people gathered in Maputo City for early detection of possible outbreaks and other health-related events. The system was implemented at four sites were mass gathering events occurred over the three-day visit. Data were collected by administering a simple questionnaire on a tablet, which collected information about sociodemographics, syndromic diagnoses, and outcomes of the patients that sought medical care. Additionally, a descriptive epidemiological assessment was performed during the event. A total of 150 individuals were attended at the designated places during the event. Of these, 56.7% were female and 90.7% aged > 15 years. The majority of the patients (74.7%) sought care on the third day of the event, which was held at the Zimpeto National Stadium. The most common diagnoses were hypertension (20.7%), hypothermia (15.3%), and headache (11.3%). Almost all cases (95.0%) were discharged, (4.0%) cases were transferred and (1.0%) case resulted in death on the way to the health facility. The surveillance system strategy developed to detect real-time public health events during the Pope?s visit was successfully implemented. No outbreak was identified during the event.

13.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31(4): 190-195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634198

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With improved access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the focus of HIV treatment is changing to reducing chronic co-morbidities and their effects, but guidelines for HIV care in many African countries do not include screening for cardiac disease. Our study aimed to determine the pattern of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-positive patients on ART. METHODS: We implemented a prospective, observational study for 24 months on a random sample of adult patients seen at a dedicated HIV clinic in Mozambique. Demographic, clinical and full cardiovascular evaluations were performed on all participants. RESULTS: We enrolled 264 HIVvpositive patients (mean age 39.3 years; 186 female, 70.5%). The mean time on ART was 46 (SD 36) months and most had low viral load (174, 65%). Obesity (45, 17%), overweight (65, 24.6%), hypertension (54, 20.5%) and severe anaemia (21, 8.3%) were frequent. Diabetes was present in four patients (1.5%). The most important conditions in 252 patients submitted to echocardiography (88, 34.9% had cardiac abnormalities) were: severe rheumatic heart valve disease (six), severe dilated cardiomyopathy (five), aortic degenerative disease and congenital heart disease (in three patients each). At 24-month follow up, six of the 252 patients had died; of the 196 reviewed on echocardiography 29 had progressed and two had improved ventricular systolic function. CONCLUSION: This young cohort of HIV-positive patients on ART showed lower occurrence of tuberculous pericarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy but high cardiovascular risk, as assessed by the presence of obesity, hypertension and anaemia. Cardiac abnormalities needing multidisciplinary care were also found. There is a need for tailored cardiovascular risk stratification and screening for cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients on ART in Africa.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Mozambique, high adolescent fertility rates are a significant public health problem. Understanding the consequences of teenage pregnancies facilitates effective strategies for improving the quality of care of both mother and the newborn. AIMS: To identify the factors associated with adolescent motherhood in Tete (Mozambique). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 821 pregnant women (255 teenagers) admitted to the general maternity ward of the Provincial Hospital between March and October 2016. The survey included clinical data of the mother and newborn. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 31.8% (95% CI 27.9% - 34.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors associated with teenage motherhood were: number of pregnancies (OR 0.066; 95% CI 0.040-0.110), pregnancy follow-up (OR 0.29; CI 0.173-0.488) and previous abortions (OR 4.419; 95% CI 1.931-10.112). When the age of the mother was analysed as a continuous variable, positively associated factors were body mass index, arterial hypertension, HIV infection, previous abortions, pregnancy follow-up, and the weight of the newborn. Negatively associated factors were episiotomy and respiratory distress in the newborn. CONCLUSION: Teenage motherhood is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. Intensive sexual and reproductive health planning for adolescents is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 21: 96-105, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy hypertension is the third leading cause of maternal mortality in Mozambique and contributes significantly to fetal and neonatal mortality. The objective of this trial was to assess whether task-sharing care might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes related to delays in triage, transport, and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: The Mozambique Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised controlled trial (NCT01911494) recruited pregnant women in 12 administrative posts (clusters) in Maputo and Gaza Provinces. The CLIP intervention (6 clusters) consisted of community engagement, community health worker-provided mobile health-guided clinical assessment, initial treatment, and referral to facility either urgently (<4hrs) or non-urgently (<24hrs), dependent on algorithm-defined risk. Treatment effect was estimated by multi-level logistic regression modelling, adjusted for prognostically-significant baseline variables. Predefined secondary analyses included safety and evaluation of the intensity of CLIP contacts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 20% reduction in composite of maternal, fetal, and newborn mortality and major morbidity. RESULTS: 15,013 women (15,123 pregnancies) were recruited in intervention (N = 7930; 2·0% loss to follow-up (LTFU)) and control (N = 7190; 2·8% LTFU) clusters. The primary outcome did not differ between intervention and control clusters (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·31, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0·70, 2·48]; p = 0·40). Compared with intervention arm women without CLIP contacts, those with ≥8 contacts experienced fewer primary outcomes (aOR 0·79 (95% CI 0·63, 0·99); p = 0·041), primarily due to improved maternal outcomes (aOR 0·72 (95% CI 0·53, 0·97); p = 0·033). INTERPRETATION: As generally implemented, the CLIP intervention did not improve pregnancy outcomes; community implementation of the WHO eight contact model may be beneficial. FUNDING: The University of British Columbia (PRE-EMPT), a grantee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1017337).

16.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 51, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PRECISE (PREgnancy Care Integrating translational Science, Everywhere) Network is a new and broadly-based group of research scientists and health advocates based in the UK, Africa and North America. METHODS: This paper describes the protocol that underpins the clinical research activity of the Network, so that the investigators, and broader global health community, can have access to 'deep phenotyping' (social determinants of health, demographic and clinical parameters, placental biology and agnostic discovery biology) of women as they advance through pregnancy to the end of the puerperium, whether those pregnancies have normal outcomes or are complicated by one/more of the placental disorders of pregnancy (pregnancy hypertension, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth). Our clinical sites are in The Gambia (Farafenni), Kenya (Kilifi County), and Mozambique (Maputo Province). In each country, 50 non-pregnant women of reproductive age will be recruited each month for 1 year, to provide a final national sample size of 600; these women will provide culturally-, ethnically-, seasonally- and spatially-relevant control data with which to compare women with normal and complicated pregnancies. Between the three countries we will recruit ≈10,000 unselected pregnant women over 2 years. An estimated 1500 women will experience one/more placental complications over the same epoch. Importantly, as we will have accurate gestational age dating using the TraCer device, we will be able to discriminate between fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Recruitment and follow-up will be primarily facility-based and will include women booking for antenatal care, subsequent visits in the third trimester, at time-of-disease, when relevant, during/immediately after birth and 6 weeks after birth. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate progress towards the women's and children's health-relevant Sustainable Development Goals, we need to understand how a variety of social, chronic disease, biomarker and pregnancy-specific determinants health interact to result in either a resilient or a compromised pregnancy for either mother or fetus/newborn, or both. This protocol has been designed to create such a depth of understanding. We are seeking funding to maintain the cohort to better understand the implications of pregnancy complications for both maternal and child health.

17.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 58, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354359

RESUMO

The PRECISE Network is a cohort study established to investigate hypertension, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth (described as "placental disorders") in Kenya, Mozambique and The Gambia. Several pregnancy or birth cohorts have been set up in low- and middle-income countries, focussed on maternal and child health. Qualitative research methods are sometimes used alongside quantitative data collection from these cohorts. Researchers affiliated with PRECISE are also planning to use qualitative methods, from the perspective of multiple subject areas. This paper provides an overview of the different ways in which qualitative research methods can contribute to achieving PRECISE's objectives, and discusses the combination of qualitative methods with quantitative cohort studies more generally.We present planned qualitative work in six subject areas (health systems, health geography, mental health, community engagement, the implementation of the TraCer tool, and respectful maternity care). Based on these plans, with reference to other cohort studies on maternal and child health, and in the context of the methodological literature on mixed methods approaches, we find that qualitative work may have several different functions in relation to cohort studies, including informing the quantitative data collection or interpretation. Researchers may also conduct qualitative work in pursuit of a complementary research agenda. The degree to which integration between qualitative and quantitative methods will be sought and achieved within PRECISE remains to be seen. Overall, we conclude that the synergies resulting from the combination of cohort studies with qualitative research are an asset to the field of maternal and child health.

18.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 54, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: PRECISE is a population-based, prospective pregnancy cohort study designed for deep phenotyping of pregnancies in women with placenta-related disorders, and in healthy controls. The PRECISE Network is recruiting ~ 10,000 pregnant women in three countries (The Gambia, Kenya, and Mozambique) representing sub-Saharan Africa. The principal aim is to improve our understanding of pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth. This involves the creation of a highly curated biorepository for state of the art discovery science and a rich database of antenatal variables and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our overarching aim is to provide large sample numbers with adequate power to address key scientific questions. Here we describe our experience of establishing a biorepository in the PRECISE Network and review the issues and challenges surrounding set-up, management and scientific use. METHODS: The feasibility of collecting and processing each sample type was assessed in each setting and plans made for establishing the necessary infrastructure. Quality control (QC) protocols were established to ensure that biological samples are 'fit-for-purpose'. The management structures required for standardised sample collection and processing were developed. This included the need for transport of samples between participating countries and to external academic/commercial institutions. RESULTS: Numerous practical challenges were encountered in setting up the infrastructure including facilities, staffing, training, cultural barriers, procurement, shipping and sample storage. Whilst delaying the project, these were overcome by establishing good communication with the sites, training workshops and constant engagement with the necessary commercial suppliers. A Project Executive Committee and Biology Working Group together defined the biospecimens required to answer the research questions paying particular attention to harmonisation of protocols with other cohorts so as to enable cross-biorepository collaboration. Governance structures implemented include a Data and Sample Committee to ensure biospecimens and data will be used according to consent, and prioritisation by scientific excellence. A coordinated sample and data transfer agreement will prevent delay in sample sharing. DISCUSSION: With adequate training and infrastructure, it is possible to establish high quality sample collections to facilitate research programmes such as the PRECISE Network in sub-Saharan Africa. These preparations are pre-requisites for effective execution of a biomarker-based approach to better understand the complexities of placental disease in these settings, and others.

19.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 982-1004, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371787

RESUMO

DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Hind Beheiry (Sudan), Irina Chazova (Russia), Albertino Damasceno (Mozambique), Anna Dominiczak (UK), Anastase Dzudie (Cameroon), Stephen Harrap (Australia), Hiroshi Itoh (Japan), Tazeen Jafar (Singapore), Marc Jaffe (USA), Patricio Jaramillo-Lopez (Colombia), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Giuseppe Mancia (Italy), Ana Mocumbi (Mozambique), Sanjeevi N.Narasingan (India), Elijah Ogola (Kenya), Srinath Reddy (India), Ernesto Schiffrin (Canada), Ann Soenarta (Indonesia), Rhian Touyz (UK), Yudah Turana (Indonesia), Michael Weber (USA), Paul Whelton (USA), Xin Hua Zhang, (Australia), Yuqing Zhang (China).

20.
Nurse Educ Today ; 90: 104433, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Africa. Nurses' ability to undertake cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can significantly impact the survival of patients who experience cardiac arrest. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the effects of CPR training among Registered Nurse-Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-BSN) students in Mozambique. DESIGN: A one-group pretest-posttest repeated-measures quasi-experimental design. SETTING: Auditorium of a general hospital and 2 Anne manikins, but no automatic external defibrillator. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two RN-BSN students. METHODS: Students' attitudes and self-efficacy on CPR were measured by self-reported questionnaires three times (before, immediately after, and 20 weeks post intervention). Data were analyzed by the paired t-test and repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Attitude and self-efficacy scores of students on CPR significantly increased immediately after CPR training, but decreased 20 weeks after the intervention (p < .001). Sociodemographic characteristics did not significantly differ throughout the measurements of attitude or self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: CPR manikin training positively affected attitude and self-efficacy in CPR among RN-BSN nursing students immediately, but not at 20 weeks, after the training. There is a need for research to repeatedly quantify parameters in a controlled study at different intervals and develop an instructor-training course customized to Mozambique.

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