Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 258.155
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253731, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355871

ABSTRACT

Abstract Petroleum water soluble fraction (WSF) impairs organisms, but damages may vary among cell and tissue levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and subchronic effects (36 days) of WSF (0%, 25% and 100%) in juveniles of the Neotropical top predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The effects of WSF were evaluated at a molecular level using the comet assay and micronucleus test for genome damage; and at a morphological level through histological identification of liver pathologic lesions. In both acute and subchronic exposure we found low levels of DNA damage (< 10% of comet tail) and non-significant frequency of micronucleus in WSF exposed fish. The most significant liver lesions in WSF exposed fish were fatty vacuolization, hypertrophy and focal necrosis. Since these tissue injuries were progressive and persistent, their irreversibility may negatively affect fish recruitment, even in a such resistant top predator.


Resumo A fração solúvel de petróleo (WSF) prejudica os organismos, porém os danos podem variar entre os níveis celular e tecidual. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito agudo (24 h, 48 h e 72 h) e subcrônico (36 dias) da WSF (0%, 25% e 100%) em juvenis do peixe neotropical predador topo Hoplias aff. malabaricus. Os efeitos da WSF foram avaliados no nível molecular utilizando o ensaio do cometa e o teste do micronúcleo para o dano genômico e no nível morfológico através da identificação histológica de lesões patológicas no fígado. Em ambas exposições (aguda e subcrônica) encontramos baixos níveis de dano no DNA (< 10% de DNA na cauda do cometa) e frequência de micronúcleos não significativa em peixes expostos a WSF. As lesões mais significativas no fígado dos peixes expostos a WSF foram a vacuolização lipídica, hipertrofia e focos de necroses. Como estas lesões foram progressivas e persistentes, sua irreversibilidade pode afetar negativamente o recrutamento dos peixes, mesmo sendo um predador topo resistente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Petroleum/toxicity , Characiformes , Fresh Water , Liver
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530

ABSTRACT

Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.


A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Lettuce/growth & development , Lettuce/drug effects , Fertilizers
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253083, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360201

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) use efficiency is crucial for sorghum production. P acquisition efficiency is the most important component of P use efficiency. The early-stage evaluation of plant development is a useful tool for identifying P-efficient genotypes. This study aimed to identify sorghum hybrids that are efficient in P use efficiency and assess the genetic diversity among hybrids based on traits related to P acquisition efficiency. Thus, 38 sorghum hybrids and two inbred lines (checks) were evaluated under low and high P in a paper pouch system with nutrient solution. Biomass and root traits related to P efficiency were measured. There was no interaction between genotypes and P levels concerning all evaluated traits. The biomass and root traits, except root diameter, presented smaller means under low P than high P. Efficient and inefficient hybrids under each P level were identified. The genetic diversity assessment grouped these genotypes in different clusters. The hybrids AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540, and DKB 590 were superior under low-P and high-P. Hybrids SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 presented the lowest means than all other hybrids, under both conditions. The evaluated hybrids showed phenotypic diversity for traits related to P acquisition, such as root length and root surface area, which can be useful for establishing selection strategies for sorghum breeding programs and increasing P use efficiency.


A eficiência do uso do fósforo (P) é fundamental para a produção de sorgo. A avaliação no estágio inicial do desenvolvimento da planta é uma ferramenta útil para a identificação de genótipos eficientes de P. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar híbridos de sorgo que sejam eficientes ao uso de P e avaliar a diversidade genética entre os híbridos com base em características relacionadas à eficiência de aquisição de P. Assim, 38 híbridos de sorgo e duas linhagens (testemunhas) foram avaliados sob baixo e alto P em sistema de pastas de papel com solução nutritiva. Características de biomassa e de raiz relacionadas à eficiência de P foram mensuradas. Não houve interação entre genótipos e níveis de P em todas as características avaliadas. As características de biomassa e raiz, exceto o diâmetro da raiz, apresentaram médias menores sob baixo P em comparação com alto P. Híbridos eficientes e ineficientes sob cada nível de P foram identificados e agrupados quanto à diversidade genética. Os híbridos AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540 e DKB 590 foram superiores sob baixo-P e alto-P. Os híbridos SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 apresentaram as menores médias que todos os outros híbridos, em ambas condições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diversidade fenotípica para características relacionadas à aquisição de P, como comprimento e área superficial da raiz, o que pode ser útil para estabelecer estratégias de seleção para programas de melhoramento de sorgo e aumentar a eficiência de uso do P.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Genetic Variation , Hydroponics , Sorghum/growth & development
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 281-290, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152260

ABSTRACT

Starch is important material in plant tissues, especially for storage tissues. Starches from different plant resources or tissues vary in morphology, content, and physicochemical properties. Starch and iodine can bind specifically to present the shapes and sizes of starch granules in plant tissues. Here, we describe some methods for staining starch in leaf, pollen grain, and starchy seeds with iodine solution. In addition, the isolated starch can also be stained with iodine solution to exhibit its shape and size.


Subject(s)
Iodine , Starch , Amylose/analysis , Iodine/analysis , Plants , Pollen , Seeds/chemistry , Staining and Labeling , Starch/chemistry
6.
Food Chem ; 399: 133954, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007442

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of osmoconcentration in a sucrose and sodium chloride solution on the efficiency of lactic fermentation and the content of polyphenols and oligosaccharides in yellow and red onion varieties: Alonso, Hysky, Hystore, and Red Lady. In most cases, no negative effect of onion dehydration was noted on the growth or number of the bacteria tested. Osmotic dehydration of onions prior to lactic fermentation may positively modify the profile of lactic acid isomers by increasing the proportion of the L (+) isomer. The use of osmotic dehydration before fermentation did not adversely affect the content of polyphenols in the onions. Simultaneously, the loss of fructo-oligosaccharides was limited: 60 % of the initial fructo-oligosaccharide content was obtained using the Alonso cultivar and Levilactobacillus brevis 0944 for onion fermentation.


Subject(s)
Lactic Acid , Onions , Fermentation , Humans , Oligosaccharides , Polyphenols
7.
Food Chem ; 400: 134077, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084597

ABSTRACT

Given the wide-spread consumption of wheat, the production of selenium (Se)-enriched wheat grain may be an effective method to increase the dietary Se intake in many Se-deficient areas. Herein, we biofortified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) via the foliar spraying of selenate or selenite at low or high rate, and investigated the resulting Se distribution in different wheat parts and the crucial parts involved in grain Se accumulation. Results showed that Se concentration in grain after selenite spraying was 1.5 times higher than that of selenate. Grain Se accumulation was largely affected by leaves Se and the transfer of Se from node1 to internode1. Furthermore, the main speciation of Se in wheat grain was the organic Se. In addition, the optimal dosage was 15 g ha-1. In summary, foliar spraying 15 g ha-1 of Se is an effective and safe agronomic biofortification practice.


Subject(s)
Selenious Acid , Selenium , Edible Grain , Selenic Acid , Triticum
8.
Food Chem ; 400: 134106, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084601

ABSTRACT

The naive detection of scheduled H drug oxytocin is a vital requisite, owing to its deleterious impact on societal affluence prompted by unconstrained usage. Therefore, a reliable, cost-effective, and quick-to-respond analytic technique for this drug is in ample demand. In this work, we report electrochemical detection of oxytocin employing novel nitrogen, phosphorus co-doped coke-derived graphene (NPG) modified electrode. The electro-oxidation behavior of oxytocin was investigated on the NPG modified electrode by square wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer of pH 7. The oxidation peak current was linear in two ranges, spanning from 0.1 nM to 10 nM and 15 nM to 95 nM. The limit of detection at the NPG electrode was calculated to be 40 pM. The practical application of developed sensor for the determination of oxytocin was examined in edible products and body fluids, hence signifying the possibility of having real-time surveillance over its misusage.


Subject(s)
Coke , Graphite , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Limit of Detection , Nitrogen , Oxytocin , Phosphates , Phosphorus
9.
Food Chem ; 398: 133878, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964559

ABSTRACT

In this study, novel bioavailable selenium nanoparticles with controllable particle size and low toxicity were developed. With selenium modified zein nanoparticles (zein NPs) in-situ, dispersed nano-selenium particles with different structure were formed simultaneously. The particle size, zeta potential, morphology and binding mechanism of synthesized zein-selenium nanoparticles (zein-Se NPs) were systematically discussed. Selenium was considered to be combined with OH and -CO-NH- groups of zein. The selenium in the complex particles presented an amorphous structure with zero valence. The cytotoxicity of zein-Se NPs was significantly lower than that of sodium selenite, even exhibited a growth-promoting effect on normal liver cells (L-02), and were proven to be orally absorbed by organisms in vivo experiments. The difference in particle structure had certain effects on cytotoxicity and oral targeting. The complex particles obtained by this method were anticipated be further used as food fortifiers or medicines.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Selenium , Zein , Biological Availability , Cell Size , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Particle Size , Selenium/chemistry , Zein/chemistry
10.
Food Chem ; 398: 133841, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969993

ABSTRACT

This study synthesized stable and sensitive hemp spherical AgNPs as the SERS substrate for the simultaneous and rapid detection of sunset yellow, lemon yellow, carmine and erythrosine adulteration in black tea. With R6G as the probe molecule, the AgNPs were determined to have satisfactory stability over 60 days with an enhancement factor of 108. The effects of three variable screening methods on model performance were compared. Among them, CARS-PLS exhibited superior performance for the quantification of all the four colorants, with prediction set correlation coefficients of 0.95, 0.97, 0.99 and 0.88, respectively. The differentiation of the mixed colorants was also achieved, with recoveries ranging from 91.87 % to 106.5 % with RSD value <1.97 %, demonstrating the high accuracy and precision of the proposed method. The results indicate that AgNPs-based SERS is an effective method and has substantial potential for application in the identification and quantification of colorant in tea.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis , Cannabis , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Carmine , Erythrosine , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Tea/chemistry
11.
Food Chem ; 398: 133910, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973296

ABSTRACT

Riboflavin (Rf), an externally supplied nutrient, is highly photosensitive, and should be protected from sunlight once used in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. The applications of encapsulated Rf have recently developed due to their therapeutic properties. In this study, the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Rosa damascena mill L. extract to control the encapsulation efficiency of Rf in potato starch was demonstrated for the first time. Starch/Rf, Starch/AgNPs/Rf and Starch/AgNPs nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, field emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and brunauer-Emmett-Teller techniques. The obtained results showed that the presence of AgNPs reduces Rf nanocapsules size (from 340 to 327 nm), increases the encapsulation efficiency (21.14 ± 0.62 to 92.52 ± 1.32 %) and improves the thermal stability, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Moreover, UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated the stronger association of AgNPs/Rf and AgNPs/Rf/Starch nanocapsules with BSA under physiological conditions.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Nanocapsules , Solanum tuberosum , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Riboflavin , Silver/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Starch , X-Ray Diffraction
12.
Food Chem ; 398: 133928, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988414

ABSTRACT

The determination of absorbed dose in gamma radiation processed onion (treated with 20-100 Gy for sprout inhibition) during storage is an important regulatory requirement to control unfair practices. To address this problem, a microscopy based method was developed using propidium iodide (PI) staining of onion adaxial epidermis. A proportional radiation dose dependent increase in nuclei count was observed during ambient (26 ± 2 °C) and low (2 ± 1 °C) temperature storage. The method was validated and dose of radiation could be determined accurately in stored onions using blind tests. During mechanism studies, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye staining and malondialdehyde (MDA) estimation showed dose dependent increase in peroxidation of membrane lipids. The fluorescein diacetate (FDA) stained onion adaxial epidermis showed decrease in fluorescence indicating lowering of physiological activity. Enzyme peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities and phytochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid) did not change significantly with increasing dose of gamma radiation.


Subject(s)
Onions , Phenols , Gamma Rays , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Propidium
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2565: 331-342, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205904

ABSTRACT

The determination of plasma catecholamine levels is commonly used as a measure of the sympathetic nervous system's response to stress and is highly important for diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases, catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from the chromaffin cells of the sympathoadrenal system, and affective disorders. Diseases in which catecholamines are significantly elevated include pheochromocytoma, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, baroreflex failure, chemodectina (nonchromaffin paraganglioma), and multiple endocrine neoplasia. Plasma norepinephrine levels provide a guide to prognosis in patients with stable, chronic, and congestive heart diseases. The method described here for the determination of plasma catecholamines is based on the principle that plasma catecholamines are selectively adsorbed on acid-washed alumina at pH 8.7 and then eluted at a pH between 1.0 and 2.0. Upon injection, catecholamines in elutes were separated by a reversed phase C-18 column. After separation, the catecholamines present within the mobile phase enter the electrochemical detector. Electrochemical detection occurs because electroactive compounds oxidize at a certain potential and thereby liberate electrons that create measurable current. Catecholamines readily form quinones under these conditions, get oxidized, release two electrons, and create current. The electrochemical detector detects this electrical current that linearly correlates to the catecholamine concentration loaded into the ultra-performance liquid chromatography instrument. A 15-min mixing time during the adsorption and desorption steps was found to be optimal. If the washing step was omitted, the catecholamines could not be eluted from the acid-washed alumina. To prevent dilution, the alumina had to be centrifuged and not aspirated to dryness after the washing step. We report here that by changing the range in the electrochemical detector, plasma catecholamines were measured with only 12.5 µL of plasma and more reliably with 25 µL of plasma. The detection limit was 1 ng/mL. This assay method is very useful as blood can be collected from the tail vein in a conscious mouse and the same mouse can be used for time-dependent or age-dependent studies.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Catecholamines , Aluminum Oxide , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mice , Norepinephrine , Quinones , Tail
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115715, 2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108895

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (P. ginseng) is effective in the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanism by which P. ginseng exerts cardioprotective effects is complex. P. ginseng contains many pharmacologically active ingredients, such as molecular glycosides, polyphenols, and polysaccharides. P. ginseng and each of its active components can potentially act against myocardial I/R injury. Myocardial I/R was originally a treatment for myocardial ischemia, but it also induced irreversible damage, including oxygen-containing free radicals, calcium overload, energy metabolism disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microvascular injury, autophagy, and apoptosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to clarify the protective effects of P. ginseng and its active ingredients against myocardial I/R injury, so as to provide experimental evidence and new insights for the research and application of P. ginseng in the field of myocardial I/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was based on a search of PubMed, NCBI, Embase, and Web of Science databases from their inception to February 21, 2022, using terms such as "ginseng," "ginsenosides," and "myocardial reperfusion injury." In this review, we first summarized the active ingredients of P. ginseng, including ginsenosides, ginseng polysaccharides, and phytosterols, as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial I/R injury. Importantly, preclinical models with myocardial I/R injury and potential mechanisms of these active ingredients of P. ginseng for the prevention and treatment of myocardial disorders were generally summarized. RESULTS: P. ginseng and its active components can regulate oxidative stress related proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis factors, while protecting the myocardium and preventing myocardial I/R injury. Therefore, P. ginseng can play a role in the prevention and treatment of myocardial I/R injury. CONCLUSIONS: P. ginseng has a certain curative effect on myocardial I/R injury. It can prevent and treat myocardial I/R injury in several ways. When ginseng exerts its effects, should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and with the help of modern medicine; the clinical efficacy of P. ginseng in preventing and treating myocardial I/R injury can be improved.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Panax , Phytosterols , Calcium , Cytokines , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxygen , Polysaccharides
15.
Gene ; 848: 146898, 2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122610

ABSTRACT

RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification process, the chloroplast genes of which are involved in the process of chloroplast development in plant. However, the RNA editing sites of chloroplast genes remains unknown. In this study, we identified 39 RNA editing sites in 18 chloroplast genes from chloroplast genome of C. sinensis. Furthermore, the feature, structures and specificity of RNA editing sites were systematic analyzed. The differential editing efficiency were examined at 11 RNA editing sites among C. sinensis var. sinensis 'Huabai 1', 'Baiye 1' and 'Longjing 43'. Meanwhile, we identified 10 C. sinensis MORFs from five subgroups and performed comparative analyses of chromosome locations, duplication model and expression profiles. Expression analysis showed that the expression level of CsMORF9.2 was down-regulated significantly in 'Huabai 1' albino tea cultivar. This study provides a foundation for further reveal in the role of chloroplast RNA editing in albinism process of tea leaves.


Subject(s)
Albinism , Camellia sinensis , Camellia sinensis/genetics , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , RNA Editing , RNA, Chloroplast/metabolism
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115716, 2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122792

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C.A. Mey (PG) is famous for "Qi-tonifying" effect, which has a medicinal history of more than 2 millennia. Modern pharmacology has confirmed that the "Qi-tonifying" effect of PG may be closely related to its pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidation, antineoplastic and treatment of cardiovascular disease. As one of the earliest cells affected by oxidative stress, RBCs are widely used in the diagnosis of diseases. Ginseng polysaccharide (GPS), is one of the major active components of PG, which plays an important role in resisting oxidative stress, affecting energy metabolism and other effects. However, the molecular mechanism explaining the "Qi-tonifying" effect of GPS from the perspective of RBCs oxidative damage has not been reported. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of GPS on oxidatively damaged RBCs using in vitro and in vivo models and explore the molecular mechanisms from the perspective of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. To provides a theoretical basis for the future research of antioxidant drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Established three different in vitro and in vivo research models: an in vitro model of RBCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (40 mM), an in vivo model of RBCs from rats subjected to exhaustive swimming, and an in vitro model of BRL-3A cells exposed to H2O2 (25 µM). All three models were also tested in the presence of different concentrations of GPS. RESULTS: The findings showed that GPS was the most potent antagonist of H2O2-induced hemolysis and redox inbalance in RBCs. In exhaustive exercise rats, GPS ameliorated RBVs hemolysis, including reducing whole-blood viscosity (WBV), improving deformability, oxygen-carrying and -releasing capacities, which was related to the enhancing of antioxidant capacity. Moreover, GPS promoted RBCs glycolysis in rats with exhaustive exercise by recovering the activities of glycolysis-related enzymes and increasing band 3 protein expression, thereby regulating the imbalance of energy metabolism caused by oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GPS improved antioxidant defense system, enhanced energy metabolism, and regulated gluconeogenesis via activating PPAR gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) pathway in H2O2-exposed BRL-3A cells. Mechanistically, GPS promoted glycolysis and protected RBCs from oxidative injury was partly dependent on the regulation of gluconeogenesis, as inhibition of gluconeogenesis by metformin (Met) attenuates the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and key enzymes of glycolytic by GPS in exhaustive exercise rats. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that GPS protects RBCs from oxidative stress damage by promoting RBCs glycolysis and liver gluconeogenesis pathways. These results may contribute to the study of new RBCs treatments to boost antioxidant capacity and protect RBCs against oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Metformin , Panax , Animals , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte/metabolism , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Erythrocytes , Gluconeogenesis , Glycolysis , Hemolysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metformin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Rats
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114055, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964782

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the orexin and POMC populations in the hypothalamic nuclei of male Wistar rats after the activity-based anorexia (ABA) procedure. Four groups were established based on food restriction and activity: activity (A), ABA, diet (D) and control (C). The ABA protocol consisted of free access to a running wheel for a period of 22 h and access to food for 1 h. When the animals in the ABA group reached the ABA criterion, were sacrificed, and their brains were collected and serially sectioned. The free-floating sections were processed for orexin and POMC immunostaining. The number of orexin A-ir cells in the perifornical-dorsomedial-hypothalamus continuum (PFD) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the number of POMC-ir cells in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) were estimated. Data on food intake, body weight and wheel turns were also analyzed. The ABA procedure caused a significant decrease in body weight along with a significant increase in activity. Moreover, at the end of the ABA procedure, the number of POMC-ir cells decreased in the Arc in the A group, and significantly more in the ABA group, and the number of orexin A-ir positive cells decreased in the LH in D and ABA groups. The differential decrease in POMC in the ABA group emphasizes the importance of the melanocortin system in the maintenance of ABA, but more research is needed to elucidate the involvement of this peptide in the mechanism that promotes and maintains anorexia nervosa and how increased activity may interact with all these processes.


Subject(s)
Anorexia , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Animals , Body Weight , Eating , Hypothalamus , Male , Melanocortins , Motor Activity , Orexins , Rats , Rats, Wistar
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129880, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067557

ABSTRACT

Coal ash deposited in open landfills is a potential source of environmental pollutants due to the contained toxic element content. The weathered coal ash used in this study additionally contains enhanced activity concentrations of 238U series radionuclides. This study aimed to determine the physiological effects of enhanced ionizing radiation and toxic elements on five plant species (smilo grass, sticky fleabane, blackberry, mastic and pine tree) inhabiting the coal ash disposal site. Among the potentially toxic measured elements, contents of Sb, As and especially V significantly exceeded their respective levels at the control site, as well as the content of 238U and its progenies. Significant changes in photosynthetic pigments were recorded following chronic exposure to the plants growing on the coal ash site. Different responses were also observed in the plant species regarding the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The level of lipid peroxidation markedly increased in plants from the disposal site, except in blackberry, wherein GST activity was the strongest, indicating an important role of that enzyme in the adaptation to coal ash pollutants. The results of this study suggest that the modulation of the studied biochemical parameters in plants growing on coal ash is primarily species-dependent.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Radioactive , Uranium , Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis , Catalase , Coal/analysis , Coal Ash/analysis , Coal Ash/toxicity , Glutathione , Plants , Power Plants , Radioisotopes/analysis , Transferases , Uranium/toxicity
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2571: 123-132, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152156

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, we describe a metallomics method based on protein precipitation under non-denaturing conditions and further analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for high-throughput metal speciation in plasma and erythrocyte samples. This methodology enables to study the total multielemental profile of these biological matrices, as well as to quantify the metal fractions conforming the metallometabolome and the metalloproteome. Furthermore, the analytical coverage comprises several essential and toxic metal elements, namely aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Altogether, the metallomics method here proposed represents an excellent approach to comprehensively characterize the metal biodistribution in human peripheral blood, which would enable to decipher the role of metal homeostasis in health and disease, and particularly in childhood obesity.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Pediatric Obesity , Selenium , Aluminum , Cadmium/analysis , Child , Chromium , Cobalt , Copper/analysis , Humans , Iron/analysis , Lithium , Manganese , Molybdenum , Nickel , Tissue Distribution , Vanadium , Zinc/analysis
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 156-164, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182126

ABSTRACT

High phosphorus steel slag and carbonized rice husk are two common wastes characterized by high generation and low secondary use values. Through the reduction of high phosphorus steel slag by biomass, both wastes were fully utilized, thus reducing the negative impact on the environment. In this study, variables such as temperature, time, and amount of reactants were changed to determine the optimal conditions for the reaction of steel slag with carbonized rice husk at high temperatures. The actual amount of reducing agent consumed during the reduction was significantly greater than that predicted by theoretical calculations. Adding three carbon equivalent of carbonized rice husk and maintaining at 1500°C for 30 min could remove 79.25% of P2O5 in the slag. By modeling the material cycle in which high phosphorus steel slag was treated with biomass, the product could be used for crop growth. Meanwhile, the reduced iron and residual steel slag can be used to make steel again, thereby leading to a sharp reduction in fossil fuel usage and greenhouse gas emissions in this process.


Subject(s)
Greenhouse Gases , Oryza , Carbon , Fossil Fuels , Industrial Waste , Iron , Phosphorus , Reducing Agents , Steel
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...