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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 269-74, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion on fatigue state and intestinal flora in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS: A total of 62 patients with CFS were randomly divided into an observation group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with normal diet and moderate exercise; on the basis of the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion at Zhongwan (CV 12), Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4), 30 min each time, once every other day, three times a week. Both groups were intervened for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, the fatigue scale-14 (FS-14) was used to observe the improvement of fatigue state, and 16S rRNA detection technology was used to detect the distribution of intestinal flora. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the FS-14 score was reduced after treatment in the observation group (P<0.01), and the reduction in the observation group was larger than that in the control group (P<0.01). The relative abundance of intestinal flora was similar between the observation group and control group at the phylum and genus level before treatment. After treatment, there was no significant change of intestinal flora in the control group. However, the enterobacteriaceae, corynebacterium, erysipelothrix, actinomycetes were increased in the observation group (P<0.05), and actinomycetes, ruminococcus, lactarius had obvious flora advantages compared with the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The ginger-separated moxibustion could significantly improve the fatigue state in CFS patients, which may be related to the regulation of intestinal flora structure and the repair of intestinal barrier.


Subject(s)
Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ginger , Moxibustion , Acupuncture Points , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
2.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808054

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) is a major protease having an important role in viral replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that caused the pandemic of 2020. Here, active Mpro was obtained as a 34.5 kDa protein by overexpression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The optimal pH and temperature of Mpro were 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. Mpro displayed a Km value of 16 µM with Dabcyl-KTSAVLQ↓SGFRKME-Edans. Black garlic extract and 49 polyphenols were studied for their inhibitory effects on purified Mpro. The IC50 values were 137 µg/mL for black garlic extract and 9-197 µM for 15 polyphenols. The mixtures of tannic acid with puerarin, daidzein, and/or myricetin enhanced the inhibitory effects on Mpro. The structure-activity relationship of these polyphenols revealed that the hydroxyl group in C3', C4', C5' in the B-ring, C3 in the C-ring, C7 in A-ring, the double bond between C2 and C3 in the C-ring, and glycosylation at C8 in the A-ring contributed to inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Mpro.


Subject(s)
/antagonists & inhibitors , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , /genetics , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Garlic/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Temperature
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 113, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) have recently become more popular and accepted worldwide. One principal step to identify the status and organize strategies of CAM is evaluating the manner and the prevalence of its usage among people. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CAM modalities usage by the people of Babol, a central city in the North of Iran, in 2018. METHODS: Using the original International CAM Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q), a questionnaire was redesigned in Persian (Farsi) with some changes such as adding special modalities in Iran and its validity and reliability were assessed. Six hundred households were evaluated using a cluster sampling method in 2018 spring by 12 trained interviewers. RESULTS: Finally, 1770 questionnaires were correctly completed. A total of 110 participants (6.21% of the completed questionnaires) had visited CAM therapists in the last year, 109 persons (6.15%) had received prescriptions from physicians and paramedics to use CAM, and a total of 1032 people (58.30%) used herbs and herbal medicines in the last 12 months. Also, 1265 individuals (71.46%) had used CAM throughout their lives. The most popular methods were herbal medicine (65.76%), Persian Medicine (13.78%), water therapy (10.45%) and music therapy (8.36%). The use of CAM was more popular among women. CONCLUSIONS: The general use of CAM in Babol was similar to other studies, but there were fewer visits by CAM therapists and less frequent adoption of common methods including homeopathy, acupuncture, and energy therapy. It was found that CAM was mostly used for non-serious diseases such as cold and transient gastrointestinal disorders, a pattern that is different from other studies in this field.

4.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 26-63, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818466

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the year, the deadly coronavirus pandemic, better known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), brought the entire world to an unprecedented halt. In tandem with the global scenario, researchers in India are actively engaged in the conduct of clinical research to counter the pandemic. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the COVID-19 research in India including design aspects, through the clinical trials registered in the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI) till June 5, 2020. One hundred and twenty two registered trials on COVID-19 were extracted from the CTRI database. These trials were categorized into modern medicine (n=42), traditional medicine (n=67) and miscellaneous (n=13). Of the 42 modern medicine trials, 28 were on repurposed drugs, used singly (n=24) or in combination (n=4). Of these 28 trials, 23 were to evaluate their therapeutic efficacy in different severities of the disease. There were nine registered trials on cell- and plasma-based therapies, two phytopharmaceutical trials and three vaccine trials. The traditional medicine trials category majorly comprised Ayurveda (n=45), followed by homeopathy (n=14) and others (n=8) from Yoga, Siddha and Unani. Among the traditional medicine category, 31 trials were prophylactic and 36 were therapeutic, mostly conducted on asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. This review would showcase the research being conducted on COVID-19 in the country and highlight the research gaps to steer further studies.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Subject(s)
Allium , Onions , Chile , Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Damage , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Mitotic Index , Plant Roots , Rivers
6.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807029

ABSTRACT

Natural products are gaining more interest recently, much of which focuses on those derived from medicinal plants. The common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), of the Astraceae family, is a prime example of this trend. It has been proven to be a feasible source of biologically relevant elements (K, Fe, Ca), vitamins (A, B1, B2, C) as well as bioactive compounds (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarin derivatives, cichoric acid, phenolic acids), which exert potent pro-health effects on the human organism. It displays choleretic and digestion-promoting, as well as appetite-increasing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action, all owing to its varied phytochemical composition. Hence, chicory is used most often to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Chicory was among the plants with potential against SARS-CoV-2, too. To this and other ends, roots, herb, flowers and leaves are used. Apart from its phytochemical applications, chicory is also used in gastronomy as a coffee substitute, food or drink additive. The aim of this paper is to present, in the light of the recent literature, the chemical composition and properties of chicory.


Subject(s)
Chicory/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chicory/physiology , Cooking , Food Hypersensitivity/etiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
7.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(4): 1179-1226, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792762

ABSTRACT

Here, we addressed the pharmacology and toxicology of synthetic organoselenium compounds and some naturally occurring organoselenium amino acids. The use of selenium as a tool in organic synthesis and as a pharmacological agent goes back to the middle of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. The rediscovery of ebselen and its investigation in clinical trials have motivated the search for new organoselenium molecules with pharmacological properties. Although ebselen and diselenides have some overlapping pharmacological properties, their molecular targets are not identical. However, they have similar anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, possibly, via activation of transcription factors, regulating the expression of antioxidant genes. In short, our knowledge about the pharmacological properties of simple organoselenium compounds is still elusive. However, contrary to our early expectations that they could imitate selenoproteins, organoselenium compounds seem to have non-specific modulatory activation of antioxidant pathways and specific inhibitory effects in some thiol-containing proteins. The thiol-oxidizing properties of organoselenium compounds are considered the molecular basis of their chronic toxicity; however, the acute use of organoselenium compounds as inhibitors of specific thiol-containing enzymes can be of therapeutic significance. In summary, the outcomes of the clinical trials of ebselen as a mimetic of lithium or as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 proteases will be important to the field of organoselenium synthesis. The development of computational techniques that could predict rational modifications in the structure of organoselenium compounds to increase their specificity is required to construct a library of thiol-modifying agents with selectivity toward specific target proteins.


Subject(s)
Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Organoselenium Compounds/toxicity , Amino Acids/chemistry , Animals , Azoles , Humans , Molecular Structure , Selenium/chemistry , Selenium/physiology , Selenoproteins/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798095

ABSTRACT

Pollen exposure weakens the immunity against certain seasonal respiratory viruses by diminishing the antiviral interferon response. Here we investigate whether the same applies to the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is sensitive to antiviral interferons, if infection waves coincide with high airborne pollen concentrations. Our original hypothesis was that more airborne pollen would lead to increases in infection rates. To examine this, we performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis on SARS-CoV-2 infection, airborne pollen, and meteorological factors. Our dataset is the most comprehensive, largest possible worldwide from 130 stations, across 31 countries and five continents. To explicitly investigate the effects of social contact, we additionally considered population density of each study area, as well as lockdown effects, in all possible combinations: without any lockdown, with mixed lockdown-no lockdown regime, and under complete lockdown. We found that airborne pollen, sometimes in synergy with humidity and temperature, explained, on average, 44% of the infection rate variability. Infection rates increased after higher pollen concentrations most frequently during the four previous days. Without lockdown, an increase of pollen abundance by 100 pollen/m3 resulted in a 4% average increase of infection rates. Lockdown halved infection rates under similar pollen concentrations. As there can be no preventive measures against airborne pollen exposure, we suggest wide dissemination of pollen-virus coexposure dire effect information to encourage high-risk individuals to wear particle filter masks during high springtime pollen concentrations.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Internationality , Pollen/adverse effects , /virology , Geography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , /physiology
9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) Methods is increasing and therefore gaining importance also in conventional western medicine. Identifying personal traits to make out by whom and why CAM is used can help physicians in successful physician-patient interaction, and thus improve patient's compliance and trust towards their physician. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was passed on to cancer patients in an ambulant clinical and a rehabilitation setting. Multiple regression analyses were run to examine possible predictors for CAM use, such as gender, age, level of education, spirituality, attentiveness, self-efficacy and resilience. To differentiate within CAM users, two dependent variables were created: "holistic and mind-body methods", such as Yoga, meditation or Homeopathy and "material based methods", such as food supplements or vitamins. RESULTS: Higher level of education, younger age and religion-independent attentiveness were significant predictors for the use of "material based methods". Female gender, higher education and religious spirituality were detected as significant predictors for "holistic and mind-body methods". CONCLUSION: This study is among the first to take a more detailed look at how numerous personal traits are associated with the use of CAM methods and differentiate between the applied methods. Our finding should be considered by conventional health care providers and could be integrated into a holistic assessment, to offer information about complementary medicine and meeting patients' needs.

10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2059-2070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727813

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish a lateral flow immunoassay using selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) as a probe to detect ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) in swine urine. Methods: SDS and PEG were used as templates to prepare Se-NPs; anti-RAC monoclonal antibodies or anti-SAL monoclonal antibodies were labelled with Se-NPs; and rapid detection kits were prepared. The sensitivity, specificity, and stability were measured, and actual samples were analysed. Results: The Se-NPs were spherical with a diameter of 40.63 ± 5.91 nm, and were conjugated successfully with an anti-RAC antibody to give a total diameter of 82.33 ± 17.91 nm. The detection limit of a RAC kit in swine urine was 1 ng/mL, and that of a SAL kit was 3 ng/mL. Both procedures could be completed within 5 minutes. No cross-reaction occurred with clenbuterol, bambuterol and phenylethanolamine A. Samples were tested consistently across different batches of kits for swine urine. The results of the kits were identical to those of actual clinical samples analysed by ELISA, and the coincidence rate was 100%. Conclusion: The assay kit does not require any special device for reading the results, and the readout is a simple colour change that can be evaluated with the naked eye. It is easy to operate, sensitive, specific, and stable This kit is suitable for the rapid and real-time detection of RAC and SAL residues in swine urine samples. Clinical Trial Registration: Swine urines samples were used under approval from the Experimental Animal Ethics committee of the Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, Henan University.


Subject(s)
Albuterol/urine , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenethylamines/urine , Selenium/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Swine
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124897, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657501

ABSTRACT

This study proposed a novel intermittent-aeration constructed wetland (CW) to resolve the vertical loss of oxygen in tertiary treatment. Compared to the non-aeration CW, the intermittent-aeration CW presented a better removal performance (90.8% chemical oxygen demand, 94.3% ammonia nitrogen, 91.5% total nitrogen and 94.1% total phosphorus) at a dissolved oxygen of 3 mg L-1 and hydraulic retention time of 2 days. It was mainly attributed to the higher abundance and greater diversity of bacterial community due to the oxygen supply. High-throughput sequencing indicated that high abundance of phyla Proteobacteria (35.34%) and Bacteroidetes (18.20%) in intermittent-aeration CW were responsible for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Besides, the dominant families Burkholderiaceae (11.16%), Microtrichales (6.88%) and Saprospiraceae (6.50%) were also detected, which was vital to hydrolyze and utilize complex organic matters. In general, oxygen supply upregulated the metabolism pathways of amino acid and carbohydrate, bringing a greater biodegradation potential for removing contaminants.


Subject(s)
Nitrogen , Wetlands , Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis , Humans , Nutrients , Phosphorus , Waste Disposal, Fluid
12.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112211, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667819

ABSTRACT

Urban community gardeners employ a range of best practices that limit crop contamination by toxicants like lead (Pb). While Pb root uptake is generally low, the relative significance of various Pb deposition processes and the effectiveness of best practices in reducing these processes have not been sufficiently characterized. This study compared leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in high Pb (1150 mg/kg) and low Pb (90 mg/kg) soils, under three different soil cover conditions: 1) bare soil, 2) mulch cover to limit splash, and 3) mulch cover under hoophouses to limit splash and air deposition, in a New York City (NYC) community garden and a rural site in Ithaca, New York (NY). The lettuces were further compared to greenhouse (Ithaca) and supermarket (NYC) samples. Atmospheric deposition was monitored by passive trap collection through funnel samplers. Results show that in low Pb soils, splash and atmospheric deposition accounted for 84 and 78% of lettuce Pb in NYC and Ithaca, respectively. In high Pb soils, splash and atmospheric deposition accounted for 88 and 93% of Pb on lettuces, with splash being the dominant mechanism. Soil covers were shown to be effective at significantly (p < 0.05) reducing lettuce Pb contamination, and mulching is strongly recommended as a best practice.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Soil , Lead , Lettuce , New York City , Soil Pollutants/analysis
13.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112248, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676134

ABSTRACT

This study deals with two adjacent terrestrial oil spills, with similar properties, located in a hyper-arid region in Israel, one from 1975 and the other from 2014. It tests the effect of biostimulation on crude oil degradation in both spills and whether biostimulated sediments from the 1975 spill can bioaugment crude oil degradation in the 2014 spill. Soil hydrophobicity, expressed as Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), and Gasoline Range Organics (GRO) and Diesel Range Organics (DRO) content in sediments were measured in one-month ex-situ experiments. No significant reduction in hydrophobicity and GRO + DRO content was observed in non-biostimulated controls. A combined treatment of mineral fertilization at t0 and maintaining 50% water saturation, significantly accelerated the decrease in hydrophobicity and GRO + DRO content in sediments of both spills. The addition of biostimulated sediments from the 1975 spill failed to accelerate the reduction of GRO + DRO content and hydrophobicity in the 2014 spill. Surprisingly, the GRO + DRO degradation rate in biostimulated sediments from the 2014 spill was 36% higher than in biostimulated sediments from the 1975 spill. Crude oil composition in both spills changes during its degradation and is characterized by an increase in the GRO fraction. To a certain range, WDPT was found to serve as a reliable indicator for oil content in the soil. We conclude that even in a hyper-arid region, oil bio-degradation capabilities develop in a relatively short time. Moreover, while biostimulation was effective in accelerating biodegradation, bioaugmentation with biostimulated sediments from a nearby older spill was found ineffective.


Subject(s)
Petroleum Pollution , Petroleum , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Biodegradation, Environmental , Israel , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 111994, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711576

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the vermicomposting of spent drilling fluid (SDF) from the nature-gas industry mixed with cow dung in 0% (T1), 20% (T2), 30% (T3), 40% (T4), 50% (T5), and 60% (T6) ratio employing Eisenia fetida under a 6 weeks trial. Eisenia. fetida showed better growth and reproduction performances in the first three vermireactors (T1-T3), and the mortality was higher in the vermireactors that contained more spent drilling fluid (≥40%). Vermicomposting results in a decrease in total organic carbon, C/N ratio, and an increase in EC, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total potassium compared to their initial values. The RadViz and VizRank showed that vermicomposting results in a greater impact on the C/N ratio (15.24-35.48%) and EC (7.29-26.45%) compared to other parameters. Activities of urease and alkaline phosphatase during vermicomposting initially increased and then declined suggesting vermicompost maturity. Also, seed germination, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormality assays using cowpea signified that the vermicomposts T2 is suitable for agricultural use due to the lower phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The results indicated that SDF could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed up to 20% with cow dung.


Subject(s)
Composting/methods , Oligochaeta , Animals , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cattle , Feasibility Studies , Feces , Female , Manure , Nitrogen , Phosphorus , Reproduction , Soil
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124922, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713899

ABSTRACT

In China, more than 3.5 million tons of Camellia oleifera discarded shells are produced every year. This work first prepared phosphorus-containing biochar (PBC) from C. oleifera shells and was successfully applied to the efficient removal of tetracycline (TC) from solutions. The prepared PBC exhibits superior TC adsorption capacity of 451.5 mg/g, and TC uptake rapidly reached 315.5 mg/g at the first 5 min (C0 = 50 mg/L). Furthermore, PBC also shows excellent applicability to the broad range pH value (1-9) and superior selective removal in the presence of various high concentration coexisting ions (1 mM). Mechanisms underlying TC adsorption were also put forward, and analysis suggested that pyrophosphate-like surface functional groups (C-O-P bond) played a critical role in this process. Notably, treating pharmaceutical wastewater with PBC can efficiently reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentration below the discharge standard of China (GB21904-2008).


Subject(s)
Camellia , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Adsorption , Charcoal , China , Diphosphates , Kinetics , Phosphorus , Tetracycline/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
16.
J Environ Radioact ; 232: 106565, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714078

ABSTRACT

The Kanyakumari coastal area in the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu, India is a well-known natural high background radiation area due to the abundance of monazite in beach placer deposits. In the present study, the concentrations of major oxides, rare earth elements (REEs), Th and U were measured to understand geochemical characteristics of these monazite sands. Based on the ambient dose rate, 23 locations covering an area of about 60 km along the coast were selected for sample collection. The concentrations of U and Th ranged from 1.1 to 737.8 µg g-1 and 25.2-12250.6 µg g-1, respectively. The Th/U ratio ranged from 2.2 to 61.6, which clearly indicated that Th was the dominant contributing radionuclide to the enhanced natural radioactivity in this coastal region. The chondrite-normalized REEs pattern of the placer deposits showed enrichment in light REEs and depletion in heavy REEs with a negative Eu anomaly that indicated the monazite sands were derived from granite, charnockite, and granitoid rocks from the Nagercoil and the Trivandrum Blocks of the Southern Granulite Terrain.


Subject(s)
Metals, Rare Earth , Radiation Monitoring , Uranium , Background Radiation , India , Metals, Rare Earth/analysis , Sand , Thorium/analysis , Uranium/analysis
17.
J Environ Radioact ; 232: 106568, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740532

ABSTRACT

In the present study, 137Cs and 238U activity concentrations, 234U/238U activity ratio, and 235U/238U isotope ratio were measured in fifteen soil samples collected from the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The 137Cs activity concentrations of Fukushima-accident contaminated soil samples ranged from 29.9 to 4780 kBq kg-1 with a mean of 2007 kBq kg-1. On the other hand, the 238U activity concentrations of these soil samples ranged from 5.2 to 22.4 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 13.2 Bq kg-1. The activity ratios of 234U/238U ranged from 0.973 to 1.023. The 235U/238U isotope ratios of these exclusion zone soil samples varied from 0.007246 to 0.007260, and they were similar to the natural terrestrial ratio confirming the natural origin. Using isotope dilution technique, the 235U/137Cs activity ratio was theoretically estimated for highly 137Cs contaminated soil samples from Fukushima exclusion zone ranged from 5.01 × 10-8 - 6.16 × 10-7 with a mean value of 2.51 × 10-7.


Subject(s)
Fukushima Nuclear Accident , Radiation Monitoring , Soil Pollutants, Radioactive , Uranium , Cesium Radioisotopes/analysis , Japan , Mass Spectrometry , Plasma/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis , Uranium/analysis
18.
Zootaxa ; 4933(2): zootaxa.4933.2.5, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756798

ABSTRACT

A new species of the cosmopolitan jellyfish genus Aurelia is described from the coastal waters of Mozambique using a combination of morphological, meristic and genetic information (COI and 18S). The species can be separated from congeners that have been recently described by a combination of bell shape, number of canal origins and anastomoses, and the shape of the manubrium and oral arms. Three types of nematocysts are present in the tissues of both the bell margin and oral arms, and this description of the cnidome will allow for future comparison. Pairwise genetic comparisons showed a mean COI divergence of 4.8% within the group, and a mean divergence ranging between 15% and 22% with all other species of Aurelia.


Subject(s)
Cnidaria , Scyphozoa , Animals , Mozambique , Nematocyst
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145594, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770866

ABSTRACT

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in sediments is an important source of bioavailable nitrogen in aquatic systems. However, the effect of habitat change caused by eutrophication on nitrogen fixation within sediments is still unclear. In this study, nitrogen fixation rates and diazotroph diversities in sediments with heterogeneous ecological status in one eutrophic lake were investigated by using an isotope tracer method and sequencing of nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes. The results showed that both nitrogenase activity (NA) and nifH abundance in sediments of blooms area were higher than those in vegetation-dominated habitats. Correlation analysis showed that NA was correlated closely to nifH abundance, dissolved sulfide, and iron. The diazotrophic assemblage contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences belonging to Cluster I and III, and the variations of diazotrophic community could be explained by total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, organic matters, sulfides, ammonium and iron content. Moreover, the co-occurrence network analysis showed the Alphaproteobacteria shaped the major interactions in diazotrophic community, and sediment properties had stronger effect on diazotrophic community in cyanobacteria-dominated habitat. This study revealed that habitat heterogeneity in eutrophic lakes shaped different succession of BNF in sediments and cyanobacterial blooms significantly improved the nitrogen-fixing activity in sediments, which broadened our understanding of nitrogen cycle and nutrient management in eutrophic freshwater lakes.


Subject(s)
Lakes , Nitrogen Fixation , China , Ecosystem , Eutrophication , Geologic Sediments , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145540, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770870

ABSTRACT

Soil erodibility is an indispensable parameter for predicting soil erosion and evaluating the benefits of soil and water conservation. Slope situation can alter revegetation and its effects on soil properties and root traits, and thus may affect soil erodibility. However, whether slope situation will change the effect of revegetation on soil erodibility through improving soil properties and root traits has rarely been evaluated. Therefore, this study was conducted to detect the response of soil erodibility to slope situations (loess-tableland, hill-slope and gully-slope) in a typical watershed of the Loess Plateau. Five soil erodibility parameters (saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, SHC; mean weight diameter of aggregates, MWD; clay ratio, CR; soil disintegration rate, SDR; soil erodibility factor, K) and a comprehensive soil erodibility index (CSEI) are selected to clarify the study targets. The results revealed that soil properties, root traits, soil erodibility parameters and CSEI were affected by slope situation significantly. Soil and root can explain 79.7%, 79.1% and 69.8% of total variance in soil erodibility of loess-tableland, hill-slope and gully-slope, respectively. Slope situation influenced soil erodibility by changing the effects of revegetation on soil properties and root traits. Evidently, the slope situation greatly changed the relations between CSEI and soil and root parameters, whereafter a model considering slope situation (slope steepness), sand, organic matter content and root surface area density was reliable to estimate soil erodibility (CSEI). Our study suggested that the Armeniaca sibirica, the combination of Bothriochloa ischcemum and Robinia pseudoacacia and the combination of Armeniaca sibirica and Lespedeza bicolor can be used as the optimal selection for mitigating soil erodibility of loess-tableland, hill-slope and gully-slope, respectively. This study is of great significance in optimizing the spatial layout of soil and water conservation measures for different slope situations of the Loess Plateau.


Subject(s)
Robinia , Soil , China , Poaceae
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