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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 678-684, 2021 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645035

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to understand the pharmacodynamic effect of Valeriana jatamansi extract in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome(IBS-D) rat model induced by maternal separation combined with three kinds of stress, and observe the changes of endogenous metabolites in feces after intervention to find potential biomarkers and related metabolic pathways. The animal model of IBS-D was established by maternal separation combined with restraint, ice swimming and tail clamping. The therapeutic effect of each dose group of V. jatamansi extract was evaluated in terms of abdominal withdrawal reflex pressure threshold, fecal water content and immobility time of forced swimming test. In addition, rat feces were collected for detection of metabolic profiles of small molecular metabolites with UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS platform, so as to find the biomarkers of differential metabolism with multivariate statistical analysis methods such as principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogon partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA). The results showed that as compared with the normal group, the threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex pressure was decreased, the fecal water content was increased, and the immobility time of forced swimming test was prolonged in the model group. The results of fecal metabonomics showed that the levels of 39 metabolites were down-regulated and those of 37 metabolites were up-re-gulated. Further analysis showed that these metabolites were related to bile acid metabolism, unsaturated fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, ceramide metabolism and other metabolic pathways. This study proved that the extract of V. jatamansi had definite pharmacodynamic effect on IBS-D model rats, and the mechanism was discussed from the perspective of fecal metabonomics.


Subject(s)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Valerian , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Diarrhea , Feces , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Maternal Deprivation , Metabolomics , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 384-394, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645142

ABSTRACT

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers obtained by esterification of hydroxy fatty acid monomers. Due to similar mechanical characteristics of traditional petroleum-based plastics, 100% biodegradability and biocompatibility, PHAs are considered to be one of the most potential green materials. However, the application and promotion of PHAs as a green and environmentally friendly material are difficult because of the high production costs. This article focuses on the current methods to reduce production cost of PHAs effectively, such as cell morphology regulation, metabolic pathway construction, economic carbon source utilization and open fermentation technology development. Despite most research results are still limited in laboratory, the research methods and directions provide theoretical guidance for the industrial production of economic PHAs.


Subject(s)
Petroleum , Polyhydroxyalkanoates , Fermentation , Industry , Plastics
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 635-645, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645161

ABSTRACT

One of the distinct characters of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is that its toxic components exist not only in the venomous glands, but also in the tissues outside the venomous glands and even in the eggs. Investigation on the toxins outside the venomous glands can deepen our understanding of spider toxins and discover new lead molecules with important application prospects. In order to explore the low-abundance proteinaceous toxins in the L. tredecimguttatus eggs, we used bioinformatic strategies to mine a gene sequence encoding a peptide toxin from the transcriptome of L. tredecimguttatus eggs, and then heterologously expressed the gene successfully with a 3'-RACE combined with nest PCR strategy. Biological activity analyses indicated that the expressed peptide toxin, named latroeggtoxin-Ⅵ (LETX-Ⅵ), could inhibit Na⁺ channel currents in ND7/23 cells and promote dopamine release from PC12 cells, without obvious toxicity against Periplaneta americana and bacteria as well as fungi including Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, demonstrating that LETX-Ⅵ is a mammal-specific neurotoxin with a potential application prospect in development of the tool reagents for neurobiological study and the drugs for treating related diseases.


Subject(s)
Black Widow Spider , Spider Venoms , Animals , Arthropod Proteins/genetics , Black Widow Spider/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Rats , Spider Venoms/genetics , Transcriptome
4.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 103, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are World Health Organization (WHO) grade I tumors, which are relatively common, and are benign lesions in children. PAs could originate from the cerebellum, optic pathways, and third ventricular/hypothalamic region. Traditional various transcranial routes are used for hypothalamic PAs (HPAs). However, there are few studies on hypothalamic PAs treated through the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). This study reports the preliminary experience of the investigators and results with HPAs via expanded EEAs. METHODS: All patients with HPAs, undergone EEA in our hospital from 2017 to 2019, were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic data, clinical symptoms, complications, skull base reconstruction, prognosis, and endocrinological data were all recorded and analyzed in detail. RESULTS: Finally, five female patients were enrolled. The average age of patients was 28.6 ± 14.0. All patients had complaints about their menstrual disorder. One patient had severe bilateral visual impairment. Furthermore, only one patient suffered from severe headache due to acute hydrocephalus, although there were four patients with headache or dizziness. Four cases achieved gross-total resection, and one patient achieved subtotal resection. Furthermore, there was visual improvement in one patient (case 5), and postoperative worsening of vision in one patient (case 4). However, only one patient had postoperative intracranial infection. None of the patients experienced a postoperative CSF leak, and in situ bone flap (ISBF) techniques were used for two cases for skull base repair. In particular, ISBF combined with free middle turbinate mucosal flap was used for case 5. After three years of follow-up, three patients are still alive, two patients had no neurological or visual symptoms, or tumor recurrence, and one patient had severe hypothalamic dysfunction. Unfortunately, one patient died of severe postoperative hypothalamus reaction, which presented with coma, high fever, diabetes insipidus, hypernatremia and intracranial infection. The other patient died of recurrent severe pancreatitis at one year after the operation. CONCLUSION: Although the data is still very limited and preliminary, EEA provides a direct approach to HPAs with acceptable prognosis in terms of tumor resection, endocrinological and visual outcomes. ISBF technique is safe and reliable for skull base reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Hypothalamus , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Adult , Astrocytoma/surgery , Female , Humans , Hypothalamus/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 109, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522951

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum (LM2) for mild cases of COVID-19 in Primary Health Care. TRIAL DESIGN: A randomized, two-armed (1:1), parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is being performed to test the following hypotheses: H0: homeopathic medicines = placebo (null hypothesis) vs. H1: homeopathic medicines ≠ placebo (alternative hypothesis) for mild cases of COVID-19 in Primary Care. PARTICIPANTS: Setting: Primary Care of São Carlos - São Paulo - Brazil. One hundred participants aged 18 years or older, with Influenza-like symptoms and a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Willingness to give informed consent and to comply with the study procedures is also required. Exclusion criterium: severe acute respiratory syndrome. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Homeopathy: 1 globule of Natrum muriaticum LM2 diluted in 20 mL of alcohol 30% and dispensed in a 30 ml bottle. Placebo: 20 mL of alcohol 30% dispensed in a 30 ml bottle. Posology: one drop taken orally every 4 hours (6 doses/day) while there is fever, cough, tiredness, or pain (headache, sore throat, muscle aches, chest pain, etc.) followed by one drop every 6 hours (4 doses/day) until the fourteenth day of use. The bottle of study medication should be submitted to 10 vigorous shakes (succussions) before each dose. Posology may be changed by telemedicine, with no break in blinding. Study medication should be maintained during home isolation. According to the Primary Care protocol, the home isolation period lasts until the 10th day after the appearance of the first symptom, or up to 72 hours without symptoms. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint will be time to recovery, defined as the number of days elapsed before all COVID-19 Influenza-like symptoms are recorded as mild or absent during home isolation period. Secondary measures are recovery time for each COVID-19 symptom; score of the scale created for the study (COVID-Simile Scale); medicines used during follow-up; number of days of follow-up; number of visits to emergency services; number of hospitalizations; other symptoms and Adverse Events during home isolation period. RANDOMISATION: The study Statistician generated a block randomization list, using a 1:1 ratio of the two groups (denoted as A and B) and a web-based tool ( http://www.random.org/lists ). BLINDING (MASKING): The clinical investigators, the statistician, the Primary Care teams, the study collaborators, and the participants will remain blinded from the identity of the two treatment groups until the end of the study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): One hundred participants are planned to be randomized (1:1) to placebo (50) or homeopathy (50). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version/date May 21, 2020. Recruitment is ongoing. First participant was recruited/included on June 29,2020. Due to recruitment adaptations to Primary Care changes, the authors anticipate the trial will finish recruiting on April 10, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID-Simile Study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN - https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ) on June 1st, 2020, and the trial start date was June 15, 2020. Unique ID: UMIN000040602. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Materia Medica/administration & dosage , Primary Health Care/methods , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , /virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Homeopathy/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 823, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547296

ABSTRACT

We present an application of multi-isotopic fingerprints (i.e., 236U/238U, 233U/236U, 236U/129I and 129I/127I) for the discovery of previously unrecognized sources of anthropogenic radioactivity. Our data indicate a source of reactor 236U in the Baltic Sea in addition to inputs from the two European reprocessing plants and global fallout. This additional reactor 236U may come from unreported discharges from Swedish nuclear research facilities as supported by high 236U levels in sediment nearby Studsvik, or from accidental leakages of spent nuclear fuel disposed on the Baltic seafloor, either reported or unreported. Such leakages would indicate problems with the radiological safety of seafloor disposal, and may be accompanied by releases of other radionuclides. The results demonstrate the high sensitivity of multi-isotopic tracer systems, especially the 233U/236U signature, to distinguish environmental emissions of unrevealed radioactive releases for nuclear safeguards, emergency preparedness and environmental tracer studies.


Subject(s)
Radioisotopes/analysis , Seawater/analysis , Uranium/analysis , Water Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis , Baltic States , Humans , Radioactive Fallout/analysis , Sweden
7.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116509, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524648

ABSTRACT

The effect of Si/Al molar ratio of geopolymer on the immobilization of Se and As oxyanions was studied through leaching test and solid characterizations including XRD, FTIR, TG, NMR, XAFS, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. As a whole, the leaching percentages of Se and As oxyanions increased with the increase of the Si/Al molar ratio of geopolymer. Linear combination fitting confirmed that most of selenite, selenate and arsenate ions existed in geopolymers through electrostatic interaction. Thus, Al tetrahedrons in geopolymer structure control the charge stability for these oxyanions to a large extent. Differently, as for arsenate ions, they were recrystallized into an arsenate compound (Na3.25(OH)0.25(H2O)12)(AsO4) in geopolymers. The additive of these pollutants has an adverse effect on the compactness of geopolymer, then influencing the leaching performance in turn. However, the changes in leaching results did not follow the variation trend of specific surface areas and pore volumes of geopolymers with different Si/Al ratios. The number and distribution of Al tetrahedron and compactness of geopolymer have a synergistic effect on the immobilization of these oxyanions. Besides, the compressive strengths of geopolymer samples are always higher than 20 MPa, which meets the requirement of safe disposal of hazardous waste.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Selenium , Adsorption , Hazardous Waste , Selenic Acid
8.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(1): 10-14, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567167

ABSTRACT

The characterization of the functioning of the blood circulatory system of the organism in terms of its ability to adapt to environmental conditions includes the definition of adaptive potential (AP). The purpose of the study is to supplement the idea of adaptive potential in the aspect of its association with indicators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal system in healthy men living in the climatic conditions of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The study involved 94 apparently healthy men. Serum hormone levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal system were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Percent of men with satisfactory adaptation was 67%. Markers of increased tension in adaptive mechanisms include a decrease in values of testosterone, sex hormone -binding globulin, and testosterone / estradiol ratio. It has been shown that in individuals with a 4-th degree of adaptive potential, the activity of the pituitary-gonadal and the pituitary-adrenal cortex systems participating in the maintenance of the circulatory system is suppressed. That may be associated with a decrease in the reserves of hormone synthesis in these systems. An increase in the tension of the adaptive mechanisms of the circulatory system occurs with a decrease in the levels of anabolic hormones and a simultaneous increase in the level of estradiol as a compensatory reaction to maintain the function of the cardiovascular system. It is established that when moving northward beyond the border of the Arctic Circle an increase in the tension of the adaptive mechanisms of the circulatory system is noted for men living in extreme climatic conditions. The results of the study show a negative correlation of adaptive potential with the values of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and the testosterone / estradiol ratio. The tension of the adaptive mechanisms of the blood circulatory system occurs with decreased sex hormones levels, which can be considered as a marker of disadaptation changes amid the risk of the ecological well-being of the population.


Subject(s)
Luteinizing Hormone , Testosterone , Arctic Regions , Estradiol , Gonads , Humans , Hypothalamus , Male , Russia
9.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554968

ABSTRACT

Researchers often collect and analyze corbicular pollen from honey bees to identify the plant sources on which they forage for pollen or to estimate pesticide exposure of bees via pollen. Described herein is an effective pollen-trapping method for collecting corbicular pollen from honey bees returning to their hives. This collection method results in large quantities of corbicular pollen that can be used for research purposes. Honey bees collect pollen from many plant species, but typically visit one species during each collection trip. Therefore, each corbicular pollen pellet predominantly represents one plant species, and each pollen pellet can be described by color. This allows the sorting of samples of corbicular pollen by color to segregate plant sources. Researchers can further classify corbicular pollen by analyzing the morphology of acetolyzed pollen grains for taxonomic identification. These methods are commonly used in studies related to pollinators such as pollination efficiency, pollinator foraging dynamics, diet quality, and diversity. Detailed methodologies are presented for collecting corbicular pollen using pollen traps, sorting pollen by color, and acetolyzing pollen grains. Also presented are results pertaining to the frequency of pellet colors and taxa of corbicular pollen collected from honey bees in five different cropping systems.


Subject(s)
Bees/physiology , Pollen/physiology , Specimen Handling/methods , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Animals , Pollination , Staining and Labeling
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609348

ABSTRACT

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that is characterized by widespread pain and a multitude of other symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, stiffness, and depressive episodes. Fibromyalgia is most common in women, though it can occur in men as well. It most often starts in middle adulthood but can occur in the teen years and in old age. Fibromyalgia has also been termed central pain amplification disorder, meaning the volume of pain sensation in the brain is turned up too high. This study has been conducted to evaluate the role of homeopathic treatment in fibromyalgia, a chronic pain disorder which a physician may come across fairly commonly in their practice. Homeopathy has demonstrated great efficacy in mitigating the symptoms of widespread pain, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, which are the most commonly reported symptoms of fibromyalgia.

11.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 762-770, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617484

ABSTRACT

For improving the management of watershed eutrophication, methods for measuring bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) are more important than measurements of total phosphorus (TP). BAP in particulate form (P-BAP) is an important substance that promotes eutrophication, especially during rainy seasons. Only a portion of particulate phosphorus (PP) is taken up by algae that contribute to eutrophication. Erosion and runoff associated with rainfall transport PP bound to sediments and soil particles to surface waters, thus increasing PP concentration. This research evaluated an extraction method using an ultrasonic washing machine for extraction time and frequency. Extraction at a frequency of 28-45 kHz and an extraction time of 1 min resulted in extracted P concentrations almost the same as concentrations extracted using conventional methods. This new method requires less time and is more efficient than conventional methods because it extracts P from multiple samples in a single step. Results indicate that extraction using an ultrasonic washing machine is a promising method for rapidly obtaining BAP from sediments and soil particles.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Soil , Environmental Monitoring , Eutrophication , Geologic Sediments , Phosphorus/analysis , Rain , Ultrasonics , Water Movements
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 792-802, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617487

ABSTRACT

Natural apatites have previously shown a great capacity for phosphate retention from wastewater. However, its fine particle size distribution may lead to a premature clogging of the filter. Accordingly, a granulated apatite product was developed and manufactured in order to control the particle size distribution of the media. Experiments were conducted on laboratory columns to assess their phosphorus retention capacity, to identify the processes involved in phosphorus retention and to evaluate their kinetic rates. The results showed phosphorus retention capacities of 10.5 and 12.4 g PO4-P·kg-1 and kinetic rate coefficients in the range of 0.63 and 0.23 h-1 involving lower values than those found for natural apatites in previous studies. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that apatite particles in the granules were embedded in the binder and were not readily accessible to act as seeds for calcium phosphate precipitation. The retention processes differ depending on the supersaturation of the solution with respect to calcium phosphate phases: at low calcium concentrations (69.8 ± 3.9 mg·L-1), hydroxyapatite precipitates fill up the porosity of the binder up to a depth of 100-300 µm from the granule surface; at higher calcium concentrations (112.7 ± 7.4 mg·L-1) precipitation occurs at the granule surface, forming successive layers of hydroxyapatite and carbonated calcium phosphates.


Subject(s)
Apatites , Phosphorus , Durapatite , Kinetics , Porosity
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 922-933, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617498

ABSTRACT

Dredged sediment can occupy a large amount of land area, resulting in waste of land resources, and high disposal costs. In response to the problem, this work calcinates and modified the sediment and compounds it with the modified water purification plant sludge, zeolite powder, and bentonite. This is used as a covering material to inhibit the release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the sediment. The results showed that sediment modified composite material covering effectively reduces the release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the sediment, especially the release of P. When the thickness of the covering layer is 3 cm, the reduction rate of total N, NH4+-N, and total P in the overlying water by the modified composite material of sediment is 61.58, 79.59, and 70.34%, respectively. It can be seen that the covering material has a significant effect on the control of the release of N and P in the sediment. Additionally, the reduction of nutrients in the overlying water can overcome the negative effects of temperature rise in controlling the release of N and P in the sediment.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Geologic Sediments , Nitrogen/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 961-974, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617501

ABSTRACT

Adsorption substrate in the substrate layer of an extensive green roof (EGR) is one of the most important factors affecting rainwater retention and pollution interception capacity. However, the contact time between runoff and adsorption substrate is extremely short in actual rainfall, and adsorption substrate cannot show fully rainwater retention and pollution interception capacity. So, selection of adsorption substrate based on its physical properties and theoretical adsorption capacity is unreliable. In this study, eight commonly-used adsorption substrate experimental devices are constructed with the same configuration. The delayed outflow time and runoff reduction rate of each device, along with event measurement concentration (EMC), average EMC, and cumulative pollutant quantity of SS, ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in each device outflow under nine simulated rainfall events are measured and evaluated. The results indicate that vermiculite has a significant interception effect on NH4+ and TP with the advantages of low bulk density, high porosity, low cost, and a good rainfall runoff retention capacity under torrential rain and downpour events. In future practical engineering and related studies of EGR, attention should be paid to ameliorating the deficiencies of the adsorption substrates and optimizing their synergistic effects when combined with nutrient substrates.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Rain , Adsorption , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Water Movements
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(3): 727-738, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600375

ABSTRACT

The current study focuses on a prime effect of pH changes in the catalytic ozonation process (COP) by using three main classes of catalysts such as zeolites (alumina-silicates), alumina (metal oxides), and activated carbons for decolorization of Reactive Red 241 (RR-241). The role of pH changes, point of zero charges and the effect of catalyst dose on pH change was studied. The results reveal that the overall removal efficiency of RR-241 in the case of COPs was the highest compared with single ozonation process (at pH = 7 the efficiency was 80, 65 65.5 and 60% for AC/O3, Al2O3/O3, Zeolite/O3 and O3 respectively). At initial acidic pH 4, the highest pH variations in COPs and ozonation processes were observed. Moreover, the pH changes were not found to be significant near the point of zero charges of materials (pHpzc = 6.8, 8.4 and 8.8 for zeolite, activated carbons and Al2O3, respectively. The COP in the presence of activated carbon shows the highest removal efficiency (82%) at pH 7. The material dose effect indicates that increasing the amount of catalyst (from 1 gm to 2 gm) significantly leads to a change in the pH of the solution. Results reveal the prominent effect and significance of pH changes on the efficiency of COP to determine true catalytic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Ozone , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Zeolites , Aluminum Oxide , Catalysis , Charcoal , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
16.
Waste Manag ; 123: 80-87, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571832

ABSTRACT

Enriched in phosphorus, sewage sludge ash has been extensively studied and applied as a secondary source for phosphorus recovery. Wet extraction, especially acid washing, is one of the most feasible methods to recover phosphorus from the ash due to its ease of operation, high efficiency and low cost. However, the management of the resultant acid residue was seldom addressed. In this study, special focus was paid to the reuse and recycling of the acid residue by an alkaline activation method. Its adsorption performance towards four different heavy metals in aqueous solutions was evaluated by batch and fixed-bed column adsorption experiments. The obtained material showed a high BET specific area (98.29 m2/g) and a total pore volume (0.114 cm3/g), and effectively removed Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions with the maximum adsorption capacity of around 26.8, 22.2, 53.3 and 13.5 mg/g respectively. It could be loaded in a fixed-bed column to continuously remove heavy metals especially for Pb(II). The proposed method to recycle the acid residue makes the wet extraction methods designing to recover phosphorus from incinerated sewage sludge complete without the generation of waste, which contributes to circular economy and a sustainable future.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Sewage , Adsorption , Phosphorus , Recycling
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(3): 123, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587191

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the effects of the dam reservoir in Komorów on the water quality in the Utrata river. The implementation of the adopted objective involved a comparison of water quality at two points, above and below the reservoir. The Utrata River is polluted with biogenic compounds throughout the whole section studied. COD content also indicates significant contamination exceeding permissible limits. A positive effect of the reservoir on water quality in the river was also observed in terms of the content of dissolved oxygen, with concentration increasing below the reservoir. The reservoir had a positive effect on reducing the concentration of total phosphorus in the water. Water in the Utrata below the reservoir showed higher values of chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) than above the reservoir. There were no differences in the concentration of NH4+ and NO3- ions in the water before and after the reservoir.


Subject(s)
Rivers , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Environmental Monitoring , Phosphorus/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1036, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589621

ABSTRACT

Hybrid wheat varieties give higher yields than conventional lines but are difficult to produce due to a lack of effective control of male fertility in breeding lines. One promising system involves the Rf1 and Rf3 genes that restore fertility of wheat plants carrying Triticum timopheevii-type cytoplasmic male sterility (T-CMS). Here, by genetic mapping and comparative sequence analyses, we identify Rf1 and Rf3 candidates that can restore normal pollen production in transgenic wheat plants carrying T-CMS. We show that Rf1 and Rf3 bind to the mitochondrial orf279 transcript and induce cleavage, preventing expression of the CMS trait. The identification of restorer genes in wheat is an important step towards the development of hybrid wheat varieties based on a CMS-Rf system. The characterisation of their mode of action brings insights into the molecular basis of CMS and fertility restoration in plants.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Plant/chemistry , Genes, Mitochondrial , Genes, Plant , Plant Infertility/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Base Sequence , Chromosome Mapping , Cytoplasm/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Plant Breeding/methods , Plant Cells/chemistry , Plant Cells/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Pollen/genetics , Pollen/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
19.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116533, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529906

ABSTRACT

Commercial beekeepers in many locations are experiencing increased annual colony losses of honey bees (Apis mellifera), but the causes, including the role of agrochemicals in colony losses, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic consumption of pollen containing a widely-used fungicide (Pristine®), known to inhibit bee mitochondria in vitro, which has recently been shown to reduce honey bee worker lifespan when field-colonies are provided with pollen containing field-realistic levels of Pristine®. We fed field colonies pollen with a field-realistic concentration of Pristine® (2.3 ppm) and a concentration two orders of magnitude higher (230 ppm). To challenge flight behavior and elicit near-maximal metabolic rate, we measured flight quality and metabolic rates of bees in two lower-than-normal air densities. Chronic consumption of 230 but not 2.3 ppm Pristine® reduced maximal flight performance and metabolic rates, suggesting that the observed decrease in lifespans of workers reared on field-realistic doses of Pristine®-laced pollen is not due to inhibition of flight muscle mitochondria. However, consumption of either the 230 or 2.3 ppm dose reduced thorax mass (but not body mass), providing the first evidence of morphological effects of Pristine®, and supporting the hypothesis that Pristine® reduces forager longevity by negatively impacting digestive or nutritional processes.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial , Animals , Bees , Digestion , Fungicides, Industrial/toxicity , Longevity , Pollen , Thorax
20.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116604, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548671

ABSTRACT

The effects of voltage intensity on the nutrient removal performance and microbial community in the iron electrolysis-integrated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system were investigated over a period of 15 weeks. Results revealed that the application outcomes of iron electrolysis for AGS systems relied on voltage intensity. When a constant voltage of 1.5 V was applied, the sludge granulation was most obviously accelerated with a specific growth rate of the sludge diameter of 0.078 day-1, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) increased by 14.1% and 20.2%, respectively, compared to the control reactor (without the iron electrolysis-integration). Moreover, the AGS developed at different voltages included different microbial communities, whose shifts were driven by the Fe content and the average diameter of AGS. Both heterotrophic nitrifiers and mixotrophic denitrifiers were significantly enriched in the AGS developed at 1.5 V, which effectively enhanced TN removal. Together with the response of the functional genes involved in Fe, N, and P metabolism, the electrolytic iron-driven nutrient degradation pathway was further elaborated. Overall, this study clarified the optimum voltage condition when iron electrolysis was integrated into the AGS system, and revealed the enhancement mechanism of this coupling technology on nutrient removal during the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Sewage , Aerobiosis , Bioreactors , Electrolysis , Iron , Nitrogen , Nutrients , Phosphorus , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water
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