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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(12): e1835-e1844, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths. We aimed to see whether influenza vaccination reduces death and vascular events in patients with heart failure. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 30 centres (mostly hospitals affliated with universities or a research institute) in ten countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa (7 in India, 4 in Philippines, 4 in Nigeria, 6 in China, 1 in Zambia, 2 in Mozambique, 3 in Saudi Arabia, 1 in Kenya, 1 in Uganda, and 1 in Zambia). Participants (aged ≥18 years; 52·1% female; not disaggregated by race or ethnicity) with heart failure (New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV) were randomly assigned (1:1) by a centralised web-based system with block randomisation stratified by site, to receive 0·5 ml intramuscularly once a year for up to 3 years of either inactivated standard dose influenza vaccine or placebo (saline). We excluded people who had received influenza vaccine in 2 of the previous 3 years, and those likely to require valve repair or replacement. Those who administered assigned treatments were not masked and had no further role in the study. Investigators, study coordinators, outcome adjudicators, and participants were masked to group assignment. The first of two co-primary outcomes was a first-event composite for cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke, and the second was a recurrent-events composite for cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalisation for heart failure. Outcomes were assessed every 6 months in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, all-cause hospitalisation, hospitalisation for heart failure, and pneumonia, both overall and during periods of peak influenza exposure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02762851. FINDINGS: Between June 2, 2015, and Nov 21, 2021, we enrolled 5129 participants and randomly assigned (1:1) 2560 (50·0%) to influenza vaccine and 2569 (50·0%) to placebo. The first co-primary outcome occurred in 380 (14·8%) of 2560 participants in the vaccine group and 410 (16·0%) of 2569 participants in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·93 [95% CI 0·81-1·07]; p=0·30). The second co-primary outcome occurred in 754 (29·5%) of 2560 participants in the vaccine group and 819 (31·9%) of 2569 participants in the placebo group; HR 0·92 [95% CI 0·84-1·02]; p=0·12). The secondary outcomes of all-cause hospitalisations (HR 0·84 [95% CI 0·74-0·97]; p=0·013) and pneumonia (HR 0·58 [0·42-0·80]; p=0·0006) were significantly reduced in the vaccine group compared with in the placebo group but there was no significant difference between groups for all-cause death, cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalisation for heart failure. In a prespecified analysis, in which events were limited to periods of peak influenza circulation, the first co-primary outcome, and the secondary outcomes of all-cause death, cardiovasular death, and pneumonia were significantly lower in the vaccinated group than in the placebo group, whereas the second co-primary outcome and the secondary outcomes of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, all-cause hospitalisation, and hospitalisation for heart failure were not significantly lower. INTERPRETATION: Although the prespecified co-primary outcomes during the entire period of observation were not statistically significant, the reduction during the peak influenza circulating period suggests that there is likely to be a clinical benefit of giving influenza vaccine, given the clear reduction in pneumonia, a moderate reduction in hospitalisations, and a reduction in cardiovascular events and deaths during periods of peak circulation of influenza. Taken in conjunction with previous trials and the observational studies, the collective data suggest benefit. FUNDING: UK Joint Global Health Trials Scheme and Canadian Institutes for Health Research Foundation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Masculino , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/complicações , Canadá , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Quênia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2174, 2022 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to have the steepest increase in the prevalence of diabetes in the next 25 years. The latest Mozambican population-based STEPS survey (STEPS 2005) estimated a 2.9% prevalence of diabetes in the adult population aged 25-64 years. We aimed to assess the change in prevalence, awareness, and management of diabetes in the national STEPS survey from 2014/2015 compared to 2005. METHODS: We conducted an observational, quantitative, cross-sectional study following the WHO STEPS surveillance methodology in urban and rural settings, targeting the adult population of Mozambique in 2015. We collected sociodemographic data, anthropometric, and 12 hour fasting glucose blood samples in a sample of 1321 adults. The analysis consisted of descriptive measures of the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes and related risk factors by age group, sex, and urban/rural residence and compared the findings to those of the 2005 survey results. RESULTS: The prevalence of IFG and diabetes was 4.8% (95CI: 3.6-6.3) and 7.4% (95CI: 5.5-10.0), respectively. These prevalence of IFG and diabetes did not differ significantly between women and men. The prevalence of diabetes in participants classified with overweight/obesity [10.6% (95CI: 7.5-14.6)] and with central obesity (waist hip ratio) [11.0% (95CI: 7.4-16.1)] was almost double the prevalence of their leaner counterparts, [6.3% (95CI, 4.0-9.9)] and [5.2% (95CI: 3.2-8.6)], respectively. Diabetes prevalence increased with age. There were 50% more people with diabetes in urban areas than in rural. Only 10% of people with diabetes were aware of their disease, and only 44% of those taking oral glucose-lowering drugs. The prevalence of IFG over time [2.0% (95CI: 1.1-3.5) vs 4.8% (95CI: 3.6-6.3)] and diabetes [2.9% (95CI: 2.0-4.2) vs 7.4% (95CI: 5.5-10.0)] were more than twofold higher in 2014/2015 than in 2005. However, awareness of disease and being on medication decreased by 3% and by 50%, respectively. Though this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalence of diabetes in Mozambique has increased from 2005 to 2015, awareness and medication use have declined considerably. There is an urgent need to improve the capacity of primary health care and communities to detect, manage and prevent the occurrence of NCDs and their risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Prevalência , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Glicemia/análise , Obesidade/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e060985, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The WHO End-TB Strategy calls for the development of novel diagnostics to detect tuberculosis (TB) earlier and more accurately. Better diagnostics, together with tools to predict disease progression, are critical for achieving WHO End-TB targets. The Early Risk Assessment in TB Contacts by new diagnoStic tEsts (ERASE-TB) study aims to evaluate novel diagnostics and testing algorithms for early TB diagnosis and accurate prediction of disease progression among household contacts (HHCs) exposed to confirmed index cases in Mozambique, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A total of 2100 HHCs (aged ≥10 years) of adults with microbiologically-confirmed pulmonary TB will be recruited and followed up at 6-month intervals for 18-24 months. At each time point, a WHO symptom screen and digital chest radiograph (dCXR) will be performed, and blood and urine samples will be collected. Individuals screening positive (WHO symptom screen or dCXR) will be requested to provide sputum for Xpert MTB/Rif Ultra. At baseline, HHCs will also be screened for HIV, diabetes (HbA1c), chronic lung disease (spirometry), hypertension and anaemia. Study outcomes will be coprevalent TB (diagnosed at enrolment), incident TB (diagnosed during follow-up) or no TB at completion of follow-up. Novel diagnostics will be validated using fresh and biobanked samples with a nested case-control design. Cases are defined as HHCs diagnosed with TB (for early diagnosis) or with incident TB (for prediction of progression) and will be matched by age, sex and country to HHCs who remain healthy (controls). Statistical analyses will include assessment of diagnostic accuracy by constructing receiver operating curves and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: ERASE-TB has been approved by regulatory and ethical committees in each African country and by each partner organisation. Consent, with additional assent for participants <18 years, is voluntary. Attestation by impartial witnesses is sought in case of illiteracy. Confidentiality of participants is being maintained throughout. Study findings will be presented at scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed international journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04781257.Cite Now.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Tuberculose , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Medição de Risco , Progressão da Doença , Tanzânia
4.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 51, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051314

RESUMO

Background: Unpreparedness of health professionals to address non-communicable diseases (NCD) at peripheral health facilities is a critical health system challenge in Mozambique. To address this weakness and decentralize NCD care, training of the primary care workforce is needed. We describe our experience in the design and implementation of a cascade training of trainers (ToT) intervention to strengthen the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Between October 2018 and March 2020 a multidisciplinary global technical partnership was used to train frontline primary care health professionals from a resource-poor suburban setting in Maputo, Mozambique. Following engagement with local policy makers, clinicians, and academics, core training materials were developed, and a ToT cascade was implemented, supported by an on-site pilot clinic. Knowledge and confidence acquisition by participants and new local trainers were assessed using pre- and post-training surveys, while trainees and trainers completed further evaluation surveys at the end of the program. Results: Three ToT workshops trained 60 mixed cadre healthcare workers in assessment, diagnosis and management of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk; of these, 11 became new local trainers. Mean pre- and post-test scores improved in all three training workshops (53% to 90%, 59% to 78%, and 58% to 74% respectively). New local trainers were highly rated by their trainees and reported increased confidence as trainers (mean Likert scale 3.0/5 pre-training to 4.8/5 post-training). Conclusion: This global health partnership delivered interprofessional training with good knowledge acquisition and increased self-reported confidence. Intensive local supervision and hands-on training empowered a new cohort of trainers to strengthen the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease and is likely to improve coordination and integration at primary care level as well as support the national scale up of NCD care delivery.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Poder Psicológico
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of traditional medicine (TM) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa as a treatment option for a wide range of disease. We aimed to describe main characteristics of TM users and estimate the association of TM use with control of hypertension. METHODS: We used data on 2128 hypertensive patients of a cross-sectional study (convenience sampling), who attended cardiology departments of 12 sub-Saharan African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal, Togo). To model association of TM use with odds of uncontrolled, severe and complicated hypertension, we used multivariable mixed logistic regressions, and to model the association with blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)) we used mixed linear models. All models were adjusted for age, sex, wealth, adherence to hypertension conventional treatment and country (random effect). RESULTS: A total of 512 (24%) participants reported using TM, varying across countries from 10% in the Congo to 48% in Guinea. TM users were more likely to be men, living in rural area, poorly adhere to prescribed medication (frequently due to its cost). Use of TM was associated with a 3.87 (95% CI 1.52 to 6.22)/1.75 (0.34 to 3.16) mm Hg higher SBP/DBP compared with no use; and with greater odds of severe hypertension (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.74) and of any hypertension complication (OR=1.27; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60), mainly driven by renal complication (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.29) after adjustment for measured confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The use of TM was associated with higher blood pressure, more severe hypertension and more complications in Sub-Saharan African countries. The widespread use of TM needs to be acknowledged and worked out to integrate TM safely within the conventional healthcare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/efeitos adversos
6.
Foods ; 11(3)2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159604

RESUMO

Excess sodium (Na) consumption is implicated in several health problems, particularly hypertension, and bread is an important dietary source. We aimed to analyze perception of salt, acceptability, and purchase intention of low-salt and unsalted white bread by consumers in Mozambique. Sensory evaluation was performed using a triangular test (N = 42) to perceive if differences in saltiness were detected when comparing low-salt and unsalted with salt-reduced white bread. Nine-point hedonic and five-point purchase intention scales were used to measure acceptability and purchase intention, respectively (N = 120). Difference in saltiness was not detected when fresh white bread with 282 mg Na/100 g vs. 231 mg Na/100 g and 279 mg Na/100 g vs. 123 mg Na/100 g were compared. Difference in saltiness was not detected when comparing unsalted vs. 64 mg Na/100 g, while differences were detected when unsalted vs. 105 mg Na/100 g and unsalted vs. 277 mg Na/100 g were compared. Overall acceptability and purchase intention were not affected by reductions of Na in bread. A reduction of up to more than 50% of Na was not perceived and a small level of Na was not distinguished from unsalted bread. Consumers were shown to accept and be willing to buy both unsalted and salt-reduced bread, suggesting that Na can be reduced from current levels.

7.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057166, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that vitamin K-dependent anticoagulants (VKAs) will continue to be the primary anticoagulant in Africa for a long time, understanding the quality of anticoagulation services in the continent is vital for optimising the intended benefits. Notably, a few small studies have assessed the quality of anticoagulation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. This study will describe the current VKA use and anticoagulation control among patients in selected SSA countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to review the 2019 anticoagulation data of a cohort of 800 random patients from 19 selected clinics in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We expect at least one participating site to enrol 100 participants in each country. Eligible participants will be those on VKAs for at least 3 months and with at least four international normalised ratio (INR) results. We will document the indications, type and duration of VKA use, sociodemographic factors, coexisting medical conditions, concurrent use of drugs that interact with warfarin and alcohol and tobacco products. The level of anticoagulation control will be determined by calculating the time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) using the Rosendaal and the Percent of INR in TTR methods. A TTR of less than 65% will define a suboptimal anticoagulation control. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Ministry of Health and Wellness Ethics Committee (HPDME13/8/1) in Botswana and local research ethics committees or institutional review boards of all participating sites. As the study collects data from existing records, sites applied for waivers of consent. We will disseminate research findings through peer-reviewed scientific publications.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Vitamina K , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul
8.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(4): 563-569, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034184

RESUMO

AIMS: Diabetes represents a growing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, where diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of permanent visual loss. We reported the results of a remote screening of DR among urbanized Mozambican people with diabetes. METHODS: We retrospectively collected retinal images and clinical characteristics from 536 patients screened for DR in Maputo (Mozambique), over a period of 2 years (2018-2019). Retinal photographs were captured, digitally stored, and scored locally and by an expert ophthalmologist in Italy remotely. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DR was 29% with sight-threatening forms accounting for 8.1% of that number. Inter-reader agreement between the local and the Italian ophthalmologists was poor (k < 0.2). Patients with DR were older, had a longer duration of disease, worse glycaemic control, and a higher prevalence of comorbidities. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, HbA1c, diabetes duration, and coronary heart disease (CHD) were associated with DR. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of DR among urbanized Mozambican patients was similar to that observed in Western countries. Telediagnosis might partially overcome the paucity of local ophthalmologists with experience in DR.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos da Visão
9.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1975920, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four decades after the Alma-Ata Declaration, strengthening primary health care (PHC) remains a priority for health systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given the prominence of chronic diseases as a global health issue, PHC must include a wide range of components in order to provide adequate care. OBJECTIVE: To assess PHC preparedness to provide chronic care in Mozambique, Nepal and Peru, we used, as 'tracer conditions', diabetes, hypertension and a country-specific neglected tropical disease with chronic sequelae in each country. METHODS: By implementing a health system assessment, we collected quantitative and qualitative data from primary and secondary sources, including interviews of key informants at three health-system levels (macro, meso and micro). The World Health Organization's health-system building blocks provided the basis for content analysis. RESULTS: In total, we conducted 227 interviews. Our findings show that the ambitious policies targeting specific diseases lack the support of technical, administrative and financial resources. Data collection systems do not allow the monitoring of individual patients or provide the health system with the information it requires. Patients receive limited disease-specific information. Clinical guidelines and training are either non-existent or not adapted to local contexts. Availability of medicines and diagnostic tests at the PHC level is an issue. Although medicines available through the public health care system are affordable, some essential medicines suffer shortages or are not available to PHC providers. This need, along with a lack of clear referral procedures and available transportation, generates financial issues for individuals and affects access to health care. CONCLUSION: PHC in these LMICs is not well prepared to provide adequate care for chronic diseases. Improving PHC to attain universal health coverage requires strengthening the identified weaknesses across health-system building blocks.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Moçambique , Nepal , Peru
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047425, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there are estimated 425 million people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with 80% from low-middle income countries (LMIC). Diabetes self-management education (DSME) programmes are a vital and core component of the treatment pathway for T2D. Despite LMIC being disproportionally affected by T2D, there are no DSME available that meet international diabetes federation criterion. METHODS: The aims were to test the feasibility of delivering a proven effective and cost-effective approach used in a UK population in two urban settings in Malawi and Mozambique by; (1) developing a culturally, contextually and linguistically adapted DSME, the EXTending availability of self-management structured EducatioN programmes for people with type 2 Diabetes in low-to-middle income countries (EXTEND) programme; (2) using a mixed-method approach to evaluate the delivery of training and the EXTEND programme to patients with T2D. RESULTS: Twelve healthcare professionals were trained. Ninety-eight participants received the DSME. Retention was high (100% in Mozambique and 94% in Malawi). At 6 months HbA1c (-0.9%), cholesterol (-0.3 mmol/L), blood pressure (-5.9 mm Hg systolic and -6.1 mm Hg diastolic) improved in addition to indicators of well-being (problem areas in diabetes and self-efficacy in diabetes). CONCLUSION: It is feasible to deliver and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally, contextually and linguistically adapted EXTEND programme in two LMIC. The DSME was acceptable with positive biomedical and psychological outcomes but requires formal testing with cost-effectiveness. Challenges exist in scaling up such an approach in health systems that do not have resources to address the challenge of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Malaui , Moçambique , Autocuidado
11.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 50, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381672

RESUMO

Background: A wide knowledge gap exists on the clinical profiles and outcomes of heart failure (HF) in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the clinical profiles and outcomes of HF patients from five African countries. Methods: The INTERnational Congestive Heart Failure Study (INTER-CHF) is a prospective, multicenter cohort study. A total of 1,294 HF patients were consecutively recruited from Nigeria (383 patients), South Africa (169 patients), Sudan (501 patients), Uganda (151patients), and Mozambique (90 patients). HF was defined according to the Boston criteria for diagnosis. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Results: Of the 1294 patients, 51.4% were recruited as out-patients, 53.7% had HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF), 30.1% had HF with mid-range EF and 16.2% had HF with preserved EF (16.2%). The commonest etiologies of HF were hypertensive heart disease (35%) and ischemic heart disease (20%). The mean MoCA score was highest in Uganda (24.3 ± 1.1) and lowest in Sudan (13.6 ± 0.3). Prescriptions for guideline-recommended HF therapies were poor; only 1.2% of South African patients received an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, and none of the patients received Cardiac Resynchronised Therapy. The composite outcome of death or HF hospitalization at one year among the patients was highest in Sudan (59.7%) and lowest in Mozambique (21.1%). Six variables were associated with higher mortality risk, while digoxin use (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.97; p = 0.034) and 10mmHg unit increase in systolic blood pressure (aHR 0.86; 95%CI 0.81-0.93; p < 0.001) were associated with lower risk for mortality. Conclusions: This is the largest HF study in Africa that included in- and out-patients from the West, East, North, Central and South African sub-regions. Clinically relevant differences, including cognitive functional impairment, were found between the involved countries.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Estudos de Coortes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Volume Sistólico
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(9): e1242-e1251, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incomplete vital registration systems mean that causes of death during pregnancy and childbirth are poorly understood in low-income and middle-income countries. To inform global efforts to reduce maternal mortality, we compared physician review and computerised analysis of verbal autopsies (interpreting verbal autopsies [InterVA] software), to understand their agreement on maternal cause of death and circumstances of mortality categories (COMCATs) in the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised trials. METHODS: The CLIP trials took place in India, Pakistan, and Mozambique, enrolling pregnant women aged 12-49 years between Nov 1, 2014, and Feb 28, 2017. 69 330 pregnant women were enrolled in 44 clusters (36 008 in the 22 intervention clusters and 33 322 in the 22 control clusters). In this secondary analysis of maternal deaths in CLIP, we included women who died in any of the 22 intervention clusters or 22 control clusters. Trained staff administered the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy after maternal deaths. Two physicians (and a third for consensus, if needed) reviewed trial surveillance data and verbal autopsies, and, in intervention clusters, community health worker-led visit data. They determined cause of death according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality (ICD-MM). Verbal autopsies were also analysed by InterVA computer models (versions 4 and 5) to generate cause of death. COMCAT analysis was provided by InterVA-5 and, in India, by physician review of Maternal Newborn Health Registry data. Causes of death and COMCATs assigned by physician review, Inter-VA-4, and InterVA-5 were compared, with agreement assessed with Cohen's κ coefficient. FINDINGS: Of 61 988 pregnancies with successful follow-up in the CLIP trials, 143 maternal deaths were reported (16 deaths in India, 105 in Pakistan, and 22 in Mozambique). The maternal death rate was 231 (95% CI 193-268) per 100 000 identified pregnancies. Most deaths were attributed to direct maternal causes (rather than indirect or undetermined causes as per ICD-MM classification), with fair to good agreement between physician review and InterVA-4 (κ=0·56 [95% CI 0·43-0·66]) or InterVA-5 (κ=0·44 [0·30-0·57]), and InterVA-4 and InterVA-5 (κ=0·72 [0·60-0·84]). The top three causes of death were the same by physician review, InterVA-4, and InterVA-5 (ICD-MM categories obstetric haemorrhage, non-obstetric complications, and hypertensive disorders); however, attribution of individual patient deaths to obstetric haemorrhage varied more between methods (physician review, 38 [27%] deaths; InterVA-4, 69 [48%] deaths; and InterVA-5, 82 [57%] deaths), than did attribution to non-obstetric causes (physician review, 39 [27%] deaths; InterVA-4, 37 [26%] deaths; and InterVA-5, 28 [20%] deaths) or hypertensive disorders (physician review, 23 [16%] deaths; InterVA-4, 25 [17%] deaths; and InterVA-5, 24 [17%] deaths). Agreement for all nine ICD-MM categories was fair for physician review versus InterVA-4 (κ=0·48 [0·38-0·58]), poor for physician review versus InterVA-5 (κ=0·36 [0·27-0·46]), and good for InterVA-4 versus InterVA-5 (κ=0·69 [0·59-0·79]). The most commonly assigned COMCATs by InterVA-5 were emergencies (68 [48%] of 143 deaths) and health systems (62 [43%] deaths), and by physician review (India only) were health systems (seven [44%] of 16 deaths) and inevitability (five [31%] deaths); agreement between InterVA-5 and physician review (India data only) was poor (κ=0·04 [0·00-0·15]). INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that InterVA-5 is less accurate than InterVA-4 at ascertaining causes and circumstances of maternal death, when compared with physician review. Our results suggest a need to improve the next iteration of InterVA, and for researchers and clinicians to preferentially use InterVA-4 when recording maternal deaths. FUNDING: University of British Columbia (grantee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation).


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Médicos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1355, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) programmes are vital for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management. However, they are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To address this gap, a DSMES, namedEXTEND was developed in Lilongwe (Malawi) and Maputo (Mozambique). This qualitative study aimed to explore factors that influence the implementation of DSMES in these settings. METHODS: The Socio-ecological model was applied to explore factors influencing the implementation of DSMES in SSA. Data was analysed using the Framework method and constant comparative techniques. Sixty-six people participated in the study: people with T2DM who participated in the EXTEND programme; healthcare professionals (HCPs), EXTEND educators, EXTEND trainers, and stakeholders. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that there is a need to develop an integrated and dedicated diabetes services in SSA healthcare systems, incorporating culturally adapted DSMES and tailored diabetes training to all professions involved in diabetes management. Traditional media and the involvement of community leaders were proposed as important elements to help engage and promote DSMES programmes in local communities. During the design and implementation of DSMES, it is important to consider individual and societal barriers to self-care. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggest that multi-faceted factors play a significant role to the implementation of DSMES programmes in LICs. In the future, EXTEND could be incorporated in the development of diabetes training and dedicated diabetes services in SSA healthcare systems, acting as an educational tool for both people with T2DM and HCPs. This project was supported by the Medical Research Council GCRF NCDs Foundation Awards 2016 Development Pathway Funding.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 145, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is an important public health problem in low-income countries. Delays in reaching health facilities and insufficient health care professionals call for innovative community-level solutions. There is limited evidence on the role of community health workers in the management of pregnancy complications. This study aimed to describe the feasibility of task-sharing the initial screening and initiation of obstetric emergency care for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia from the primary healthcare providers to community health workers in Mozambique and document healthcare facility preparedness to respond to referrals. METHOD: The study took place in Maputo and Gaza Provinces in southern Mozambique and aimed to inform the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomized controlled trial. This was a mixed-methods study. The quantitative data was collected through self-administered questionnaires completed by community health workers and a health facility survey; this data was analysed using Stata v13. The qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with various community groups, health care providers, and policymakers. All discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic analysis using QSR NVivo 10. Data collection was complemented by reviewing existing documents regarding maternal health and community health worker policies, guidelines, reports and manuals. RESULTS: Community health workers in Mozambique were trained to identify the basic danger signs of pregnancy; however, they have not been trained to manage obstetric emergencies. Furthermore, barriers at health facilities were identified, including lack of equipment, shortage of supervisors, and irregular drug availability. All primary and the majority of secondary-level facilities (57%) do not provide blood transfusions or have surgical capacity, and thus such cases must be referred to the tertiary-level. Although most healthcare facilities (96%) had access to an ambulance for referrals, no transport was available from the community to the healthcare facility. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that task-sharing for screening and pre-referral management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were deemed feasible and acceptable at the community-level, but an effort should be in place to address challenges at the health system level.


Maternal mortality is an important public health problem in Mozambique. Delays in reaching health facilities and insufficient health care professionals call for innovative community-level solutions. We conducted a study to describe the feasibility of task-sharing the screening and initiation of management for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia from the primary healthcare providers to community health workers in Mozambique and to document healthcare facility preparedness to respond to referrals. The study was done to inform a future intervention trial known as the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study. We interviewed community health workers, women, various community groups, health care providers, and policymakers and assessed health facilities in Maputo and Gaza provinces, Mozambique. Our results showed that community health workers in Mozambique were trained to identify the basic danger signs of pregnancy; however, they were not trained or equipped to provide obstetric emergencies care prior to referral. Nurses at primary health facilities were supportive of task-sharing with community health workers; however, some barriers mentioned include a lack of equipment, shortage of supervisors, and irregular drug availability. Local stakeholders emphasized the need for comprehensive training and supervision of community health workers to take on new tasks. Task-sharing for screening and pre-referral management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia was deemed feasible at the community level in southern Mozambique, but still, to be addressed some health system level barriers to the management of pregnancies complications.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Moçambique , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Encaminhamento e Consulta
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(8): e1119-e1128, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure measurement is a marker of antenatal care quality. In well resourced settings, lower blood pressure cutoffs for hypertension are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to study the associations between blood pressure thresholds and adverse outcomes and the diagnostic test properties of these blood pressure cutoffs in low-resource settings. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of data from 22 intervention clusters in the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised trials (NCT01911494) in India (n=6), Mozambique (n=6), and Pakistan (n=10). We included pregnant women aged 15-49 years (12-49 years in Mozambique), identified in their community by trained community health workers, who had data on blood pressure measurements and outcomes. The trial was unmasked. Maximum blood pressure was categorised as: normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [sBP] <120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure [dBP] <80 mm Hg), elevated blood pressure (sBP 120-129 mm Hg and dBP <80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (sBP 130-139 mm Hg or dBP 80-89 mm Hg, or both), non-severe stage 2 hypertension (sBP 140-159 mm Hg or dBP 90-109 mm Hg, or both), or severe stage 2 hypertension (sBP ≥160 mm Hg or dBP ≥110 mm Hg, or both). We classified women according to the maximum blood pressure category reached across all visits for the primary analyses. The primary outcome was a maternal, fetal, or neonatal mortality or morbidity composite. We estimated dose-response relationships between blood pressure category and adverse outcomes, as well as diagnostic test properties. FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2014, and Feb 28, 2017, 21 069 women (6067 in India, 4163 in Mozambique, and 10 839 in Pakistan) contributed 103 679 blood pressure measurements across the three CLIP trials. Only women with non-severe or severe stage 2 hypertension, as discrete diagnostic categories, experienced more adverse outcomes than women with normal blood pressure (risk ratios 1·29-5·88). Using blood pressure categories as diagnostic thresholds (women with blood pressure within the category or any higher category vs those with blood pressure in any lower category), dose-response relationships were observed between increasing thresholds and adverse outcomes, but likelihood ratios were informative only for severe stage 2 hypertension and maternal CNS events (likelihood ratio 6·36 [95% CI 3·65-11·07]) and perinatal death (5·07 [3·64-7·07]), particularly stillbirth (8·53 [5·63-12·92]). INTERPRETATION: In low-resource settings, neither elevated blood pressure nor stage 1 hypertension were associated with maternal, fetal, or neonatal mortality or morbidity adverse composite outcomes. Only the threshold for severe stage 2 hypertension met diagnostic test performance standards. Current diagnostic thresholds for hypertension in pregnancy should be retained. FUNDING: University of British Columbia, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are becoming a public health problem in Mozambique and wider sub-Saharan Africa, and are driving changes to guaranty lifelong follow up of patients within the health systems. Patient-Held Medical Records (PHMR) are an option for this follow-up in under-resourced health systems. We designed a study to assess the rate of retention and quality of conservation of the PHMR. METHODS: we conducted a prospective observational study from November 2016 to October 2018 in a peri-urban hospital from in Mozambique. Consecutive newly diagnosed patients with cardiovascular disease were given PHMR. Data was collected after their first consultation and one year after. The retention and quality of conservation were assessed after 12 months. RESULTS: overall 134 PHMR were given to patients (24;17.9% children and 77;57.5% female), of which 121 (90.3%) retained at 12 months (90.9% in good conservation state). Most patients had on average four visits to health facilities during the study, all registered in the PHMR. Retention could not be confirmed in 13 patients who did not return the PHMR. CONCLUSION: PHMR retention rates were high in an urban low-income setting in Africa, with high quality of conservation, thus supporting its use to replace hospital paper-based medical files. Specific research is recommended on acceptability, quality of information registered and patient´s perception.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Registros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Registros Médicos/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
17.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 28, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040941

RESUMO

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite its virtual elimination in high-income countries. RHD Action was launched to amplify global efforts to control RHD in 2015 by World Heart Federation and Reach, with demonstration projects in Uganda and Tanzania, and support from Medtronic Foundation. The Small Grants Programme focuses on three domains: People and Communities, Medicines and Technologies, and Systems and Services. It is designed to support patient and community groups in promoting awareness, advocacy, and to build health workers' capacity to prevent and treat RHD in LMICs. Our study evaluates the impact and effectiveness of the RHD Action Small Grants Programme. Methods: We conducted a mixed method study that involved both quantitative and qualitative surveys, through phone interviews and online surveys amongst the grant beneficiaries, to assess the impact and effectiveness of the small grant programme. An invitation to complete an online survey, using a Google Forms format, was issued to Small Grant Project Directors and Co-Directors that received funding for projects between 2017 and 2019. The online survey requested basic project information using tick boxes, Likert scales, and short answer open-ended questions about successes and challenges faced by recipients. The questionnaire also addressed recipients' experience with the RHD Action Small Grants process - applying for the grant, nature and quality of support received to carry out project, the reporting process, and any media coverage provided. For the phone interviews, responses to the short-answer questions were used as the basis for follow up phone interviews. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed for new and recurring themes emerging from the in-depth discussions. Initiated in 2017, RHD Action has funded 21 proposals from a pool of 60 submissions. Recipient countries include Zambia, Uganda (2), Namibia, Kenya, Malawi (2), Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria (3), Rwanda (2), Mozambique, and Cameroon (2) as well as Fiji (2), the Philippines and Nepal. Five recipients were funded in 2017, eight in 2018 and eight in 2019. Project directors are primarily junior doctors and project managers supervised by senior mentors. In most cases, this is their first funding award. These projects have demonstrated tangible impact and have provided content for first manuscript and abstract submissions and presentations at professional conferences. Grant reports are presented as website stories showcasing the achievements of small local efforts with meaningful impact. For RHD Action, there is large return on a modest monetary investment resulting in a very visible, viable global RHD networking platform for enthusiastic community and provider activists.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ruanda , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trials (NCT01911494) in India, Pakistan and Mozambique (February 2014-2017) involved community engagement and task sharing with community health workers for triage and initial treatment of pregnancy hypertension. Maternal and perinatal mortality was less frequent among women who received ≥8 CLIP contacts. The aim of this analysis was to assess the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the CLIP intervention overall in comparison to standard of care, and by PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk) On the Move (POM) mobile health application visit frequency. METHODS: Included were all women enrolled in the three CLIP trials who had delivered with known outcomes by trial end. According to the number of POM-guided home contacts received (0, 1-3, 4-7, ≥8), costs were collected from annual budgets and spending receipts, with inclusion of family opportunity costs in Pakistan. A decision tree model was built to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention (vs usual care), based on the primary clinical endpoint of years of life lost (YLL) for mothers and infants. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess uncertainty in the cost and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The incremental per pregnancy cost of the intervention was US$12.66 (India), US$11.51 (Pakistan) and US$13.26 (Mozambique). As implemented, the intervention was not cost-effective due largely to minimal differences in YLL between arms. However, among women who received ≥8 CLIP contacts (four in Pakistan), the probability of health system and family (Pakistan) cost-effectiveness was ≥80% (all countries). CONCLUSION: The intervention was likely to be cost-effective for women receiving ≥8 contacts in Mozambique and India, and ≥4 in Pakistan, supporting WHO guidance on antenatal contact frequency. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01911494.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez
19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(6): 1931-1936, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects more than 33,000,000 individuals, mostly from low- and middle-income countries. The Cape Town Declaration On Access to Cardiac Surgery in the Developing World was published in August 2018, signaling the commitment of the global cardiac surgery and cardiology communities to improving care for RHD patients. METHODS: As the Cape Town Declaration formed the basis for which the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance (CSIA) was formed, the purpose of this article is to describe the history of the CSIA, its formation, ongoing activities, and future directions, including the announcement of selected pilot sites. RESULTS: The CSIA is an international alliance consisting of representatives from major cardiothoracic surgical societies and the World Heart Federation. Activities have included meetings at annual conferences, exhibit hall participation for advertisement and recruitment, and publication of selection criteria for cardiac surgery centers to apply for CSIA support. Criteria focused on local operating capacity, local championing, governmental and facility support, appropriate identification of a specific gap in care, and desire to engage in future research. Eleven applications were received for which three finalist sites were selected and site visits conducted. The two selected sites were Hospital Central Maputo (Mozambique) and King Faisal Hospital Kigali (Rwanda). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made since the passing of the Cape Town Declaration and the formation of the CSIA, but ongoing efforts with collaboration of all committed parties-cardiac surgery, cardiology, industry, and government-will be necessary to improve access to life-saving cardiac surgery for RHD patients.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Humanos , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África do Sul
20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(6): 2108-2113, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects more than 33,000,000 individuals, mostly from low- and middle-income countries. The Cape Town Declaration On Access to Cardiac Surgery in the Developing World was published in August 2018, signaling the commitment of the global cardiac surgery and cardiology communities to improving care for RHD patients. METHODS: As the Cape Town Declaration formed the basis for which the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance (CSIA) was formed, the purpose of this article is to describe the history of the CSIA, its formation, ongoing activities, and future directions, including the announcement of selected pilot sites. RESULTS: The CSIA is an international alliance consisting of representatives from major cardiothoracic surgical societies and the World Heart Federation. Activities have included meetings at annual conferences, exhibit hall participation for advertisement and recruitment, and publication of selection criteria for cardiac surgery centers to apply for CSIA support. Criteria focused on local operating capacity, local championing, governmental and facility support, appropriate identification of a specific gap in care, and desire to engage in future research. Eleven applications were received for which three finalist sites were selected and site visits conducted. The two selected sites were Hospital Central Maputo (Mozambique) and King Faisal Hospital Kigali (Rwanda). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made since the passing of the Cape Town Declaration and the formation of the CSIA, but ongoing efforts with collaboration of all committed parties-cardiac surgery, cardiology, industry, and government-will be necessary to improve access to life-saving cardiac surgery for RHD patients.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Cirurgia Torácica/organização & administração , Humanos , Moçambique , Ruanda
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