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1.
Curr Biol ; 30(1): R12-R14, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910367

RESUMO

Finding the right lure for trapping pest insects is difficult. The typical smell of rain and humid soil, geosmin, now turns out to be a strong attractant for the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

2.
Vaccine ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV) is generally contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients. Our aim was to investigate if immunosuppressive therapy impairs the long-term protection against yellow fever virus in patients who had received YFV prior to the start of their immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Our study examined 35 healthy individuals and 40 immunosuppressed patients with autoimmune diseases or organ transplants. All individuals had received YFV prior to the onset of their immunosuppression. We analysed the long-term influence of the immunosuppressive therapy on the YFV protective immunity by measuring neutralising antibodies (NA) with the Plaque Reduction Neutralisation Test (PRNT). We assessed risk factors for a negative PRNT result (titre below 1: 10) and their influence on the magnitude of the NA. RESULTS: A median time interval of 21.1 years (interquartile range 14.4-31.3 years) after the YFV in all patients, a total of 35 immunosuppressed patients (88%) were seropositive (PRNT ≥ 1:10) compared to 31 patients (89%) in the control group. The geometric mean titres of NA did not differ between the groups. The duration of an underlying rheumatic disease was the only risk factor found for a lower magnitude of NA. An insufficient level of NA was found in nine subjects (12%) who had received a single dose of YFV (in one subject, the number of YFV doses was unknown). CONCLUSION: The use of an immunosuppressive drug started after the administration of the YFV did not affect long-term persistence of NA. A second dose of YFV may be necessary to secure long-term immunity.

3.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919100

RESUMO

The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae comprises many medically important viruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). The quest for therapeutic targets to combat flavivirus infections requires a better understanding of the kinetics of virus-host interactions during infections with native viral strains. However, this is precluded by limitations of current cell-based systems for monitoring flavivirus infection in living cells. In the present study, we report the construction of fluorescence activatable sensors to detect the activities of flavivirus NS2B-NS3 serine proteases in living cells. The system consists of GFP-based reporters that become fluorescent upon cleavage by recombinant DENV-2/ZIKV proteases in vitro. A version of this sensor containing the flavivirus internal NS3 cleavage site linker reported the highest fluorescence activation in stably transduced mammalian cells upon DENV-2/ZIKV infection. Moreover, the onset of fluorescence correlated with viral protease activity. A far-red version of this flavivirus sensor had the best signal-to-noise ratio in a fluorescent Dulbecco's plaque assay, leading to the construction of a multi-reporter platform combining the flavivirus sensor with reporter dyes for detection of chromatin condensation and cell death, enabling studies of viral plaque formation with single-cell resolution. Finally, the application of this platform enabled the study of cell-population kinetics of infection and cell death by DENV-2, ZIKV, and YFV. We anticipate that future studies of viral infection kinetics with this reporter system will enable basic investigations of virus-host interactions and facilitate future applications in antiviral drug research to manage flavivirus infections.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935537

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the YF virus (arbovirus) which continues to cause severe morbidity and mortality in Africa. A case of YF was confirmed in Nigeria on the 12th of September 2017, 21 years after the last confirmed case. The patient belongs to a nomadic population with a history of low YF vaccination uptake, in Ifelodun Local Government Area (LGA) of Kwara State, Nigeria. An active case search in Ifelodun and its five contiguous LGAs led to the listing of 55 additional suspect cases of YF within the period of the outbreak investigation between September 18 to October 6, 2017. The median age of cases was 15 years and 54.4% were males. Of these, blood samples were collected from 30 cases; nine tested positive in laboratories in Nigeria and six were confirmed positive for YF by the WHO reference laboratory in the region; Institut Pasteur, Dakar. A rapid YF vaccination coverage assessment was carried out, resulting in a coverage of 46% in the LGAs; with 25% of cases able to produce their vaccination cards. All stages of the yellow fever vector, Aedes mosquito were identified in the area, with high larval indices (House and Breteau) observed. In response to the outbreak, YF surveillance was intensified across all States in Nigeria, as well as reactive vaccination and social mobilisation campaigns carried out in the affected LGAs in Kwara State. State-wide YF preventive campaign was also initiated.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; : 129521, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Yellow Fever virus (YFV) is transmitted by mosquitos and causes an infection with symptoms including fever, headaches and nausea. In 20-50% of the cases, the disease may evolve to a visceral stage, reaching high mortality rates. YFV NS2B-NS3 protease has been identified as an important drug target. METHODS: Herein, we describe the crystal structure of the NS2B-NS3 protease from the 2017 YFV Brazilian circulating strain using X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, we used a combination of biochemical and biophysical assays to characterize the enzyme and investigate the impact of the polymorphisms observed in different YFV circulating strains. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the crystal structure of YFV protease seems to adopt the closed conformation without the presence of a binding partner. Although D88E and K121R mutants exhibited a lower affinity for the substrate, both revealed to be more processive, resulting in a similar catalytic efficiency in relation to the WT protease. Still, both mutants showed an accentuated decrease in stability when compared with the WT. CONCLUSIONS: The crystal structure of YFV NS2B-NS3 in closed conformation might be an important tool for the development of new drugs, as well as understanding the activation mechanism of viral proteases. Biochemical analyses indicate that the NS2B-NS3 protease of the circulating strain of YFV is more stable than previous strains. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The YFV NS2B-NS3 protease is the first flaviviral structure described in its closed conformation when in a free form, implying that external factors might induce the activation of the enzyme.

6.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942645

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease. The World Health Organization estimates that 400 million new cases of dengue fever occur every year. Approximately 500,000 individuals develop severe and life-threatening complications from dengue fever, such as dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which cause 22,000 deaths yearly. Currently, there are no specific licensed therapeutics to treat DENV illness. We have previously shown that the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibits the replication of the flavivirus yellow fever virus. In this study, we demonstrate that the MEK/ERK inhibitor AZD6244 has potent antiviral efficacy in vitro against DENV-2, DENV-3, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). We also show that it is able to protect AG129 mice from a lethal challenge with DENV-2 (D2S20). The molecule is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. The effect of AZD6244 on the DENV life cycle was attributed to a blockade of morphogenesis. Treatment of AG129 mice twice daily with oral doses of AZD6244 (100 mg/kg/day) prevented the animals from contracting dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)-like lethal disease upon intravenous infection with 1 × 105 PFU of D2S20. The effectiveness of AZD6244 was observed even when the treatment of infected animals was initiated 1-2 days postinfection. This was also followed by a reduction in viral copy number in both the serum and the spleen. There was also an increase in IL-1ß and TNF-α levels in mice that were infected with D2S20 and treated with AZD6244 in comparison to infected mice that were treated with the vehicle only. These data demonstrate the potential of AZD6244 as a new therapeutic agent to treat DENV infection and possibly other flavivirus diseases.

8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The re-emergence of worldwide concern with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) draws increasing attention to their mosquito vectors, particularly Aedes aegypti, whose control heavily rely on insecticide use. As a consequence, insecticide resistance is frequent, but the general patterns of occurrence, cross-resistance and prevailing mechanisms remain unrecognized in some areas such as the Neotropical region. Thus, we sought here to recognize the general trends and patterns of insecticide resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic literature review (2008-2018) aimed the data-gathering for the region and meta-analyses to address the stated knowledge gap. RESULTS: High incidence of insecticide resistance prevails in the mosquito populations of the region. DDT, temephos and deltamethrin were the main insecticides evaluated and the meta-analyses indicate high frequency of DDT-resistant populations (86.7±0.1%), followed by temephos (75.7±0.1%), and deltamethrin (33.0±0.1%). No evidence of cross-resistance was detected among these three insecticides, and the V1016I KDR site mutation does not explain the patterns of deltamethrin resistance in the region. CONCLUSION: Resistance to DDT, temephos and deltamethrin are serious and widespread and without cross-resistance among them. Altered target site sensitivity is not the main pyrethroid resistance mechanism, which is likely due to a mix of mechanisms. Therefore, the replacement of deltamethrin and particularly temephos in the region by alternative insecticides is an important resistance management recommendation, but always with compounds out of the cross-resistance spectrum for these populations and insecticides. Nonetheless, the non-recognition of the prevalent resistance mechanisms in the region makes this suggestion more difficult to apply and invites more broad scale studies of resistance mechanisms to fill this knowledge gap and improve the resistance management recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Transfusion ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reemergence of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa and Brazil, and massive vaccine campaigns triggered to contain the outbreaks, have raised concerns over blood transfusion safety and availability with increased risk of YFV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) by native and vaccine-acquired YFV. Blood donor deferral for 2 to 4 weeks following live attenuated YFV vaccination, and deferral for travel to endemic/epidemic areas, may result in blood donor loss and impact platelet component (PC) stocks. This study investigated the efficacy of INTERCEPT Blood System pathogen reduction (PR) with use of amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) light to inactivate high levels of YFV in PCs. MATERIALS: Four units of apheresis platelets prepared in 35% plasma/65% platelet additive solution (PC-PAS) and 4 units of PC in 100% human plasma (PC-Plasma) were spiked with high infectious titers of YFV (YFV-17D vaccine strain). YFV-17D infectious titers were measured by plaque assay and expressed as plaque-forming units (PFU) before and after amotosalen/UVA treatment to determine log reduction. RESULTS: The mean YFV-17D infectious titers in PC before inactivation were 5.5 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-PAS and 5.3 ± 0.1 log PFU/mL in PC-Plasma. No infectivity was detected immediately after amotosalen/UVA treatment. CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required.

10.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(2): 115252, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864777

RESUMO

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector of arboviruses such as Zika, Chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever. These infectious diseases have a major impact on public health. The unavailability of effective vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat most of these diseases makes vector control the main form of prevention. One strategy to promote mosquito population control is the use of synthetic insecticides to inhibit key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of these insects, particularly during larval stages. One of the main targets of the kynurenine detoxification pathway in mosquitoes is the enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which catalyzes the conversion of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) into xanthurenic acid (XA). In this work, we report eleven newly synthesized oxadiazole derivatives and demonstrate that these compounds are potent noncompetitive inhibitors of HKT from Ae. aegypti. The present data provide direct evidence that HKT can be explored as a molecular target for the discovery of novel larvicides against Ae. aegypti. More importantly, it ensures that structural information derived from the HKT 3D-structure can be used to guide the development of more potent inhibitors.

11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854239

RESUMO

Yellow fever disease is considered a re-emerging major health issue which has caused recent outbreaks with a high number of deaths. Tropical countries, mainly African and South American, are the most affected by Yellow fever outbreaks. Despite the availability of an attenuated vaccine, its use is limited for some groups such as pregnant and nursing women, immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients, elderly people >65 years, infants <6 months and patients with biological disorders like thymus disorders. In order to achieve new preventive measures, we applied immunoinformatics approaches to develop a multi-epitope-based subunit vaccine for Yellow fever virus. Different epitopes, related to humoral and cell-mediated immunity, were predicted for complete polyproteins of two Yellow fever strains (Asibi and 17 D vaccine). Those epitopes common for both strains were mapped into a set of 137 sequences of Yellow fever virus, including 77 sequences from a recent outbreak at the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. Therefore, the present work uses robust bioinformatics approaches for the identification of a multi-epitope vaccine against the Yellow fever virus. Our results indicate that the identified multi-epitope vaccine might stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and could be a potential vaccine candidate against Yellow fever virus infection. Hence, it should be subjected to further experimental validations. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 144-148, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077273

RESUMO

A kidney-transplanted patient, unvaccinated against yellow fever (YF), developed high fever, progressed rapidly to hepatic insufficiency and coma, and died 8 days later. Real-time polymarase chain reaction for YF virus collected on the seventh day of symptoms was positive. Autopsy showed disseminated infection and midzonal hepatitis with apoptotic hepatocytes and minimal inflammatory reaction.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 149-151, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077278

RESUMO

Yellow fever has never previously been reported in transplant recipients. The first reported case of yellow fever in a kidney transplant recipient in Brazil and the re-emergence of arboviruses in many areas of the world dictate the need of studies aimed to answer multiple unanswered questions.

14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 118-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of dengue fever, zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses, and in many areas possesses significant levels of resistance to pyrethroids. Behavioral performance was assessed in 15, 30, and 60 min exposures in a high throughput vapor phase spatial repellency assay to three contact repellent standards: N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino] propanoate (IR3535), and 2-undecanone, as well as pyrethrum extract, transfluthrin, and metofluthrin in susceptible (Orlando) and a pyrethroid-resistant Puerto Rico strain of Aedes aegypti. Additionally, electroantennographic studies were used to investigate the antennal sensitivities to these compounds in both strains. RESULTS: Resistance was found to all tested insect repellents in the Puerto Rico strain of Ae. aegypti. Resistance ratios at the different time points were about 2 for DEET, 3 for 2-undecanone, and 12 for IR3535. Resistance was also observed to pyrethrum extract (∼9-fold), transfluthrin (∼5-fold), and metofluthrin (∼48-fold) in repellent behavioral response. Electrophysiological analysis found decreased antennal sensitivity to all repellents tested, consistent with their behavioral effects. CONCLUSION: The reduced sensitivity to these repellents may represent a fitness cost arising from the kdr mutation present in Puerto Rico Aedes aegypti. This work highlights the need for understanding collateral effects from the evolution of pesticide resistance in mosquitoes, and the importance of finding alternative strategies to control resistance development. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1734-1746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797751

RESUMO

By infecting mice with the yellow fever virus vaccine strain 17D (YFV-17D; Stamaril®), the dose dependence and evolutionary consequences of neurotropic yellow fever infection was assessed. Highly susceptible AG129 mice were used to allow for a maximal/unlimited expansion of the viral populations. Infected mice uniformly developed neurotropic disease; the virus was isolated from their brains, plaque purified and sequenced. Viral RNA populations were overall rather homogenous [Shannon entropies 0-0.15]. The remaining, yet limited intra-host population diversity (0-11 nucleotide exchanges per genome) appeared to be a consequence of pre-existing clonal heterogeneities (quasispecies) of Stamaril®. In parallel, mice were infected with a molecular clone of YFV-17D which was in vivo launched from a plasmid. Such plasmid-launched YFV-17D had a further reduced and almost clonal evolution. The limited intra-host evolution during unrestricted expansion in a highly susceptible host is relevant for vaccine and drug development against flaviviruses in general. Firstly, a propensity for limited evolution even upon infection with a (very) low inoculum suggests that fractional dosing as implemented in current YF-outbreak control may pose only a limited risk of reversion to pathogenic vaccine-derived virus variants. Secondly, it also largely lowers the chance of antigenic drift and development of resistance to antivirals.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007930, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815934

RESUMO

The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), is the primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya fever, among other arboviral diseases. It is also a popular laboratory model in vector biology due to its ease of rearing and manipulation in the lab. Established laboratory strains have been used worldwide in thousands of studies for decades. Laboratory evolution of reference strains and contamination among strains are potential severe problems that could dramatically change experimental outcomes and thus is a concern in vector biology. We analyzed laboratory and field colonies of Ae. aegypti and an Ae. aegypti-derived cell line (Aag2) using 12 microsatellites and ~20,000 SNPs to determine the extent of divergence among laboratory strains and relationships to their wild relatives. We found that 1) laboratory populations are less genetically variable than their field counterparts; 2) colonies bearing the same name obtained from different laboratories may be highly divergent; 3) present genetic composition of the LVP strain used as the genome reference is incompatible with its presumed origin; 4) we document changes in two wild caught colonies over ~16 generations of colonization; and 5) the Aag2 Ae. aegypti cell line has experienced minimal genetic changes within and across laboratories. These results illustrate the degree of variability within and among strains of Ae. aegypti, with implications for cross-study comparisons, and highlight the need of a common mosquito repository and the implementation of strain validation tools.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817103

RESUMO

The yellow fever (YF) vaccine consists of an attenuated virus, and despite its relative safety, some adverse events following YF vaccination have been described. At the end of 2016, Brazil experienced the most massive sylvatic yellow fever outbreak over the last 70 years and an intense campaign of YF vaccination occurred in Minas Gerais state in Southeast Brazil from 2016 to 2018. The present study aimed to develop a genotyping tool and investigate 21 cases of suspected adverse events following YF vaccination. Initial in silico analyses were performed using partial NS5 nucleotide sequences to verify the discriminatory potential between wild-type and vaccine viruses. Samples from patients were screened for the presence of the YFV RNA, using 5'UTR as the target, and then used for amplification of partial NS5 gene amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Genotyping indicated that 17 suspected cases were infected by the wild-type yellow fever virus, but four cases remained inconclusive. The genotyping tool was efficient in distinguishing the vaccine from wild-type virus, and it has the potential to be used for the differentiation of all yellow fever virus genotypes.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007883, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symbiotic bacteria are pervasive in mosquitoes and their presence can influence many host phenotypes that affect vectoral capacity. While it is evident that environmental and host genetic factors contribute in shaping the microbiome of mosquitoes, we have a poor understanding regarding how bacterial genetics affects colonization of the mosquito gut. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system is a powerful tool to alter bacterial genomes facilitating investigations into host-microbe interactions but has yet to be applied to insect symbionts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of bacterial genetic factors in mosquito biology and in colonization of mosquitoes we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system to mutate the outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene of a Cedecea neteri symbiont isolated from Aedes mosquitoes. The ompA mutant had an impaired ability to form biofilms and poorly infected Ae. aegypti when reared in a mono-association under gnotobiotic conditions. In adult mosquitoes, the mutant had a significantly reduced infection prevalence compared to the wild type or complement strains, while no differences in prevalence were seen in larvae, suggesting genetic factors are particularly important for adult gut colonization. We also used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to integrate genes (antibiotic resistance and fluorescent markers) into the symbionts genome and demonstrated that these genes were functional in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results shed insights into the role of ompA gene in host-microbe interactions in Ae. aegypti and confirm that CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing can be employed for genetic manipulation of non-model gut microbes. The ability to use this technology for site-specific integration of genes into the symbiont will facilitate the development of paratransgenic control strategies to interfere with arboviral pathogens such Chikungunya, dengue, Zika and Yellow fever viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794691

RESUMO

We previously reported two hamster models for viscerotropic yellow fever virus (YFV) infection: one using a YFV strain (Jiménez), isolated from a fatal human case in Panama in 1974, and the other using the prototype YFV strain (Asibi). Asibi hamster passage 7 (P7) was associated with accumulation of seven amino acid substitutions, including five in the envelope protein. In this study we report the genome sequences of the hamster Jiménez P0 and P10 viruses in which we identified only two amino acid substitutions during passage, one each in the nonstructural proteins NS3 and NS5, indicating a role for the nonstructural proteins in increased YFV viscerotropism in the Jiménez hamster model. Thus, there are multiple molecular mechanisms involved in viscerotropism of YFV in the hamster model. Neither Asibi P7 nor Jiménez P10 viruses were viscerotropic in mice or guinea pigs. Thus, the hamster viscerotropic phenotype did not translate to other laboratory rodent species.

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